汤若望为明清两朝做出了什么贡献?汤若望最后是怎么死的?-看世界

汤若望为明清两朝做出了什么贡献?汤若望最后是怎么死的?

  汤若望是著名的耶稣会会士,1592年出生于德国科隆,也就是明朝万历年间了。

  为明清两朝做出了什么贡献?小编为大家带来相关内容,感兴趣的小伙伴快来看看吧。

What contribution did you make to Ming and Qing Dynasties? I've brought you relevant content. Let's have a look at it.

  汤若望是著名的耶稣会会士,1592年出生于德国科隆,也就是年间了。

Tang ruowang, a famous Jesuit, was born in Cologne, Germany, in 1592.

  早年在欧洲时,汤若望就读于耶稣会创办的三王冕学校,一直勤奋好学,成绩优秀,由此一步步升为修士,并进行了系统的神学和科学学习。

When he was in Europe in the early years, Tang ruowang studied in the three kings crown school founded by the Jesuit Church. He was always diligent and studious, with excellent results. He gradually became a monk and studied theology and science systematically.

  在加入耶稣会后,汤若望相继进入灵采研究院和罗马学院深造,最终以优秀的成绩获得神父职位,并于1618年与其他22名传教士一起被派到了遥远的东方。

After joining Jesuit, Tang ruowang went to the Institute of spiritualism and Rome College for further study, and finally got the position of priest with outstanding achievements. In 1618, he was sent to the Far East with 22 other missionaries.

  汤若望来到中国的时候,时值明朝末年。这段历史就不多说了,就说进入以后,汤若望因为自己卓越的科学知识而引起了极大重视。

When Tang ruowang came to China, it was the last year of the Ming Dynasty. This period of history will not be talked about. After entering, Tang ruowang has attracted great attention because of his excellent scientific knowledge.

  其中,汤若望最看家的本领是天文历法。

Among them, Tang ruowang's ability to watch home is astronomical calendar.

  众所周知,中国一向使用农历纪时并指导农业生产,但农历主要是以月球的运行为参照物,同时也参考了太阳的运转规律。但是,最终历法虽然直观,但终究不怎么准确。

As we all know, China has always used the lunar calendar to guide agricultural production, but the lunar calendar mainly refers to the movement of the moon as a reference, as well as the movement of the sun. However, although the final calendar is intuitive, it is not very accurate after all.

  最起码的一点,农历和现在使用的公历相比,在天数上就要少6天,如果以5年计算,就要差一个月,这个季节什么的,显然就不对,没办法指导农业了。

At the very least, compared with the present Gregorian calendar, the number of days in the lunar calendar is six days less. If it is calculated in five years, it will be one month less. Obviously, this season is not right. There is no way to guide agriculture.

  为了,农历通常每隔四年就要闰一个月,无他,就是把这缺的时间给补上。

In order to make up for the lack of time, the lunar calendar usually leap for a month every four years.

  至于当时的西历(也就是后来的公历),因为是以地球围绕地球转的轨迹为参照物,因而比农历显然要精确得多(虽然没有农历那样直观)。

As for the Western calendar at that time (later Gregorian calendar), because it is based on the orbit of the earth around the earth, it is obviously much more accurate than the lunar calendar (although not as intuitive as the lunar calendar).

  而汤若望,就是最早把西历带到中国并精于此道的最早一批人。

And Tang ruowang is the first group of people who brought the Western calendar to China and excelled in it.

  也正因为汤若望等耶稣会士有这项本领,清廷也就将他们安置在钦天监,以发挥他们的专长。

Just because Tang ruowang and other Jesuits had this ability, the Qing court also placed them in the imperial Tianjian to give full play to their expertise.

  然而,钦天监毕竟也官衙,汤若望这些人来了,水平又比本土的钦天监官员高出许多,这个难免让有些人坐立不安了。

However, after all, Tianjian is also a government office. Tang ruowang's level is much higher than that of the local officials. This inevitably makes some people uneasy.

  在中方杨光先等人的策动下,钦天监由此爆发了所谓的“中历、西历之争”。

Under the instigation of Yang Guangxian and others from China, the so-called "dispute between Chinese and Western calendars" broke out.

  三年(1664),杨光先上《请诛邪教状》,其中揭发汤若望等传教士有三条重罪,以是潜谋造反,二是邪说惑众,三是历法荒谬,欲置汤若望等人于死地。

In the third year (1664), Yang Guangxian published "please kill the heresy", in which he revealed that Tang ruowang and other missionaries had three felonies, namely, conspiracy to revolt, heresy to perplex the public, and absurdity of the calendar to kill Tang ruowang and other missionaries.

  当时,正是等人专政时期,此辈人武夫出身,哪里懂得什么天文历法,于是听信杨光先等人的谰言而判处汤若望等人凌迟处斩。

At that time, it was in the period of dictatorship of the people like Tang ruowang and others, who were born in martial arts and didn't know the astronomical calendar, so they listened to the words of Yang Guangxian and others and sentenced Tang ruowang and others to be beheaded later.

  然而,没有想到的是,此判决出来后,京师突然发生大地震,遂有官员认为这案蹊跷,或为天意所致。

However, it didn't occur to me that after the judgment, there was a big earthquake in the capital, so some officials thought the case was strange or caused by providence.

  之后,因为预测日全食的事,中西历法官员再次爆发激烈冲突,清廷这次也学聪明了,便让两派人公开打擂,看看谁预测的准!

Later, because of the prediction of the total solar eclipse, fierce conflicts broke out again between Chinese and Western calendar officials. The Qing government learned wisdom this time, so they asked two people to fight openly to see who was right to predict!

  结果不用说,西历派预测极准,,汤若望等人也由此被赦免。

It goes without saying that the Western calendar school predicted very well, and Tang ruowang and others were pardoned accordingly.

  然而,杨光先等人在钦天监的势力并未拔除,杨光先甚至还担任钦天监正。但是,其主张的历法毕竟有误差,而且随着时间的推移,误差越来越大。

However, the influence of Yang Guangxian and others in the imperial court has not been removed, and Yang Guangxian even served as the official of the imperial court. However, the calendar advocated by him has errors after all, and with the passage of time, the errors become larger and larger.

  最终,耶稣会的另一传教士再次与杨光先等人发生争斗,最终证明新法确实优于旧法。康熙七年(1664年),杨光先被革职,南怀仁为钦天监副。

Finally, another Jesuit missionary fought with Yang Guangxian and others again, which proved that the new law was better than the old one. In the seventh year of Kangxi (1664), Yang Guangxian was dismissed, and Nan Huairen was the deputy of the imperial Tianjian.

  当然,汤若望并没有看到这一天。在被赦免不久,备受打击的汤若望就在康熙五年七月十五(1666年8月15日)因病去世。

Of course, Tang did not see that day. Shortly after being pardoned, Tang ruowang died of illness on July 15, 1666.

  事后,十分遗憾而发布祭文,其中称汤若望“来自西域,晓习天文,特畀象历之司,爰锡通微教师之号”,其“鞠躬尽瘁,恤死报勤,遽尔长逝,朕用悼焉。”

Later, it was very regrettable that Tang ruowang issued a memorial, which said that he "came from the western regions, learned about astronomy, was specially assigned to the Department of Xiangli, hence the name of Xitong micro teacher". He "devoted himself to death, reported to work, died suddenly, and I mourned for it."

  事实上,汤若望是当得起这个悼文的,因为康熙能当上皇帝,就是因为汤若望的一句话,“他已经出过天花了!”

In fact, Tang ruowang can afford this eulogy, because Kangxi can be the emperor, because of Tang ruowang's words, "he has had smallpox!"

  而在朝时,汤若望也不仅仅是在历法上有贡献,其在制炮、数学还有医药等方面,对清廷和皇室都大有贡献。

In the dynasty, Tang ruowang not only contributed to the calendar, but also made great contributions to the Qing Dynasty and the royal family in the fields of gun making, mathematics and medicine.

  事实上,据记载,甚至尊称汤若望为“爷爷”(满语),就是不知道这个而所谓的“爷爷”,究竟有多大可信度和含金量了。

In fact, according to records, even honoring Tang ruowang as "Grandpa" (Manchu), it is unknown how reliable and valuable this so-called "Grandpa" really is.

免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

Disclaimer: the above content comes from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If you violate your original copyright, please let us know, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论