有抗体能抵抗病毒吗?抗体的工作原理科普-看世界

有抗体能抵抗病毒吗?抗体的工作原理科普

最近,有医学专家表示:患者康复后体内含有大量综合抗体,能够对抗病毒。对这些抗体的研究和使用,可以为新冠肺炎疫情防控作出贡献。那么是不是有抗体就能抵抗病毒了?疫情能得到有效的抑制吗?事情不没有想象的那么简单。

Recently, some medical experts said: the body of patients after recovery contains a large number of comprehensive antibodies, which can fight against the virus. The novel coronavirus pneumonia can be prevented and controlled by the research and application of these antibodies. Is there any antibody that can resist the virus? Can the epidemic be effectively suppressed? Things are not as simple as you think.

2月13日晚,国药集团中国生物宣布,已完成对部分康复者血浆的采集工作,开展新冠病毒特免血浆制品和特免球蛋白的制备。

On the evening of February 13, Sinopharm group announced that it had completed the collection of plasma from some convalescent patients and carried out the preparation of new coronavirus special plasma products and special immunoglobulin.

据中国生物介绍,这种新冠病毒特免血浆制品,是由康复者捐献的含高效价新冠病毒特异性抗体的血浆,经过病毒灭活处理,并对抗新冠病毒中和抗体、多重病原微生物检测后制备而成的,用于新冠肺炎危重患者的治疗。

The novel coronavirus pneumonia is China's biological product. It is a plasma containing highly effective new crown virus specific antibodies donated by rehabilitative patients. It is treated by virus inactivation and neutralizing antibodies against new crown virus and detected by multiple pathogenic microorganisms. It is used for the treatment of critically ill patients with new crown pneumonia.

看到这里,有些人可能认为:是不是只要我们体内有抗体,就能抵抗新冠病毒?

Seeing this, some people may think: as long as we have antibodies in our body, we can resist the new coronavirus?

中国医学科学院基础医学研究所副、北京协和医学院免疫学系副主任黄波介绍,事实可没那么简单。

Huang Bo, deputy director of the Institute of basic medicine of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the Department of immunology of Peking Union Medical College, said the facts were not so simple.

不是任何抗体都能抗病毒

Not any antibody can resist virus

黄波介绍,抗体是一种蛋白质分子,它们呈现出树杈一样的Y字形结构,树杈部分可以识别和结合抗原,这些抗原通常是异己蛋白质。

According to Huang Bo, antibody is a kind of protein molecule, which presents Y-shaped structure like a tree branch. The tree branch part can recognize and bind antigens, which are usually alien proteins.

“自然界存在各种各样的异己蛋白质,抗体用来识别它们的树杈部分,也相应是各种各样的。”黄波说。

"There are all kinds of alien proteins in nature, and antibodies are used to identify their branches, which are also correspondingly various." Huang Bo said.

再来说说新型冠状病毒。这种病毒的核酸遗传物质位于核心,被核衣壳蛋白包裹。再外面是一层包膜,包膜上有包膜蛋白、膜蛋白和钉子蛋白——这种蛋白放大后形状类似钉子。

Let's talk about novel coronavirus. The nucleic acid genetic material of the virus lies in the core and is surrounded by nucleocapsid protein. And then there's a membrane, which has a membrane protein, a membrane protein, and a nail protein - a protein that magnifies to look like a nail.

除了形成病毒结构的蛋白质之外,病毒的核酸遗传物质还可以指导生成不参与病毒结构的其他病毒蛋白。只是,这些病毒蛋白不存在于病毒中,而存在于被感染的细胞中。

In addition to the proteins that form the structure of the virus, the nucleic acid genetic material of the virus can also guide the generation of other viral proteins that do not participate in the structure of the virus. However, these viral proteins do not exist in the virus, but in the infected cells.

“所有这些病毒蛋白质都属于异己蛋白质,对于任何一种异己蛋白质,机体都有可能产生专门针对它的抗体。因此,被新型冠状病毒感染的人,体内可以产生多种不同的针对病毒的抗体。”黄波说。

"All these virus proteins belong to alien proteins. For any alien protein, the body may produce antibodies specifically for it. Therefore, novel coronavirus infected people can produce various antibodies against viruses. Huang Bo said.

既然如此,是不是每种抗体都能发挥抗病毒作用?未必。

In this case, is every antibody able to play an antiviral role? Not necessarily.

“抗体要发挥抗病毒的作用,前提条件是抗体要识别并结合病毒。而且只有识别病毒表面蛋白质的抗体,才可能有抗病毒作用。”黄波说。

"Antibody should play the role of antiviral, the precondition is that antibody should recognize and combine with virus. And only the antibodies that recognize the proteins on the surface of the virus can have antiviral effect. " Huang Bo said.

这样一来,有些病毒蛋白并不存在于病毒中,针对这类病毒蛋白质的抗体,是没有抗病毒作用的。另外,病毒包膜里面的病毒蛋白质,抗体无法接触到,这部分抗体也不具有抗病毒效应。

In this way, some viral proteins do not exist in the virus, and antibodies against such viral proteins have no antiviral effect. In addition, the virus protein in the virus envelope cannot be contacted by the antibody, and this part of the antibody has no antiviral effect.

中和性抗体是抗病毒主力军

Neutralizing antibody is the main force of antiviral

那么,能发挥抗病毒作用的抗体,又是怎么工作的?

So, how does an antibody that can play an antiviral role work?

黄波介绍,新型冠状病毒让人生病,是通过病毒表面的钉子蛋白与肺部上皮细胞表面一种称为ACE2的蛋白质结合。

Huang Bo introduced that the novel coronavirus makes people sick, by combining the nail protein on the surface of the virus with the protein called ACE2 on the surface of the lung epithelial cells.

随后,ACE2的形状结构发生变化,病毒趁机进入细胞内。它们会利用人体细胞里的分子,通过化学反应合成新的病毒。这些新病毒释放到细胞外,会故技重施,继续感染周围正常细胞。

Subsequently, the shape and structure of ACE2 changed, and the virus took the opportunity to enter the cell. They use molecules in human cells to synthesize new viruses through chemical reactions. These new viruses are released out of the cells and will be repeated to infect the surrounding normal cells.

但人体并不会束手就擒。人体内产生的针对钉子蛋白的抗体,可以结合病毒表面的钉子蛋白,阻断它们与ACE2结合,这样就阻断了病毒进入细胞。

But the human body doesn't get caught. The antibodies produced in the human body against the nail protein can bind to the nail protein on the surface of the virus and block their binding with ACE2, thus blocking the virus from entering the cell.

“这种针对钉子蛋白的抗体,就是所谓的中和性抗体。中和性抗体通过阻止病毒入侵细胞,而发

"This antibody against nail protein is called neutralizing antibody. Neutralizing antibodies are produced by preventing viruses from invading cells

挥保护作用,是抗体发挥抗病毒效应的主要力量。”黄波说。

The protective effect of volatilization is the main strength of antiviral effect of antibody Huang Bo said.

针对病毒的中和抗体一旦产生,可以高效地阻断病毒进入细胞内。病毒不能进入细胞,就不能繁殖、扩增,细胞外的病毒会逐渐分解。

Once the neutralizing antibody against the virus is produced, it can effectively block the virus from entering the cell. If the virus can't enter the cell, it can't reproduce and expand, and the virus outside the cell will gradually decompose.

别忘了,除了钉子蛋白,冠状病毒表面还有包膜蛋白和膜蛋白。黄波介绍,后面两种蛋白可能并不介导病毒进入细胞,所以抗体与它们结合,可能不影响病毒进入细胞。但是,与它们结合的非中和抗体,可以介导机体免疫细胞对病毒颗粒的吞噬。

Don't forget that in addition to nail protein, there are also envelope protein and membrane protein on the surface of coronavirus. Huang Bo introduced that the latter two proteins may not mediate the virus into the cell, so the antibody combined with them may not affect the virus into the cell. However, the non neutralizing antibodies combined with them can mediate the phagocytosis of virus particles by immune cells.

要充分认识抗体的复杂性

To fully understand the complexity of antibody

总体而言,抗体发挥作用的途径分为两类:中和性表面抗体与病毒结合,可以阻止病毒进入细胞,御敌于“国门之外”;非中和性表面抗体与病毒结合,可以介导免疫细胞吞噬、清除病毒,杀敌于“国门之内”。

Generally speaking, there are two ways for antibody to play a role: the combination of neutralizing surface antibody and virus can prevent the virus from entering the cell and keep the enemy out of the country; the combination of non neutralizing surface antibody and virus can mediate immune cells to phagocytize, clear the virus and kill the enemy in the country.

黄波补充说,非中和抗体主要是介导病毒进入巨噬细胞,在早期阶段发挥抗病毒作用,但在中后期可能会导致肺部免疫损伤。

Huang added that non neutralizing antibodies mainly mediate the virus into macrophages and play an antiviral role in the early stage, but may cause lung immune damage in the middle and late stage.

“在新冠肺炎疫情面前,抗体被寄予太多希望。但抗体并非一般理解的那样简单。对于抗体的复杂性,甚至对疾病加重的一面,我们需要有足够的认识。”黄波说。

"In the novel coronavirus pneumonia, the antibody is too much hope. But antibodies are not as simple as they are generally understood. We need to know enough about the complexity of antibodies and even the aggravating side of the disease. " Huang Bo said.

黄波认为,认识到这一点,对于疫苗研发也很重要。因为接种疫苗的目的,主要是让机体产生针对病毒表面蛋白的中和抗体。产生抗体容易,产生这种中和抗体却很难,这正是疫苗研发面临的巨大挑战之一。我们应持谨慎的态度,开展深入细致的工作。

Huang Bo believes that recognizing this is also important for vaccine research and development. Because the purpose of vaccination is to make the body produce neutralizing antibodies against virus surface proteins. It is easy to produce antibodies, but it is difficult to produce neutralizing antibodies, which is one of the great challenges in vaccine research and development. We should be cautious and carry out intensive work.

声明:转载此文是出于传递更多信息之目的。若有来源标注错误或侵犯了您的合法权益,请作者持权属证明与本网联系,我们将及时更正、删除,谢谢。

Disclaimer: This article is reproduced for the purpose of transmitting more information. If there is a source marking error or infringing your legitimate rights and interests, please contact our website with the ownership certificate. We will correct and delete it in time. Thank you.

免责声明:文章来自互联网,不代表本站的观点,如有侵权或不实言论,请第一时间联系删除,谢谢!!

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论