For the prevention of novel coronavirus infectious pneumonia, we first suggest that patients should take self protective measures, respond to the national call and try to go out as little as possible, and wear masks when going out. If it is found that there are people or patients with fever symptoms in the epidemic area, it is necessary to report to the designated hospital or relevant units in time. At ordinary times, patients can stay at home, and the living environment also needs to be disinfected. 84 disinfectant, medical alcohol, ultraviolet lamp or high temperature can be used for disinfection. After going out or after defecating before meals, wash hands frequently, which can play a certain role in prevention of the current epidemic. Let's look at novel coronavirus pneumonia related protection knowledge with the 360 common sense network.
1. Knowledge of novel coronavirus pneumonia
1. What is a novel coronavirus?
A novel coronavirus isolated from lower respiratory tract of patients with unknown cause pneumonia in Wuhan was named as 2019-nCoV by a new type of coronavirus. The WHO was named as a new coronavirus.
2. Who are novel coronavirus?
People are generally susceptible. Pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus can occur in immunocompromised and immunocompetent populations, and is related to the amount of virus involved. For people with poor immune function, such as the elderly, pregnant women, patients with abnormal liver and kidney function, and chronic patients, the condition is more serious after infection.
3. Novel coronavirus transmission routes?
The main mode of transmission is through respiratory droplets, or through contact (droplets or other body fluids with virus deposited on the surface of the object, after hand contact with pollution, then contact with oral cavity, nasal cavity, eyes and other mucous membranes, leading to infection). Judging from the incidence sequence of some clustering cases, the characteristics of human to human transmission are very obvious, and there is a certain range of community transmission.
4. What are close contacts?
Close contacts refer to those who have shared or worked with suspected cases, confirmed cases, mild cases, asymptomatic infections (positive test), but have not taken effective protection.
The contact situation includes the contact with colleagues in the office, students in the same classroom and dormitory, the same plane, the same taxi, the same elevator, etc., as well as the care and diagnosis and treatment of patients with virus infection.
5. Precautions for close contacts
Close contacts were generally observed in isolation medicine at home for 14 days after the last contact with a case or an infected person without effective protection.
During the period of medical observation, it is not allowed to go out. If it is necessary to go out, it shall be approved by the medical observation management personnel before wearing a disposable surgical mask. It is necessary to cooperate with the medical personnel to carry out body temperature measurement and health status inquiry once a day in the morning and in the evening.
In case of any symptoms, especially fever, respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, etc., they shall be reported to the local health department immediately and sent to the designated medical institution for treatment as required.
6. What is novel coronavirus infection in patients with pneumonia?
Fever, asthenia, dry cough and shortness of breath were the main manifestations. A few patients were accompanied with nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea and other symptoms. Severe patients often have dyspnea one week later, and those who are serious develop rapidly into acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Some of the patients showed low fever, slight fatigue, no pneumonia, and recovered after one week.
Based on the current epidemiological survey, the incubation period is generally 3-7 days, with a maximum of 14 days.
2、 Protection at work
1. How to do it before work?
Before going to work, you should report important information of your vacation, such as the exact information of leaving the post, returning time, going out place, transportation, and important contact information and personal physical condition during the middle period of returning from the post, such as the travel history of Wuhan and other areas with continuous transmission of local cases within 14 days, the patients with fever or respiratory symptoms who have been exposed to the above areas After contacting the novel coronavirus infection patients, it is suggested that after the report, they should take home office work, self isolation and isolation for 14 days. If they have symptoms, they should be kept at home, and when necessary, they should go to the hospital for treatment.
2. How to do it on the way to work?
Try not to take public transport. It is recommended to walk, ride or take private car or shuttle bus to work. If you have to take public transport, you must wear a mask all the way, and try to avoid touching the vehicle objects with your hands on the way.
3. How to enter the building?
Before entering the office building, take the temperature test consciously. If the temperature is normal, work in the building and wash hands in the toilet. If the temperature is over 37.3 ℃, please do not enter the building to work, and go home to observe and rest, if necessary, go to the hospital for treatment.
4. How to do office work?
Keep the office area clean. It is recommended to ventilate 3 times a day for 20-30 minutes each time. Keep warm when ventilating. Keep a certain distance between people. Many people wear masks when working. Wash hands frequently and drink more water. Wash hands strictly according to six steps before eating and after going to the toilet. Both sides of the reception personnel shall wear masks.
5. How to attend the meeting?
It is recommended to wear masks all the way, wash hands and disinfect before entering the meeting room, and keep proper distance for the meeting personnel. Reduce the centralized meeting and control the meeting time. When the meeting time is too long, open the window for ventilation once. After the meeting, the venue and furniture should be wiped and disinfected. It is recommended to soak and disinfect tea utensils in boiling water.
6. How to make a meal in the canteen?
Use separate meals to avoid crowded people. The dining room shall be disinfected once a day, and the dining table and chair shall be disinfected after use; tableware and articles shall be disinfected at high temperature. The operation room shall be clean and dry. It is forbidden to mix raw food and cooked food to avoid raw meat. It is suggested to have a nutritious meal, which is light and palatable.
7. How to do it on the way to work?
After washing hands, wear disposable medical mask to go out, and wash hands first after removing the mask at home.
8. How to do work sports?
It is suggested that proper and moderate activities be carried out to ensure good health. Avoid excessive, excessive exercise, resulting in a decline in the body's immune capacity.
9. What about public areas?
Ventilation is a simple and effective prevention and control measure to prevent respiratory infectious diseases. Ventilation should be kept in public areas as much as possible; public parts such as foyer, corridor, meeting room, elevator, stair, toilet and so on should be disinfected every day. The cleaning appliances used in each area shall be separated to avoid mixing.
10. How to do business trip?
It is recommended to wipe the interior and door handle of the special vehicle once a day with 75% alcohol. Masks must be worn when taking the bus. It is recommended to use 75% alcohol to wipe and disinfect the car interior and door handle after use. When walking out, you must wear masks to avoid dense traffic. Keep a proper distance from people and avoid staying in public places for a long time.
11. How do logistics personnel do it?
Service personnel, security personnel and cleaning personnel shall wear masks when working and keep a safe distance from people. The canteen purchaser or supplier shall wear masks and disposable rubber gloves to avoid direct hand contact with fresh meat and poultry materials, and wash hands and disinfect in time after picking the gloves. Cleaning personnel shall wear disposable rubber gloves when working, and wash hands after work. The security personnel shall wear masks to work, carefully inquire and register the status of the external personnel, and report the abnormal situation in time.
12、 How to do business visit?
Wear a mask. Before entering the office building, take a temperature test first, and introduce whether you have Wuhan travel, living history, fever, cough, dyspnea and other symptoms. If there is no such situation, and the temperature is normal, you can enter the building for public work.
13. How to circulate documents?
Wash hands before and after transferring paper documents, and wear masks when passing documents.
14. How to disinfect telephone and mobile phone?
It is recommended to wipe the public landline twice a day with 75% alcohol. If it is used frequently, the number of disinfection can be increased. Take off the mobile phone shell, clean the mobile phone and shell with a wet towel or water cotton ball every day. If necessary, wipe and disinfect it with 75% alcohol cotton ball or cotton piece after cleaning and drying.
15. How to disinfect air conditioner?
(1) When the fan coil unit of central air conditioning system is in normal use, the air supply outlet and return air outlet shall be disinfected regularly.
(2) When the fresh air system of central air conditioning is in normal use, if there is an epidemic situation, do not stop the operation of the fan. After the evacuation of personnel, close the branch air exhaust pipe, turn off the fresh air exhaust system after a period of operation, and disinfect at the same time.
(3) For the whole air system with return air, the return air shall be completely closed to ensure the fresh air operation of the system.
16. How to deal with waste masks?
During the period of epidemic prevention, hand hygiene shall be done well before and after the mask is removed, and the waste mask shall be put into the designated garbage can. 75% alcohol or chlorine containing disinfectant shall be used twice a day to disinfect the garbage can.
3、 Personal protection
（1） Hand washing
Washing hands correctly is one of the most effective measures to prevent infectious diseases. The National Centers for Disease Control and prevention, the World Health Organization, the United States CDC and other authoritative agencies recommend soap and water (running water) to wash hands fully.
1. When do I need to wash my hands?
(1) Before and after document transfer
(2) After coughing or sneezing
(3) Before, during and after food preparation
(4) Before dinner
(5) After going to the toilet
(6) After contact with public goods in public places
(7) After contact with others
(8) After contact with animals
(9) After going out and coming back
(10) When you are not sure if your hands are clean
2. To wash your hands correctly, you need to master six steps:
The first step is to rub hands and palms together
The second step is to rub hands and fingers (palm to back, hands crossed and folded, left and right hands exchanged for five times)
The third step is to rub the palm of the hand, hand washing and finger sewing (the palm of the hand is interlaced with ten fingers, five times of rubbing)
Step 4: rub the fingertips into the palm of the hand. The left and right hands are the same (put the fingertips into the palm of the hand and rub each other five times)
Step 5: hold the thumb of the other hand and rub the left and right palms for five times
Step 6: bend the fingers to make the joints rotate and rub in the palm of the other hand, exchange and rub five times each.
3. There is no clear water outside during the journey, so it is inconvenient to wash hands. What should I do?
You can clean your hands with alcohol based disinfectant products, or you need to scrub them in six steps.
1. When do I need to wear a mask?
(1) Go to public places (such as shopping malls, supermarkets, hospitals, pharmacies, gyms, etc.);
(2) Take public transport;
(3) External service positions (such as service hall, front desk and other staff);
(4) Hold collective meetings;
(5) Closed environment such as office with more staff.
2. How to choose a mask?
Option 1: disposable medical mask, continuous wear for 2-4 hours, replace immediately after pollution or humidity;
Option 2: N95 medical protective mask shall be worn continuously for 4 hours and replaced immediately after pollution or humidity.
Generally, disposable medical masks are used. Cotton masks and sponge masks are not recommended.
3. Use mask correctly
(1) Clean hands before wearing masks;
(2) Nose clip side up, dark side out;
(3) The mask is fixed on the face by hand to cover the mouth, nose and mandible;
(4) After the ear belt is pulled to the ear, adjust the tightness of the ear belt. Under the premise of not causing discomfort to the head and face, the strap should be pulled to the tightest position;
(5) Put the fingertips of both hands along the nose