新冠病毒已经发生突变,其中一种亚种具有更强传染力-看世界

新冠病毒已经发生突变,其中一种亚种具有更强传染力

在新型冠状病毒病毒爆发初期就有多位专家及学者表示病毒有可能发生变异,而事实也确实如此。根据中国科研团队最新发现显示:新冠病毒已于近期产生了149个突变点,并演化出了两个亚型,分别是L亚型和S亚型。而其中L亚型更具侵略性传染力更强。

In the early novel coronavirus outbreak, many experts and scholars said that the virus could mutate. According to the latest findings of the Chinese research team, the new coronavirus has recently produced 149 mutation points and evolved two subtypes, i.e. l subtype and s subtype. Among them, l subtype is more aggressive and infectious.

以上研究来自中国科学院主办的《国家科学评论》(National Science Review)于3月3日发表的论文《关于SARS-CoV-2的起源和持续进化》(On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2)。

The above research comes from the paper on the origin and continuing evolution of sars-cov-2 published by the National Science Review sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on March 3.

论文通讯作者为陆剑研究员(北京大学生命科学学院生物信息中心)、崔杰研究员(中国科学院上海巴斯德研究所)。

The corresponding authors of this paper are Lu Jian (bioinformatics center, School of life sciences, Peking University), Cui Jie (Shanghai Pasteur Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences).

论文通过对目前为止最大规模的103个新冠病毒全基因组分子进化分析,发现病毒株已发生了149个突变点,而且多数是近期产生的。该研究揭示:新冠病毒已经演化出L和S两个亚型。其中101个属于这两个亚型。从占比上看,L亚型更为普遍达到70%,S亚型占30%。

Based on the molecular evolution analysis of 103 new coronavirus genomes, we found that there are 149 mutation points in the virus strains, and most of them are produced recently. This study revealed that two subtypes, l and s, have evolved in the new coronavirus. 101 of them belong to these two subtypes. In terms of proportion, l subtype is more common, reaching 70%, and s subtype accounts for 30%.

论文作者认为,根据新型冠状病毒的演变方式推测,L亚型和S亚型的传播能力、致病严重程度或许存在较大区别。

According to the novel coronavirus evolution, the transmission ability and severity of L subtype and S subtype may be quite different.

论文称,两个亚型的区别在于病毒RNA基因组的第28144位点,L亚型是T碱基(对应亮氨酸,Leu),S亚型是C碱基(对应丝氨酸,Ser)。通过与其他冠状病毒比较,作者发现S型新冠病毒与蝙蝠来源的冠状病毒在进化树上更接近,从而得出S型相对更古老的结论。

According to the paper, the difference between the two subtypes lies in the 28144 site of the RNA genome of the virus. The L subtype is the T base (corresponding to leucine, Leu), and the s subtype is the C base (corresponding to serine, Ser). Compared with other coronaviruses, the authors found that the new S-type coronavirus is more similar to the bat derived coronavirus in the evolutionary tree, and thus concluded that S-type is relatively older.

L亚型在武汉爆发的早期阶段更为普遍,而L亚型的发生频率在2020年1月初后有所下降。作者认为,人为干预可能对L亚型施加了更大的选择性压力,如果没有这些干预,L亚型可能更具侵略性和扩散得更快速。另一方面,由于选择压力相对较弱,在进化上较老且攻击性较小的S型可能在相对频率上有所增加。这些发现意味着,目前迫切需要结合基因组数据、流行病学数据和2019年冠状病毒病患者临床症状图表记录,进行进一步的全面研究。

L-subtype is more common in the early stage of Wuhan outbreak, and the frequency of l-subtype decreased after the beginning of January 2020. The authors believe that human intervention may exert more selective pressure on L subtype, without which l subtype may be more aggressive and spread more rapidly. On the other hand, due to the relatively weak selection pressure, the older and less aggressive S-type may increase in relative frequency. These findings mean that there is an urgent need for further comprehensive research based on genome data, epidemiological data and 2019 clinical symptom chart records of patients with coronavirus disease.

另外,值得注意的是,这103个样本显示,大部分患者只感染了L亚型或S亚型中的一个。但其中一位近期有过武汉旅行史的美国患者分离出的病毒株,显示其可能同时感染了L型和S型新冠病毒。不过,作者表示目前还无法排除新突变型的可能性。

In addition, it should be noted that the 103 samples showed that most patients only infected with one of L or s subtypes. However, a virus strain isolated from an American patient who had recently traveled to Wuhan showed that he may be infected with both L-type and S-type new coronavirus at the same time. However, the authors say that the possibility of new mutants cannot be ruled out.

不久前,巴西的一项研究就显示了新冠病毒突变的可能性。巴西科学家与英国科学家紧密合作,紧急针对在2月26日出现的巴西首例确诊病例进行“冠状病毒基因定序”,并根据他们的发现公开发表论文,论文题为“First report of COVID-19 in South America”。

Not long ago, a Brazilian study showed the possibility of mutations in the new coronavirus. Brazilian scientists worked closely with British scientists to conduct "coronavirus gene sequencing" for the first confirmed case in Brazil on February 26, and published a paper entitled "first report of covid-19 in South America" based on their findings.

结果显示,这名患者体内的新冠病毒“Brazil/SPBR1/2020 ”,居然与武汉公布的病毒基因(Hu-1参考菌株)存在3处不同——也就是说,病毒可能在传播过程中已经发生变异。同时,前者有两处跟德国慕尼黑群聚传染事件中提取的病毒 “德国/BavPat1/2020菌株 ”非常接近。

The results show that the new coronavirus "Brazil / spbr1 / 2020" in this patient is actually different from the virus gene (hu-1 reference strain) published in Wuhan in three places - that is, the virus may have changed in the process of transmission. At the same time, two of the former are very close to the virus "German / bavpat1 / 2020 strain" extracted from the mass infection event in Munich, Germany.

 

 

案例中的患者61岁,2月9-21日曾前往意大利北部的伦巴第旅游。2月26日确诊。

The patient, 61 years old, visited Lombardy in northern Italy from February 9 to 21. The diagnosis was made on February 26.

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