Introduction: introduction to the Queen - there were two queens in Chinese history known as "empress Xiaozhuang". First, Qian, the empress of Yingzong in Ming Dynasty, was named ""; second, the concubine of Taizong in Qing Dynasty, boljigit, the empress of chaozhui, was called "empress Xiaozhuang Wen". Empress Wen of Xiaozhuang (March 28, 1613-1688), borzijit family, named bumbutai, was also benbutai, the second daughter of belzhaisang in Horqin, Mongolia. Imperial concubine of emperor aixinjuelu of Qing Dynasty, niece of empress xiaoduanwen, and birth mother of emperor aixinjuelu Fulin. He was a famous empress of virtue in the history. He cultivated, assisted and governed the monarchs of the two generations. She was an outstanding female politician in the early Qing Dynasty. In addition, what is the love history of empress Xiaozhuang, the woman behind the three emperors? Is Dourgen and Xiaozhuang really in love? Has the empress of Xiaozhuang married Dourgen in history?
Xiaozhuang is the second daughter of bayezhisang, a famous Mongolian people. At the age of 13, she became the bride of Huang Taiji, 34.
Xiaozhuang, with his intelligence and intelligence, lured all forces and made his only son Fulin ascend the throne after Huang Taiji died.
After the loss of his beloved son, Xiaozhuang assisted Kangxi, his youngest son, to inherit the great cause, create a prosperous era, and devote himself to his whole life.
This is Xiaozhuang, a woman behind three emperors in the early Qing Dynasty.
Speaking of Xiaozhuang's deeds, there are many records and legends in both the unofficial and the official history, which are covered by the dust of history. Many of her legendary stories are also confusing. For example, whether she fell in love with Dourgen in childhood, whether she ever had a baby name of "yu'er", whether she married Dourgen during the venerable period, etc
In any case, according to the historical records, the later generations can clearly see her greatness, forbearance, determination and righteousness by peeling off the fog of history.
The birth of Fulin after concubine Zhuang's "strange dream"
Before emperor Taiji became emperor, he had five sons: the eldest son, born in 1609 ad, who was the prince of Fengsu. His mother was ulanara, who succeeded his concubine Haixi, Nuzhen and Wula. The second son, Logue, was born in 1611 and died at the age of 11. Three sons of the fair, born in 1611, died at the age of 7. The fourth son, ye Bushu, was born in 1627 A.D. and was granted the crown prince of PU. His mother was Yan Zha, a concubine. Wuzishuosai, born in 1629, was granted the title of Prince Zeyu. His mother was yehnara, the Yehe division of Nuzhen, Haixi, the side concubine. During the reign of emperor, none of the five imperial concubines had children. Moreover, from 1628 to 1637, there were no royal sons born in nine years, and only eight Royal daughters were born. Not only the concubines, but also the whole court are looking forward to gifted children.
In the second year of Chongde (1637 A.D.), on July 8, dafujin of Donggong gave birth to a son, and the birth of huangbazi excited Huang Taiji, who was 45 years old. In this year, he got three princes in a row, but the eight princes were born to famous imperial concubines. Unfortunately, the good times are not long. In the third year of Chongde (1638 AD), on the 28th day of the first month, huangbazi died of smallpox.
At that time, Princess Zhuang of Yongfu palace was pregnant with Liujia, and she was 11 months pregnant, exceeding the expected delivery period. She had three daughters first, and was eager to have a son. The death of the eighth son of the emperor increased the pressure on her. If you can give birth to a prince, you can not only comfort the emperor's inner pain, but also make up for the absence of sons of the three aunts and nephews caused by the death of the eight sons of the emperor.
On the third day of his death, around 8:00 p.m. on the 30th day of the first month, Emperor Jiuzi Fulin, the later emperor Shunzhi, was born.
Xiao Fulin's cry broke the dark clouds over the Imperial Palace in Shengjing. People rushed to tell each other and showed a relieved smile on their faces. Huang Taiji should appreciate his holiness: naming the second West Palace after "Yongfu". Concubine Zhuang is really a lucky star, which lights up his heart again and makes the whole palace feel the coming of "happiness". Therefore, he named Huang Jiuzi Fulin.
It is said that on the eve of the birth of Fulin, Princess Zhuang dreamed that a man of God held a boy and gave it to her, saying, "this is the Lord of unifying the world." Princess Zhuang took the child and put it on her lap. Then the man disappeared. All of these are nothing more than creating public opinion and making people all over the world admit that huangjiuzi is not a human being, but a real dragon emperor.
Xiaozhuang married Dourgen? The Dowager's marriage
In November of the fifth year of Shunzhi (1648 A.D.), Dourgen changed "the Regent of the emperor's uncle" to "the Regent of the emperor's father", which is also the source of the legend of Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang marrying. In ancient China, there was no precedent for the regent to be crowned with the emperor's father. For a time, there was "a lot of discussion among the people". People associate the "father" with the "mother". The "father" is the Regent and the "mother" is the Empress Dowager of Xiaozhuang.
Secret history of filial piety
Mr. Meng Sen, a scholar of the past generation, said in the article "the Empress Dowager's marriage test", that: "although the Qing Dynasty dare not say what the court refuses to say, it is said that the Empress Dowager of the Qing Dynasty married the Regent, there is no north and south, no old and young, no men and women. Anyone who loves to tell old legends can't say anything. If we want to find the plaintext, we will not have it. "
Mr. Meng Sen believed that the name of the emperor's father, just like the ancient "worship father" and "Zhongfu", was the emperor's honorific name for his subordinates, which could not be regarded as the real basis for the Empress Dowager to marry. For example, King Wen of Zhou called LV Wang () the father to be respected, which means the father to be respected. Respect is the father, but things like the father's meaning. In a word, the names of "Shangfu" and "Zhongfu" do not really become fathers. They are all the honorific names of the monarchs for their hardworking and meritorious officials. This is the case of Dourgen, who is called "the emperor's father".
"Empress Dowager's marriage theory" originated from the poem written by Zhang Huangyan who was engaged in the struggle against Qing Dynasty.
According to historical records, the palace was built in the 10th year of Shunzhi (1653 AD). It was this year that empress dowager Xiaozhuang moved in. She was 42 years old. If a wedding is to be held in the palace of CI Ning, it must be ten years after Shunzhi. But Dourgen died in December, the seventh year of Shunzhi. Who did the Empress Dowager marry?
"Spring official yesterday into the new note of ceremony", that is to say, the ceremony Department into the wedding ceremony procedure, later deduce into this draft empress dowager's note of ceremony is the ceremony department minister. So far, there is no new note of Dowager's marriage in the ritual department. Qian Qianyi was a minister of rites in the Hongguang small court of Nanming Dynasty. In the second year of Shunzhi (1645 A.D.), Qian Qianyi was demoted to the Qing Dynasty. In May of the following year, he was appointed by the Qing government as the Minister of rites, who was also in charge of the affairs of the Secretariat and served as the vice president of the history museum. By June, I will retire with illness. In the winter of Shunzhi, when Dourgen was called the Regent of the emperor's father, Qian Qianyi had already returned to his place of origin, saying that his marriage to the empress dowager, led by the Minister of rites, was nothing.
Zhang Huangyan's poems, with distinct political color, are the extension of the confrontation between Nanming and Qing Dynasty in the field of literature. To speak of history without factual basis and to comment on it at will is extremely undesirable and even more untrustworthy.
Assisting his son to weaken the power of the conference
On the 12th of the first month of the eighth year of Shunzhi (1651 A.D.), that is to say, after the death of Regent Dourgen for more than a month, Fulin held a ceremony for the prince. Emperor Shunzhi was 14 years old when he was in charge of the government. It was difficult for him to shoulder the responsibility of governing such a big country. The first responsibility to guide and assist him lies with empress dowager Xiaozhuang. Shunzhi must consult his mother before and after the meeting or in case of difficulties. Important memorials should also be submitted to his mother for reading. The court has reached a consensus on the need for the Empress Dowager to assist the emperor in running the government. In order to facilitate the Empress Dowager to ask about the state affairs, the three inner court offices are moved to the Forbidden City. At this time, there were three major scholars: Fan Wencheng, gang Lin, Ning Wani, Feng Quan, and others.
At that time, the war was still going on. To consolidate the north and unify the south, we had to rely on the eight banners. The kings led a flag, or a number of cattle records. They belonged to the Manchu, Mongolian and Han armies. The number of those who were more was tens of thousands, and the number of those who were less was thousands. They made contributions on the battlefield and had power in the court. After the emperor came to power, he had to rely on them, so the power of the Council of ministers was relatively large, and the administration was broad. Sometimes he did not even pay attention to the young emperor, and the imperial edict of Shunzhi was rejected.
On the fifth day of February, Shunzhi, five ministers, such as Minister of the State Council and Minister of the people's Republic of China, such as Roche and BOL Hui, committed the crime. Among them, Roche and BOL Hui died without their families, while the other three dismissed their clans for the people. Emperor Shunzhi thought that the treatment was too heavy, and asked all the kings to discuss whether Roche and Bohui could be saved from death. However, the kings disagreed, and the emperor had to obey the opinions of all the people.
In such a situation, the young emperor is unavoidably upset and will be angry from time to time. At this time, his mother helped him solve the problem. First of all, the emperor was advised to be patient and make some compromises in order to obtain the support of the emperors. At the same time, the Empress Dowager should also help the emperor to plan measures to weaken the power of the conference.
When Huang Taiji was alive, he had encountered the problems of the great power of the kings and the power of the Khan (emperor). By constantly adjusting and expanding the number of princes and ministers, the power of kings was effectively weakened. The Empress Dowager made use of her historical experience to help Shunzhi change the personnel composition of the Council of the king and ministers and increase its quota.
Only Shunzhi eight to twelve years appointed more than 30 ministers. This is conducive to brainstorming and changing the situation of the autocracy of individuals and the manipulation of the Council of ministers and ministers.
Calmly steer the Jiangnan war
In June of the 16th year of Shunzhi (1659 A.D.), Zheng Chenggong, an important general of Nanming, led the army to march northward, capture Zhenjiang on the 23rd, and encircle Jiangning (now Nanjing) on the 26th. When the news came, people were shocked and panicked.
顺治帝见到奏报，惊慌失措，如果江宁失守，东南财赋重地定难保全，将受到严重威胁。关键时刻，他去见母后，说出他的意见：放弃 ，迁移首都，率众退回盛京。孝庄太后坚决不允。大清的目标是要统一全中国，不但 不能丢，还要以北京为中心向南发展。她斥责了顺治，指出这是丢弃祖宗功业的怯懦行为，等于将先辈辛苦打下的天下拱手让与敌人。
Emperor Shunzhi was panicked when he saw the memorial. If Jiangning was lost, it would be difficult to preserve the Southeast financial and tax area, and Beijing would be seriously threatened. At the critical moment, he went to see his mother and said his opinion: give up Beijing, move to the capital, and lead people back to Shengjing. Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang refused. The goal of the Qing Dynasty was to unify the whole of China, not only Beijing should not be abandoned, but also Beijing as the center to develop southward. She reprimanded Shunzhi and pointed out that it was a cowardly act of discarding the merits of her ancestors, which was tantamount to giving up the hard-earned world of her ancestors to the enemy.
孝庄皇后 孝庄皇太后 孝庄太皇太后
Empress of Xiaozhuang empress of Xiaozhuang empress of Xiaozhuang
After receiving his mother's admonition, the young emperor went to another extreme. He called a meeting of princes and ministers, and announced that he would lead the army in the army. Minister Wang and other officials disagreed. They thought it was better for the emperor to be in the capital. The Empress Dowager also tried her best to dissuade her. She pointed out that this was a reckless and reckless risk-taking behavior, which could easily cause fluctuations in people's minds. It's better to try to mobilize troops and demobilize the general and eliminate the enemy who invaded.
On the 8th, 15th and 17th of July, the emperor sent four armies to fight against Jiangning. On the first day of August came the good news that Jiangning's siege had been relieved. The Empress Dowager is at the helm of the young emperor at a critical moment, holding the direction and making correct decisions, so as to turn the situation around.
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