孝庄文皇后简介 历史上多尔衮和孝庄皇后的情史-看世界

孝庄文皇后简介 历史上多尔衮和孝庄皇后的情史

  孝庄是蒙古显赫的科尔沁部贝勒寨桑的二女儿,13岁就成了34岁的皇太极的新娘。

      导读:皇后简介——中国历史上曾有两位皇后被称为“孝庄皇后”。其一,明英宗皇后钱氏,称“”;其二,清太宗妃子,博尔济吉特氏,朝追尊皇后,称“孝庄文皇后”。孝庄文皇后(1613年3月28日-1688年),博尔济吉特氏,名布木布泰,亦作本布泰,蒙古科尔沁部贝勒寨桑之次女。清太宗爱新觉罗·之妃,孝端文皇后的侄女,帝爱新觉罗·福临的生母。是史上有名的贤后,一生培育、辅佐顺治、康熙两代君主,是清初杰出的女政治家。此外,这位三代帝王背后的女人——孝庄皇后的情史究竟如何?多尔衮和孝庄真的有情吗?历史上孝庄皇后下嫁多尔衮了吗?

Introduction: introduction to the Queen - there were two queens in Chinese history known as "empress Xiaozhuang". First, Qian, the empress of Yingzong in Ming Dynasty, was named ""; second, the concubine of Taizong in Qing Dynasty, boljigit, the empress of chaozhui, was called "empress Xiaozhuang Wen". Empress Wen of Xiaozhuang (March 28, 1613-1688), borzijit family, named bumbutai, was also benbutai, the second daughter of belzhaisang in Horqin, Mongolia. Imperial concubine of emperor aixinjuelu of Qing Dynasty, niece of empress xiaoduanwen, and birth mother of emperor aixinjuelu Fulin. He was a famous empress of virtue in the history. He cultivated, assisted and governed the monarchs of the two generations. She was an outstanding female politician in the early Qing Dynasty. In addition, what is the love history of empress Xiaozhuang, the woman behind the three emperors? Is Dourgen and Xiaozhuang really in love? Has the empress of Xiaozhuang married Dourgen in history?

  孝庄是蒙古显赫的科尔沁部贝勒寨桑的二女儿,13岁就成了34岁的皇太极的新娘。

Xiaozhuang is the second daughter of bayezhisang, a famous Mongolian people. At the age of 13, she became the bride of Huang Taiji, 34.

  孝庄凭着自己的聪明才智,笼络各方势力,在皇太极驾崩后让自己唯一的儿子福临登上了皇位。

Xiaozhuang, with his intelligence and intelligence, lured all forces and made his only son Fulin ascend the throne after Huang Taiji died.

  孝庄痛失爱子后,辅佐幼孙康熙继承大业、开创盛世、殚精竭虑、鞠躬尽瘁。

After the loss of his beloved son, Xiaozhuang assisted Kangxi, his youngest son, to inherit the great cause, create a prosperous era, and devote himself to his whole life.

  这便是孝庄,一个清初三代帝王背后的女人。

This is Xiaozhuang, a woman behind three emperors in the early Qing Dynasty.

  说起孝庄的事迹,无论野史、正史都有了很多的记载和传说,被历史的尘埃遮盖,她许多传奇性的故事也显得扑朔迷离起来,比如她是否与多尔衮相恋于青梅竹马,她是否曾经乳名叫“玉儿”,她是否在尊为时下嫁了多尔衮等等……

Speaking of Xiaozhuang's deeds, there are many records and legends in both the unofficial and the official history, which are covered by the dust of history. Many of her legendary stories are also confusing. For example, whether she fell in love with Dourgen in childhood, whether she ever had a baby name of "yu'er", whether she married Dourgen during the venerable period, etc

  不管如何,后人们根据史料记载,剥开历史的迷雾,还是能清楚地看到她的伟大、隐忍、果敢和大义。

In any case, according to the historical records, the later generations can clearly see her greatness, forbearance, determination and righteousness by peeling off the fog of history.

  庄妃“奇梦”之后诞下福临

The birth of Fulin after concubine Zhuang's "strange dream"

  皇太极称帝前,生有五位皇子:长子,公元1609年生,封肃亲王,其母是继妃海西女真乌拉部的乌拉纳喇氏。次子洛格,公元1611年生,11岁死。三子格博会,公元1611年生,7岁死。四子叶布舒,公元1627年生,封铺国公,其母是庶妃颜札氏。五子硕塞,公元1629年生,封承泽裕亲王,其母是侧妃海西女真叶赫部叶赫纳喇氏。称帝时册封的五宫后妃都未生子,而且,从公元1628年到公元1637年中间,九年无皇子出世,仅有八位皇女降生。不仅、后妃,乃至整个宫廷都期盼着天赐麟儿。

Before emperor Taiji became emperor, he had five sons: the eldest son, born in 1609 ad, who was the prince of Fengsu. His mother was ulanara, who succeeded his concubine Haixi, Nuzhen and Wula. The second son, Logue, was born in 1611 and died at the age of 11. Three sons of the fair, born in 1611, died at the age of 7. The fourth son, ye Bushu, was born in 1627 A.D. and was granted the crown prince of PU. His mother was Yan Zha, a concubine. Wuzishuosai, born in 1629, was granted the title of Prince Zeyu. His mother was yehnara, the Yehe division of Nuzhen, Haixi, the side concubine. During the reign of emperor, none of the five imperial concubines had children. Moreover, from 1628 to 1637, there were no royal sons born in nine years, and only eight Royal daughters were born. Not only the concubines, but also the whole court are looking forward to gifted children.

  崇德二年(公元1637年)七月八日,东宫大福晋生下一子,皇八子的诞生,让年已45岁的皇太极兴奋不已。这一年,他连得三位皇子,唯独皇八子是有名号的皇妃所生。遗憾的是好景不长,崇德三年(公元1638年)正月二十八日,皇八子患天花夭折。

In the second year of Chongde (1637 A.D.), on July 8, dafujin of Donggong gave birth to a son, and the birth of huangbazi excited Huang Taiji, who was 45 years old. In this year, he got three princes in a row, but the eight princes were born to famous imperial concubines. Unfortunately, the good times are not long. In the third year of Chongde (1638 AD), on the 28th day of the first month, huangbazi died of smallpox.

  永福宫庄妃其时正身怀六甲,而且妊娠已11个月,超过预产期。她先有三女,当然渴望能生皇子。皇八子的夭亡,无形中增加了对她的压力。果真能生皇子既可以抚慰皇帝内心的创痛,又能弥补由于皇八子之死带来的姑侄三人都无子的缺憾。

At that time, Princess Zhuang of Yongfu palace was pregnant with Liujia, and she was 11 months pregnant, exceeding the expected delivery period. She had three daughters first, and was eager to have a son. The death of the eighth son of the emperor increased the pressure on her. If you can give birth to a prince, you can not only comfort the emperor's inner pain, but also make up for the absence of sons of the three aunts and nephews caused by the death of the eight sons of the emperor.

  在皇八子去世的第三天,即正月三十日晚上八时左右,皇九子福临也就是后来的顺治帝,呱呱坠地。

On the third day of his death, around 8:00 p.m. on the 30th day of the first month, Emperor Jiuzi Fulin, the later emperor Shunzhi, was born.

  小福临的一声啼哭,划破了笼罩在盛京皇宫上空的乌云,人们奔走相告,脸上展现出宽慰的笑容。皇太极应当欣赏自己的圣明:用“永福”命名次西宫。庄妃真是一颗福星,这颗福星重新照亮了他的心,让整个皇宫感受到“福”的来临。所以,为皇九子取名“福临”。

Xiao Fulin's cry broke the dark clouds over the Imperial Palace in Shengjing. People rushed to tell each other and showed a relieved smile on their faces. Huang Taiji should appreciate his holiness: naming the second West Palace after "Yongfu". Concubine Zhuang is really a lucky star, which lights up his heart again and makes the whole palace feel the coming of "happiness". Therefore, he named Huang Jiuzi Fulin.

  传说福临诞生的前夕,庄妃梦见一位神人抱一男孩交给她,说:“这是统一天下之主。”庄妃接过孩子放在膝上,那人便不见了。如此种种,无非是制造舆论,让天下人承认:皇九子不是凡人,是真龙天子。

It is said that on the eve of the birth of Fulin, Princess Zhuang dreamed that a man of God held a boy and gave it to her, saying, "this is the Lord of unifying the world." Princess Zhuang took the child and put it on her lap. Then the man disappeared. All of these are nothing more than creating public opinion and making people all over the world admit that huangjiuzi is not a human being, but a real dragon emperor.

  孝庄下嫁多尔衮?捕风捉影的“太后下嫁”

Xiaozhuang married Dourgen? The Dowager's marriage

  顺治五年(公元1648年)十一月,多尔衮擅改“皇叔父摄政王”为“皇父摄政王”,这也是孝庄太后下嫁传说出现的源头。摄政王而又冠以皇父,中国古代历朝无此先例,一时“民间议论纷起”。人们由皇“父”联想到皇“母”,皇“父”是摄政王,皇“母”是孝庄太后,猜测想必是摄政王与孝庄太后成婚了。

In November of the fifth year of Shunzhi (1648 A.D.), Dourgen changed "the Regent of the emperor's uncle" to "the Regent of the emperor's father", which is also the source of the legend of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang marrying. In ancient China, there was no precedent for the regent to be crowned with the emperor's father. For a time, there was "a lot of discussion among the people". People associate the "father" with the "mother". The "father" is the Regent and the "mother" is the Empress Dowager of Xiaozhuang.

孝庄秘史

Secret history of filial piety

  前辈学者孟森先生,在《太后下嫁考实》一文中传述了这种情况,他说:“清世虽不敢言朝廷所讳言之事,然谓清世祖之太后下嫁摄政王,则无南北,无老幼,无男女,凡爱述故老传说者,无不能言之。求其明文则无有也。”

Mr. Meng Sen, a scholar of the past generation, said in the article "the Empress Dowager's marriage test", that: "although the Qing Dynasty dare not say what the court refuses to say, it is said that the Empress Dowager of the Qing Dynasty married the Regent, there is no north and south, no old and young, no men and women. Anyone who loves to tell old legends can't say anything. If we want to find the plaintext, we will not have it. "

  孟森先生认为,皇父之称,犹如古代“尚父”、“仲父”,都是皇帝对臣下的尊称,并不能指为太后下嫁的确据。如周文王称吕望()为尚父,意为可尊尚的父辈。尊为仲父,乃事之如父之意。总之,“尚父”、“仲父”之称,并非真的成了父亲,都是国君对劳苦功高重臣的尊称。多尔衮之称“皇父”,当属此例。

Mr. Meng Sen believed that the name of the emperor's father, just like the ancient "worship father" and "Zhongfu", was the emperor's honorific name for his subordinates, which could not be regarded as the real basis for the Empress Dowager to marry. For example, King Wen of Zhou called LV Wang () the father to be respected, which means the father to be respected. Respect is the father, but things like the father's meaning. In a word, the names of "Shangfu" and "Zhongfu" do not really become fathers. They are all the honorific names of the monarchs for their hardworking and meritorious officials. This is the case of Dourgen, who is called "the emperor's father".

  “太后下嫁说”最早出自从事抗清斗争的张煌言写的太后下嫁诗。

"Empress Dowager's marriage theory" originated from the poem written by Zhang Huangyan who was engaged in the struggle against Qing Dynasty.

  据史书载,于顺治十年(公元1653年)修建慈宁宫。孝庄太后是这年才搬进去的,时年已经42岁。如果在慈宁宫大办婚事,必须在顺治十年后。但多尔衮已于顺治七年十二月病死,皇太后下嫁谁呢?

According to historical records, the palace was built in the 10th year of Shunzhi (1653 AD). It was this year that empress dowager Xiaozhuang moved in. She was 42 years old. If a wedding is to be held in the palace of CI Ning, it must be ten years after Shunzhi. But Dourgen died in December, the seventh year of Shunzhi. Who did the Empress Dowager marry?

  “春官昨进新仪注”,是说礼部进呈结婚的礼仪程序,后来演绎成这个草拟太后下嫁仪注的礼部尚书便是。而至今未见当时礼部有什么太后下嫁的新仪注。钱谦益曾做过南明弘光小朝廷的礼部尚书。顺治二年(公元1645年)时,钱谦益降清,翌年五月,被清廷任命为礼部侍郎兼管秘书院事,充明史馆副总裁。至六月,以病退休。顺治五年冬多尔衮称皇父摄政王时,钱谦益早已返回原籍,说他以礼部尚书领衔奏事太后大婚,实为子虚乌有。

"Spring official yesterday into the new note of ceremony", that is to say, the ceremony Department into the wedding ceremony procedure, later deduce into this draft empress dowager's note of ceremony is the ceremony department minister. So far, there is no new note of Dowager's marriage in the ritual department. Qian Qianyi was a minister of rites in the Hongguang small court of Nanming Dynasty. In the second year of Shunzhi (1645 A.D.), Qian Qianyi was demoted to the Qing Dynasty. In May of the following year, he was appointed by the Qing government as the Minister of rites, who was also in charge of the affairs of the Secretariat and served as the vice president of the history museum. By June, I will retire with illness. In the winter of Shunzhi, when Dourgen was called the Regent of the emperor's father, Qian Qianyi had already returned to his place of origin, saying that his marriage to the empress dowager, led by the Minister of rites, was nothing.

  张煌言的诗,有鲜明的政治色彩,是南明与清朝对抗在文学领域的延伸。言及历史,无事实根据,任意评说,极不可取,更不可信。 

Zhang Huangyan's poems, with distinct political color, are the extension of the confrontation between Nanming and Qing Dynasty in the field of literature. To speak of history without factual basis and to comment on it at will is extremely undesirable and even more untrustworthy.  

  辅佐儿子削弱议政王会议权势

Assisting his son to weaken the power of the conference

  顺治八年(公元1651年)正月十二日,也就是摄政王多尔衮病死一个多月后,福临举行亲政典礼。顺治帝亲政时14岁,少年天子,难以肩负起治理这么大一个国家的重任。指导他、辅佐他的责任,首先就落在孝庄太后身上。顺治在会议前后或遇到难题必请教母亲,重要奏折也要批呈母后阅览。对于需要皇太后辅佐皇帝掌理朝政一事,朝廷上下已形成共识。为了便于皇太后过问国事,特将内三院衙署移到紫禁城内。这时的内三院大学士有范文程、刚林、宁完我、冯铨、等人。

On the 12th of the first month of the eighth year of Shunzhi (1651 A.D.), that is to say, after the death of Regent Dourgen for more than a month, Fulin held a ceremony for the prince. Emperor Shunzhi was 14 years old when he was in charge of the government. It was difficult for him to shoulder the responsibility of governing such a big country. The first responsibility to guide and assist him lies with empress dowager Xiaozhuang. Shunzhi must consult his mother before and after the meeting or in case of difficulties. Important memorials should also be submitted to his mother for reading. The court has reached a consensus on the need for the Empress Dowager to assist the emperor in running the government. In order to facilitate the Empress Dowager to ask about the state affairs, the three inner court offices are moved to the Forbidden City. At this time, there were three major scholars: Fan Wencheng, gang Lin, Ning Wani, Feng Quan, and others.

孝庄文皇后

Empress Xiaozhuang

  当时战争还在进行,巩固北方、统一南方,都要靠八旗劲旅。诸王或领一旗,或领若干牛录,属下满、蒙、汉军,人数多者达数万,少者也上千。他们在战场上立功,在朝廷有权。皇帝亲政后要依靠他们,于是议政王大臣会议的权力就比较大、管事宽,有时甚至不把年轻的皇帝放在眼里,顺治帝的谕旨也曾遭到否决。

At that time, the war was still going on. To consolidate the north and unify the south, we had to rely on the eight banners. The kings led a flag, or a number of cattle records. They belonged to the Manchu, Mongolian and Han armies. The number of those who were more was tens of thousands, and the number of those who were less was thousands. They made contributions on the battlefield and had power in the court. After the emperor came to power, he had to rely on them, so the power of the Council of ministers was relatively large, and the administration was broad. Sometimes he did not even pay attention to the young emperor, and the imperial edict of Shunzhi was rejected.

  顺治八年二月初五,议政王大臣等议处大臣罗什、博尔惠等五人之罪,其中罗什、博尔惠论死,籍没其家,其他三人开除宗室为民。顺治帝认为处理过重,要求诸王重议罗什、博尔惠是否可免死,可是众议政王不同意,皇帝只得服从众人的意见。

On the fifth day of February, Shunzhi, five ministers, such as Minister of the State Council and Minister of the people's Republic of China, such as Roche and BOL Hui, committed the crime. Among them, Roche and BOL Hui died without their families, while the other three dismissed their clans for the people. Emperor Shunzhi thought that the treatment was too heavy, and asked all the kings to discuss whether Roche and Bohui could be saved from death. However, the kings disagreed, and the emperor had to obey the opinions of all the people.

  遇到这种情况,年轻的皇帝难免心烦,不时要发火。这时,他的母后就帮他解决难题。首先劝皇帝要忍耐,适当作些妥协让步,以求得诸王对皇帝的支持。与此同时,皇太后还要帮助皇帝策划削弱议政王会议权势的措施。

In such a situation, the young emperor is unavoidably upset and will be angry from time to time. At this time, his mother helped him solve the problem. First of all, the emperor was advised to be patient and make some compromises in order to obtain the support of the emperors. At the same time, the Empress Dowager should also help the emperor to plan measures to weaken the power of the conference.

  皇太极在世时,曾遇到过诸王权势过大,与汗(皇)权发生的问题。通过不断调整及扩充议政王公及议政大臣的数目,有效地削弱了诸王权势。皇太后利用历史经验,帮助顺治改变议政王大臣会议的人员成分,增加其名额。

When Huang Taiji was alive, he had encountered the problems of the great power of the kings and the power of the Khan (emperor). By constantly adjusting and expanding the number of princes and ministers, the power of kings was effectively weakened. The Empress Dowager made use of her historical experience to help Shunzhi change the personnel composition of the Council of the king and ministers and increase its quota.

  仅顺治八年至十二年所任命的议政大臣就多达30余人。这样有利于集思广益和改变个别人独断专行、操纵议政王大臣会议的局面。

Only Shunzhi eight to twelve years appointed more than 30 ministers. This is conducive to brainstorming and changing the situation of the autocracy of individuals and the manipulation of the Council of ministers and ministers.

  沉着掌舵江南战局

Calmly steer the Jiangnan war

  顺治十六年(公元1659年)六月,南明重要将领郑成功率军北征,二十三日攻陷镇江,二十六日进围江宁(今南京)。消息传来,顿时朝野震惊,人心惶惶。

In June of the 16th year of Shunzhi (1659 A.D.), Zheng Chenggong, an important general of Nanming, led the army to march northward, capture Zhenjiang on the 23rd, and encircle Jiangning (now Nanjing) on the 26th. When the news came, people were shocked and panicked.

  顺治帝见到奏报,惊慌失措,如果江宁失守,东南财赋重地定难保全,北京将受到严重威胁。关键时刻,他去见母后,说出他的意见:放弃北京,迁移首都,率众退回盛京。孝庄太后坚决不允。大清的目标是要统一全中国,不但北京不能丢,还要以北京为中心向南发展。她斥责了顺治,指出这是丢弃祖宗功业的怯懦行为,等于将先辈辛苦打下的天下拱手让与敌人。

Emperor Shunzhi was panicked when he saw the memorial. If Jiangning was lost, it would be difficult to preserve the Southeast financial and tax area, and Beijing would be seriously threatened. At the critical moment, he went to see his mother and said his opinion: give up Beijing, move to the capital, and lead people back to Shengjing. Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang refused. The goal of the Qing Dynasty was to unify the whole of China, not only Beijing should not be abandoned, but also Beijing as the center to develop southward. She reprimanded Shunzhi and pointed out that it was a cowardly act of discarding the merits of her ancestors, which was tantamount to giving up the hard-earned world of her ancestors to the enemy.

孝庄皇后 孝庄皇太后 孝庄太皇太后

Empress of Xiaozhuang empress of Xiaozhuang empress of Xiaozhuang

  接受了母后的训诫,年轻的皇帝又走向另一个极端,他召集王公大臣会议,宣布要统领大军御驾亲征。议政王大臣等不赞成,以为皇上还是坐镇京师为好。皇太后也竭力劝阻,指出这是轻率鲁莽的冒险行为,容易引起人心波动,不如设法调兵遣将,消灭进犯之敌。

After receiving his mother's admonition, the young emperor went to another extreme. He called a meeting of princes and ministers, and announced that he would lead the army in the army. Minister Wang and other officials disagreed. They thought it was better for the emperor to be in the capital. The Empress Dowager also tried her best to dissuade her. She pointed out that this was a reckless and reckless risk-taking behavior, which could easily cause fluctuations in people's minds. It's better to try to mobilize troops and demobilize the general and eliminate the enemy who invaded.

  七月初八、七月十五、七月十七,皇帝先后派出四路军队组成征剿大军直驱江宁。八月初一日便传来喜讯,江宁之围已解。皇太后在关键时刻,为少年天子掌舵,把握方向、正确决策,使局势转危为安。

On the 8th, 15th and 17th of July, the emperor sent four armies to fight against Jiangning. On the first day of August came the good news that Jiangning's siege had been relieved. The Empress Dowager is at the helm of the young emperor at a critical moment, holding the direction and making correct decisions, so as to turn the situation around.

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