新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控常识手册 上班时如何做好防护-看世界

新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控常识手册 上班时如何做好防护

对于新型冠状病毒感染性肺炎的预防,首先建议患者要采取自我保护措施,要响应国家号召,尽量少出门,出门时一定要佩戴口罩。如果发现疫区来往人员或存在发热症状的病人,需要及时上报定点医院或有关单位。平时患者可以宅在家中,并且居住环境也需要进行消毒,可以使用84消毒液、医用酒精、紫外线灯或者高温等方法进行消毒。出门后或饭前便后要注意勤洗手,对于当前疫情都可以起到一定的预防作用。下面和360常识网一起看看新型冠状病毒肺炎相关防护知识吧吧。

对于新型冠状病毒感染性肺炎的预防,首先建议患者要采取自我保护措施,要响应国家号召,尽量少出门,出门时一定要佩戴口罩。如果发现疫区来往人员或存在发热症状的病人,需要及时上报定点医院或有关单位。平时患者可以宅在家中,并且居住环境也需要进行消毒,可以使用84消毒液、医用酒精、紫外线灯或者高温等方法进行消毒。出门后或饭前便后要注意勤洗手,对于当前疫情都可以起到一定的预防作用。下面和360常识网一起看看新型冠状病毒肺炎相关防护知识吧吧。

For the prevention of novel coronavirus infectious pneumonia, we first suggest that patients should take self protective measures, respond to the national call and try to go out as little as possible, and wear masks when going out. If it is found that there are people or patients with fever symptoms in the epidemic area, it is necessary to report to the designated hospital or relevant units in time. At ordinary times, patients can stay at home, and the living environment also needs to be disinfected. 84 disinfectant, medical alcohol, ultraviolet lamp or high temperature can be used for disinfection. After going out or after defecating before meals, wash hands frequently, which can play a certain role in prevention of the current epidemic. Let's look at novel coronavirus pneumonia related protection knowledge with the 360 common sense network.

一、新型冠状病毒肺炎知识

1. Knowledge of novel coronavirus pneumonia

1、什么是新型冠状病毒?

1. What is a novel coronavirus?

从武汉市不明原因肺炎患者下呼吸道分离出的冠状病毒,为一种新型冠状病毒,世界卫生组织命名2019-nCoV。

A novel coronavirus isolated from lower respiratory tract of patients with unknown cause pneumonia in Wuhan was named as 2019-nCoV by a new type of coronavirus. The WHO was named as a new coronavirus.

2、哪些人容易感染新型冠状病毒?

2. Who are novel coronavirus?

人群普遍易感。新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎在免疫功能低下和免疫功能正常人群均可发生,与接触病毒的量有一定关系。对于免疫功能较差的人群,例如老年人、孕产妇、存在肝肾功能异常、有慢性病人群,感染后病情更重。

People are generally susceptible. Pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus can occur in immunocompromised and immunocompetent populations, and is related to the amount of virus involved. For people with poor immune function, such as the elderly, pregnant women, patients with abnormal liver and kidney function, and chronic patients, the condition is more serious after infection.

3、新型冠状病毒的传播途径有哪些?

3. Novel coronavirus transmission routes?

主要传播方式是经呼吸道飞沫传播,也可通过接触传播(飞沫或其他带病毒体液沉积在物品表面,手接触污染后,再接触口腔、鼻腔、眼睛等粘膜,导致感染)。从一些聚集性病例的发病关联次序判断,人传人的特征十分明显,且存在一定范围的社区传播。

The main mode of transmission is through respiratory droplets, or through contact (droplets or other body fluids with virus deposited on the surface of the object, after hand contact with pollution, then contact with oral cavity, nasal cavity, eyes and other mucous membranes, leading to infection). Judging from the incidence sequence of some clustering cases, the characteristics of human to human transmission are very obvious, and there is a certain range of community transmission.

4、什么是密切接触者?

4. What are close contacts?

密切接触者指与疑似病例、确诊病例、轻症病例,无症状感染者(检测阳性)有过共同或工作,但未采取有效防护者。

Close contacts refer to those who have shared or worked with suspected cases, confirmed cases, mild cases, asymptomatic infections (positive test), but have not taken effective protection.

接触情形包括与办公室的同事、同一教室、宿舍的同学接触、同机、同乘出租车、同乘电梯等,以及病毒感染患者的陪护、诊疗。

The contact situation includes the contact with colleagues in the office, students in the same classroom and dormitory, the same plane, the same taxi, the same elevator, etc., as well as the care and diagnosis and treatment of patients with virus infection.

5、对密切接触者注意事项

5. Precautions for close contacts

密切接触者一般采取居家隔离医学观察,观察期限为自最后一次与病例或感染者发生无有效防护的接触后14天。

Close contacts were generally observed in isolation medicine at home for 14 days after the last contact with a case or an infected person without effective protection.

医学观察期间不得外出,如果必须外出,经医学观察管理人员批准后方可,并要佩戴一次性外科口罩;要配合医务人员开展每天早、晚各一次体温测量和健康状况询问。

During the period of medical observation, it is not allowed to go out. If it is necessary to go out, it shall be approved by the medical observation management personnel before wearing a disposable surgical mask. It is necessary to cooperate with the medical personnel to carry out body temperature measurement and health status inquiry once a day in the morning and in the evening.

一旦出现任何症状,特别是发热、呼吸道症状如咳嗽、呼吸短促等,应立即向当地的卫生健康部门报告,并按规定送定点医疗机构诊治。

In case of any symptoms, especially fever, respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, etc., they shall be reported to the local health department immediately and sent to the designated medical institution for treatment as required.

6、新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎患者有什么临床表现

6. What is novel coronavirus infection in patients with pneumonia?

以发热、乏力、干咳、气促为主要表现,少数患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹泻等症状。重症患者多在一周后出现呼吸困难,严重者快速进展为急性呼吸窘迫综合征等。

Fever, asthenia, dry cough and shortness of breath were the main manifestations. A few patients were accompanied with nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea and other symptoms. Severe patients often have dyspnea one week later, and those who are serious develop rapidly into acute respiratory distress syndrome.

部分患者表现为低热、轻微乏力等,无肺炎表现,多在一周后恢复。

Some of the patients showed low fever, slight fatigue, no pneumonia, and recovered after one week.

基于目前的流行病学调查,潜伏期一般为3-7天,最长不超过14天。

Based on the current epidemiological survey, the incubation period is generally 3-7 days, with a maximum of 14 days.

二、工作时防护

2、 Protection at work

1、上班前如何做?

1. How to do it before work?

上班前,要报告自己假期的重要信息,如:离岗、返岗时间、外出地点、乘坐的交通工具等确切信息及离岗返岗中间时间段的重要的接触信息和个人身体状况等,如14天内有武汉等有本地病例持续传播地区的旅行史、接触过以上地区的发热或有呼吸道症状的患者、接触新型冠状病毒感染患者的情况,建议报告后,采取居家办公、自我隔离,隔离至脱离接触14天,如自身有相关症状时,应居家隔离,必要时到医院就诊。

Before going to work, you should report important information of your vacation, such as the exact information of leaving the post, returning time, going out place, transportation, and important contact information and personal physical condition during the middle period of returning from the post, such as the travel history of Wuhan and other areas with continuous transmission of local cases within 14 days, the patients with fever or respiratory symptoms who have been exposed to the above areas After contacting the novel coronavirus infection patients, it is suggested that after the report, they should take home office work, self isolation and isolation for 14 days. If they have symptoms, they should be kept at home, and when necessary, they should go to the hospital for treatment.

2、上班途中如何做?

2. How to do it on the way to work?

尽量不乘坐公共交通工具,建议步行、骑行或乘坐私家车、班车上班。如必须乘坐公共交通工具时,务必全程佩戴口罩,途中尽量避免用手触摸车上物品。

Try not to take public transport. It is recommended to walk, ride or take private car or shuttle bus to work. If you have to take public transport, you must wear a mask all the way, and try to avoid touching the vehicle objects with your hands on the way.

3、入楼工作如何做?

3. How to enter the building?

进入办公楼前自觉接受体温检测,体温正常可入楼工作,并到卫生间洗手。若体温超过37.3℃,请勿入楼工作,并回家观察休息,必要时到医院就诊。

Before entering the office building, take the temperature test consciously. If the temperature is normal, work in the building and wash hands in the toilet. If the temperature is over 37.3 ℃, please do not enter the building to work, and go home to observe and rest, if necessary, go to the hospital for treatment.

4、入室办公如何做?

4. How to do office work?

保持办公区环境清洁,建议每日通风3次,每次20-30分钟,通风时注意保暖。人与人之间保持一定的距离,多人办公时佩戴口罩。保持勤洗手、多饮水,坚持在进食前、如厕后按照六步法严格洗手。接待外来人员双方佩戴口罩。

Keep the office area clean. It is recommended to ventilate 3 times a day for 20-30 minutes each time. Keep warm when ventilating. Keep a certain distance between people. Many people wear masks when working. Wash hands frequently and drink more water. Wash hands strictly according to six steps before eating and after going to the toilet. Both sides of the reception personnel shall wear masks.

5、参加会议如何做?

5. How to attend the meeting?

建议全程佩戴口罩,进入会议室前洗手消毒,开会人员保持适当距离。减少集中开会,控制会议时间,会议时间过长时,开窗通风1次。会议结束后场地、家具须擦拭消毒,茶具用品建议开水浸泡消毒。

It is recommended to wear masks all the way, wash hands and disinfect before entering the meeting room, and keep proper distance for the meeting personnel. Reduce the centralized meeting and control the meeting time. When the meeting time is too long, open the window for ventilation once. After the meeting, the venue and furniture should be wiped and disinfected. It is recommended to soak and disinfect tea utensils in boiling water.

6、食堂进餐如何做?

6. How to make a meal in the canteen?

采用分餐进食,避免人员密集。餐厅每日消毒1次,餐桌椅使用后进行消毒;餐具用品须高温消毒。操作间保持清洁干燥,严禁生食和熟食用品混用,避免肉类生食。建议营养配餐,清淡适口。

Use separate meals to avoid crowded people. The dining room shall be disinfected once a day, and the dining table and chair shall be disinfected after use; tableware and articles shall be disinfected at high temperature. The operation room shall be clean and dry. It is forbidden to mix raw food and cooked food to avoid raw meat. It is suggested to have a nutritious meal, which is light and palatable.

7、下班路上如何做?

7. How to do it on the way to work?

洗手后佩戴一次性医用口罩外出,回到家中摘掉口罩后首先洗手。

After washing hands, wear disposable medical mask to go out, and wash hands first after removing the mask at home.

8、工间运动如何做?

8. How to do work sports?

建议适当、适度活动,保证身体状况良好。避免过度、过量运动,造成身体免疫能力下降。

It is suggested that proper and moderate activities be carried out to ensure good health. Avoid excessive, excessive exercise, resulting in a decline in the body's immune capacity.

9、公共区域如何做?

9. What about public areas?

通风换气是预防呼吸道传染病简单且有效的防控措施,公共区域应尽量保持通风;每日须对门厅、楼道、会议室、电梯、楼梯、卫生间等公共部位进行消毒。每个区域使用的保洁用具要分开,避免混用。

Ventilation is a simple and effective prevention and control measure to prevent respiratory infectious diseases. Ventilation should be kept in public areas as much as possible; public parts such as foyer, corridor, meeting room, elevator, stair, toilet and so on should be disinfected every day. The cleaning appliances used in each area shall be separated to avoid mixing.

10、公务出行如何做?

10. How to do business trip?

专车内部及门把手建议每日用75%酒精擦拭1次。乘坐班车须佩戴口罩,建议班车在使用后用75%酒精对车内及门把手擦拭消毒。步行外出须佩戴口罩出行,避开密集。与人接触保持适当的距离,避免在公共场所长时间停留。

It is recommended to wipe the interior and door handle of the special vehicle once a day with 75% alcohol. Masks must be worn when taking the bus. It is recommended to use 75% alcohol to wipe and disinfect the car interior and door handle after use. When walking out, you must wear masks to avoid dense traffic. Keep a proper distance from people and avoid staying in public places for a long time.

11、后勤人员如何做?

11. How do logistics personnel do it?

服务人员、安保人员、清洁人员工作时须佩戴口罩,并与人保持安全距离。食堂采购人员或供货人员须佩戴口罩和一次性橡胶手套,避免直接手触肉禽类生鲜材料,摘手套后及时洗手消毒。保洁人员工作时须佩戴一次性橡胶手套,工作结束后洗手消毒。安保人员须佩戴口罩工作,并认真询问和登记外来人员状况,发现异常情况及时报告。

Service personnel, security personnel and cleaning personnel shall wear masks when working and keep a safe distance from people. The canteen purchaser or supplier shall wear masks and disposable rubber gloves to avoid direct hand contact with fresh meat and poultry materials, and wash hands and disinfect in time after picking the gloves. Cleaning personnel shall wear disposable rubber gloves when working, and wash hands after work. The security personnel shall wear masks to work, carefully inquire and register the status of the external personnel, and report the abnormal situation in time.

12、公务来访如何做?

12、 How to do business visit?

须佩戴口罩,进入办公楼前首先进行体温检测,并介绍有无武汉旅行、居住史和发热、咳嗽、呼吸不畅等症状。无上述情况,且体温正常条件下,方可入楼公干。

Wear a mask. Before entering the office building, take a temperature test first, and introduce whether you have Wuhan travel, living history, fever, cough, dyspnea and other symptoms. If there is no such situation, and the temperature is normal, you can enter the building for public work.

13、传阅文件如何做?

13. How to circulate documents?

传递纸质文件前后均需洗手,传阅文件时佩戴口罩。

Wash hands before and after transferring paper documents, and wear masks when passing documents.

14、电话、手机消毒如何做?

14. How to disinfect telephone and mobile phone?

建议公用座机电话每日75%酒精擦拭两次,如果使用频繁可增加消毒次数。将手机外壳脱掉,每日用湿巾或清水棉球对手机及外壳全面清洁,必要时,可在清洁晾干后再用75%酒精棉球或棉片擦拭消毒。

It is recommended to wipe the public landline twice a day with 75% alcohol. If it is used frequently, the number of disinfection can be increased. Take off the mobile phone shell, clean the mobile phone and shell with a wet towel or water cotton ball every day. If necessary, wipe and disinfect it with 75% alcohol cotton ball or cotton piece after cleaning and drying.

15、空调消毒如何做?

15. How to disinfect air conditioner?

(1)中央空调系统风机盘管正常使用时,定期对送风口、回风口进行消毒。

(1) When the fan coil unit of central air conditioning system is in normal use, the air supply outlet and return air outlet shall be disinfected regularly.

(2)中央空调新风系统正常使用时,若出现疫情,不要停止风机运行,应在人员撤离后,对排风支管封闭,运行一段时间后关断新风排风系统,同时进行消毒。

(2) When the fresh air system of central air conditioning is in normal use, if there is an epidemic situation, do not stop the operation of the fan. After the evacuation of personnel, close the branch air exhaust pipe, turn off the fresh air exhaust system after a period of operation, and disinfect at the same time.

(3)带回风的全空气系统,应把回风完全封闭,保证系统全新风运行。

(3) For the whole air system with return air, the return air shall be completely closed to ensure the fresh air operation of the system.

16、废弃口罩处理如何做?

16. How to deal with waste masks?

防疫期间,摘口罩前后做好手卫生,废弃口罩放入指定垃圾桶内,每天两次使用75%酒精或含氯消毒剂对垃圾桶进行消毒处理。

During the period of epidemic prevention, hand hygiene shall be done well before and after the mask is removed, and the waste mask shall be put into the designated garbage can. 75% alcohol or chlorine containing disinfectant shall be used twice a day to disinfect the garbage can.

三、个人防护

3、 Personal protection

(一)洗手篇

(1) Hand washing

正确洗手是预防传染病的最有效措施之一。国家疾病预防与控制中心、世界卫生组织及美国CDC等权威机构均推荐用肥皂和清水(流水)充分洗手。

Washing hands correctly is one of the most effective measures to prevent infectious diseases. The National Centers for Disease Control and prevention, the World Health Organization, the United States CDC and other authoritative agencies recommend soap and water (running water) to wash hands fully.

1、哪些时刻需要洗手?

1. When do I need to wash my hands?

(1)传递文件前后

(1) Before and after document transfer

(2)在咳嗽或打喷嚏后

(2) After coughing or sneezing

(3)在制备食品之前、期间和之后

(3) Before, during and after food preparation

(4)吃饭前

(4) Before dinner

(5)上厕所后

(5) After going to the toilet

(6)接触公共场所的公共物品后

(6) After contact with public goods in public places

(7)在接触他人后

(7) After contact with others

(8)接触过动物之后

(8) After contact with animals

(9)外出回来后

(9) After going out and coming back

(10)不确定手部是否清洁时

(10) When you are not sure if your hands are clean

2、正确洗手需掌握六步洗手法:

2. To wash your hands correctly, you need to master six steps:

第一步,双手手心相互搓洗(双手合十搓五下)

The first step is to rub hands and palms together

第二步,双手交叉搓洗手指缝(手心对手背,双手交叉相叠,左右手交换各搓洗五下)

The second step is to rub hands and fingers (palm to back, hands crossed and folded, left and right hands exchanged for five times)

第三步,手心对手心搓洗手指缝(手心相对十指交错,搓洗五下)

The third step is to rub the palm of the hand, hand washing and finger sewing (the palm of the hand is interlaced with ten fingers, five times of rubbing)

第四步,指尖搓洗手心,左右手相同(指尖放于手心相互搓洗搓五下)

Step 4: rub the fingertips into the palm of the hand. The left and right hands are the same (put the fingertips into the palm of the hand and rub each other five times)

第五步:一只手握住另一只手的拇指搓洗,左右手相同搓五下

Step 5: hold the thumb of the other hand and rub the left and right palms for five times

第六步:弯曲手指使关节在另一手掌心旋转揉搓,交换进行各搓五下。

Step 6: bend the fingers to make the joints rotate and rub in the palm of the other hand, exchange and rub five times each.

3、旅途在外没有清水,不方便洗手,怎么办?

3. There is no clear water outside during the journey, so it is inconvenient to wash hands. What should I do?

可以使用含酒精消毒产品清洁双手,也需按照六步法搓洗。

You can clean your hands with alcohol based disinfectant products, or you need to scrub them in six steps.

(二)口罩篇

(2) Masks

1、什么时候需要戴口罩?

1. When do I need to wear a mask?

(1)去公共场所(如商场、超市、医院、药店、健身房等);

(1) Go to public places (such as shopping malls, supermarkets, hospitals, pharmacies, gyms, etc.);

(2)乘坐公共交通;

(2) Take public transport;

(3)对外服务工作岗位(如办事大厅、前台等工作人员);

(3) External service positions (such as service hall, front desk and other staff);

(4)召开集体会议;

(4) Hold collective meetings;

(5)人员较多的办公室等密闭环境。

(5) Closed environment such as office with more staff.

2、口罩该怎么选?

2. How to choose a mask?

选择一:一次性医用口罩,连续佩戴2-4小时更换,污染或潮湿后立即更换;

Option 1: disposable medical mask, continuous wear for 2-4 hours, replace immediately after pollution or humidity;

选择二:N95医用防护口罩,连续佩戴4小时更换,污染或潮湿后立即更换。

Option 2: N95 medical protective mask shall be worn continuously for 4 hours and replaced immediately after pollution or humidity.

一般情况,使用一次性医用口罩。棉布口罩、海绵口罩均不推荐。

Generally, disposable medical masks are used. Cotton masks and sponge masks are not recommended.

3、正确使用口罩

3. Use mask correctly

(1)戴口罩前将手清洗干净;

(1) Clean hands before wearing masks;

(2)鼻夹侧朝上,深色面朝外;

(2) Nose clip side up, dark side out;

(3)展开叠层,用手将口罩固定于面部,使其覆盖口、鼻、下颌;

(3) The mask is fixed on the face by hand to cover the mouth, nose and mandible;

(4)将耳带拉至耳后,调整耳带松紧度,在不引起头面部不舒服的前提下,束带应拉至最紧;

(4) After the ear belt is pulled to the ear, adjust the tightness of the ear belt. Under the premise of not causing discomfort to the head and face, the strap should be pulled to the tightest position;

(5)将双手指尖沿鼻

(5) Put the fingertips of both hands along the nose

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