我国古代四大美女之“羞花”杨玉环与长恨歌-看世界

我国古代四大美女之“羞花”杨玉环与长恨歌

  杨贵妃祖籍弘农华阴(陕西华阴),后来迁居蒲州(山西永济)。其先世都是高级官员,曾祖父令本也还作过金州刺史,此后家道衰落。父亲玄琰任蜀州司户参军。蜀州在西蜀,辖晋原、青城、新津、唐兴四县,州治晋原县,即今四川省崇州市。司户参军是州里主管民户的佐吏,属初等职官。杨玄琰大约于开元初年在蜀州供职。历史文献中有贵妃“父玄琰,蜀州司户”的记载,但只有宋初学者乐史的《杨太真外传》较详谈到贵妃的出生地:“父玄琰,蜀州司户。贵妃生于蜀,尝误坠池中,后人呼为落妃池。池在导江县前。”[唐代]导江县即今都江堰市聚源镇,与蜀州接邻。导江县前的落妃池,在今都江堰市聚源镇导江村,遗址犹存。池呈圆型,较小,占地1亩多。周围是肥沃的农田,金黄一色的稻谷;池边有一卷当地人称为“水东瓜”的树木,芳草如烟,青苍葱茜,景色秀美。贵妃在孩幼时喜爱在池边玩耍,不慎落入此池中,于是这个小池因而有名了。后世文人杨慎有诗:

  唐玄宗开元七年(公元719年),[唐代]的绝世佳人降生于西蜀。21年之后,唐玄宗幸骊山温泉宫初见杨玉环而为其姿质丰艳,倩盼警颖,举止闲冶所倾倒,立即度为女道士,居住太真宫。天宝四年(公元745年)册封玉环为贵妃,从此在中国历史上发生了一个帝王与后妃的爱情悲剧故事。它竟是唐王朝由盛到衰过程中的一个插曲,既是那么哀艳动人,而又包含着深刻的历史教训。无论古往今来的人们怎样评说,但都承认杨贵妃是中国历史上女性美的典型,正象富贵艳丽的牡丹体现唐人的审美观念一样。

In the seventh year of the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 719), the most beautiful woman of the Tang Dynasty was born in Xishu. Twenty one years later, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty saw Yang Yuhuan for the first time, and he was very beautiful. He was eager to be alert, and his behavior was very leisurely. He immediately became a Taoist and lived in Taizhen palace. In the fourth year of Tianbao era (745 AD), Yuhuan was granted the title of imperial concubine. Since then, there has been a tragic love story between the emperor and the empress in Chinese history. It is actually an episode in the process of Tang Dynasty from prosperity to decline. It is not only so sad and charming, but also contains profound historical lessons. No matter what people say, Yang Guifei is a typical female beauty in Chinese history, just like the rich and gorgeous peony embodies the aesthetic concept of Tang people.

  杨贵妃祖籍弘农华阴(陕西华阴),后来迁居蒲州(山西永济)。其先世都是高级官员,曾祖父令本也还作过金州刺史,此后家道衰落。父亲玄琰任蜀州司户参军。蜀州在西蜀,辖晋原、青城、新津、唐兴四县,州治晋原县,即今四川省崇州市。司户参军是州里主管民户的佐吏,属初等职官。杨玄琰大约于开元初年在蜀州供职。历史文献中有贵妃“父玄琰,蜀州司户”的记载,但只有宋初学者乐史的《杨太真外传》较详谈到贵妃的出生地:“父玄琰,蜀州司户。贵妃生于蜀,尝误坠池中,后人呼为落妃池。池在导江县前。”[唐代]导江县即今都江堰市聚源镇,与蜀州接邻。导江县前的落妃池,在今都江堰市聚源镇导江村,遗址犹存。池呈圆型,较小,占地1亩多。周围是肥沃的农田,金黄一色的稻谷;池边有一卷当地人称为“水东瓜”的树木,芳草如烟,青苍葱茜,景色秀美。贵妃在孩幼时喜爱在池边玩耍,不慎落入此池中,于是这个小池因而有名了。后世文人杨慎有诗:

Yang Guifei's ancestral home is hongnonghuayin (Shaanxi Huayin), and later moved to Puzhou (Shanxi Yongji). His ancestors were all senior officials, and lingben, his great grandfather, also served as a governor of Jinzhou. After that, his family declined. His father, Xuan Yan, was appointed as the Secretary of Shu state to join the army. In Xishu, Shuzhou governs four counties of Jinyuan, Qingcheng, Xinjin and tangxing. It governs Jinyuan County, which is now Chongzhou City, Sichuan Province. Si Hu joined the army is the assistant official in charge of the civilian households in the state, who is a junior official. Yang Xuanyan worked in Shuzhou in the early years of the new year. In the historical documents, there are records of the imperial concubine "father Xuanyan, the governor of Shuzhou", but only the biography of Yang Taizhen, a beginner of Song Dynasty, talks about the birthplace of the imperial concubine in detail: "father Xuanyan, the governor of Shuzhou. The imperial concubine was born in Shu and fell into the pool by mistake. Later generations called it the falling concubine pool. The pool is in front of Daojiang county. " [Tang Dynasty] Daojiang county is now Juyuan Town, Dujiangyan City, adjacent to Shuzhou. Luofeichi in front of Daojiang county is still in Daojiang village, Juyuan Town, Dujiangyan City. The pool is round and small, covering more than 1 mu. It is surrounded by fertile farmland and golden rice. Beside the pond, there is a roll of trees called "water melon" by the local people, with fragrant grass like smoke, green and green, beautiful scenery. As a child, the imperial concubine loved to play by the pool, and accidentally fell into the pool, so the pool became famous. Later scholars Yang Shen had poems:

  妃子池莲玉女房,温柔元近白云乡。

Feizichi lotus jade room, gentle yuan near Baiyun township.

  光涵色界三千顷,润及华清第一汤。

Light contains three thousand hectares of color, the first soup of run and Huaqing.

  王培荀亦有诗云:

Wang Peixun's poems also say:

  入水明珠色满池,先教玉液洗凝脂。

Enter the pool full of pearl color, first teach the jade liquid to wash and coagulate.

  海棠未破东风软,可是华清出浴时?

Begonia not broken east wind soft, but Huaqing out of bath?

  诗人们都联想到这个小姑娘后来在华清宫温泉赐浴,初承恩泽之事,似乎早有征兆了。落妃池附近有一座杨家院子,相传就是当年玉环住家之处,被称为“宅”。可以推测:杨妃宅即是杨玄琰任职蜀州时之住宅,玉环当是在此出生的。沃野千里,物产丰饶、景色秀媚之川西平原,钟灵毓秀,不知多久的积聚才诞育了一位绝世佳人。这可能有一种神秘的文化原因。

The poets all think that the little girl later gave a bath in the hot spring of Huaqing Palace, and it seems that there are signs for her to accept the grace. There is a courtyard of Yang's family near luofeichi. It's said that the place where Yuhuan lived was called "house". It can be inferred that Yang feizhai is the residence where Yang Xuanyan was born when he was in Shuzhou. The West Sichuan Plain is rich in natural resources and beautiful in scenery. It's not long before it's gathered to produce a beautiful woman. There may be a mysterious cultural reason for this.

  大约杨玄琰在女儿几岁时便死于蜀州,故史称“妃早孤”。叔父河南府(河南洛阳)士曹杨玄敫收养了玉环。她在这新的环境里受到了良好的教育,十七岁时已出落得亭亭玉立。开元二十二年(公元734年)被选为玄宗之子寿王的妃子。命运的安排特别巧妙,玉环终因“天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧”,又成了玄宗的贵妃,得到了创立盛唐基业的一代帝王的真正的爱情。唐玄宗由政治修明变为昏庸荒淫,唐王朝由盛世转入衰败,的战火蔓延,皇室入蜀逃难,这一切的社会重大责任,如果都由杨贵妃来承担,未免是过于夸张而且非常不公允了。杨贵妃不具备那样的雄才大略的政治家品质,她仅象一般女人那样追求爱情和虚荣,努力享受人生的幸福。天宝十五年(公元756年)六月,皇室一行避难入蜀,途经马嵬驿时,六军不发,虽然高力士说“贵妃诚无罪”,然形势所逼,玄宗只得命高力士于佛堂缢杀贵妃。可怜她才三十八岁,竟香消玉殒了。玄宗入蜀后禁不住痛苦地思念贵妃。后来文人杨慎猜想玄宗行宫见月之时,是否知道蜀中尚有落妃池遗址,他说:“不知见月行宫夜,曾梦芳魂此水傍?”很可能玄宗并不知道蜀中有个落妃池,如果知道,也许他会去悼念一番的,远胜升天入地去寻觅芳魂了。杨贵妃自幼年离蜀中后,再也没有回到她的出生之地了。她真是“祸水”、“尤物”或“妖姬”吗?百年以后唐末战乱,又象玄宗一样率领皇室入蜀避难,当回经马嵬坡时有感而赋诗云:

Yang Xuanyan died in Shuzhou when her daughter was a few years old, so she was known as "Princess zaogu". Cao yangxuan, a scholar in his uncle He Nan Fu (Luoyang, Henan Province), adopted Yuhuan. She was well educated in this new environment, and at the age of seventeen she had grown up and set up. In the 22nd year of Kaiyuan era (AD 734), he was selected as the concubine of Shouwang, the son of Xuanzong. The arrangement of fate is especially ingenious. Yuhuan became the imperial concubine of Xuanzong because of "the beauty of nature is hard to give up. Once she was chosen by the emperor", she got the real love of the emperor who founded the foundation of the Tang Dynasty. Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty changed from political cultivation to mediocrity and absurdity, the Tang Dynasty turned from prosperity to decline, the war spread, the royal family fled to Shu, all of these social responsibilities, if they were borne by Yang Guifei, would be too exaggerated and very unfair. Yang Guifei doesn't have the qualities of a statesman with such great talents. She only pursues love and vanity like ordinary women, and tries to enjoy the happiness of life. In June of the 15th year of Tianbao (756 A.D.), the royal family took refuge in Shu. When they passed Mawei Posthouse, the Sixth Army didn't send them. Although Gao Lishi said "the princess is innocent", the situation forced Xuanzong to order Gao Lishi to hang and kill the princess in the Buddhist Hall. She was only thirty-eight years old, but she died. Xuanzong couldn't help thinking of the imperial concubine painfully after entering Shu. Later, Yang Shen, a scholar, wondered whether Xuanzong knew about the ruins of luofeichi when he saw the moon in the palace. He said, "I don't know about the night when he saw the moon in the palace, where the soul of Zeng Mengfang is by the water." it's likely that Xuanzong didn't know about the luofeichi. If he knew about it, maybe he would go to mourn for it, far better than going to the heaven and the earth to find the soul of Fang. Since she left Sichuan as a child, Yang Guifei has never returned to the place where she was born. Is she really a "disaster", "a special thing" or a "enchanter"

  马嵬杨柳绿依依,又见鸾舆幸蜀归。

Mawei willow green Yiyi, see Luan Yu lucky Shu return.

  泉下阿环应有语:这回休更罪杨妃。

Under the spring, ah Huan should have said: this time, I will stop to offend Princess Yang.

  僖宗早已代杨贵妃诉说了冤魂的不平之恨了。

He Zong has already told the injustice hatred of the ghost on behalf of Yang Guifei.

  汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。

The emperor of the Han Dynasty thought highly of the country, and Yu Yu had been begging for many years.

  杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。

Yang's family has a girl who has just grown up and is raised in a boudoir unknown to people.

  天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。

It's hard to abandon the beauty of nature. One day, it's on the king's side.

  回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。

Looking back on the smile, six palace powder without color.

  春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。

Spring cold gives bath Huaqing pool, hot spring water slippery wash congeals fat.

  侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽时。

It is the time of new grace when the servant can't help her.

  云鬓花颜金步摇,芙蓉帐暖度春宵。

Clouds and sideburns, flowers and golden steps, and hibiscus curtains warm the spring night.

  春宵苦短日高起,从此君王不早朝。

Spring night bitter short day high, since then the king not early.

  承欢侍宴无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜。

There is no leisure for the banquet. Spring is a special night for spring outing.

  后宫佳丽三千人,三千宠爱在一身。

There are three thousand beauties in the harem, three thousand in love.

  金屋妆成娇侍夜,玉楼宴罢醉和春。

The golden room is made up to serve the night, and the jade floor feast is drunk and spring.

  姊妹弟兄皆列士,可怜光采生门户。

My brothers and sisters are all brothers and sisters.

  遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女。

So that the world's parents, not to give birth to men and women.

  骊宫高处入青云,仙乐风飘处处闻。

Li palace high into the blue clouds, xianle wind floating everywhere.

  缓歌慢舞凝丝竹,尽日君王看不足。

Slow song, slow dance, coagulate silk and bamboo, all day the king can't see enough.

  渔阳鼙鼓动地来,惊破霓裳羽衣曲。

Yu Yanghe came to the scene, startled by the music of colorful clothes and feather clothes.

  九重城阙烟尘生,千乘万骑西南行。

There are smoke and dust in the nine cities, and thousands of people ride southwest.

  翠华摇摇行复止,西出都门百余里。

Cuihua shakes and stops. It's more than a hundred miles away from the capital in the West.

  六军不发无奈何,宛转蛾眉马前死。

The Sixth Army had no choice but to die in front of a horse.

  花钿委地无人收,翠翅金雀玉搔头。

There is no one to collect the mother of flowers, and the jade is scratched by the emerald winged canary.

  君王掩面救不得,回看血泪相和流。

The king hid his face and could not save. He looked back at the flow of blood and tears.

  黄埃散漫风萧索,云栈萦纡登剑阁。

Huang AI is scattered and the wind is bleak, and the cloud stack haunts the sword Pavilion.

  峨眉山下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄。

There are few people at the foot of Emei Mountain, and the flags are thin in the dark sun.

  蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主朝朝暮暮情。

The water of Shu River is green and the mountains of Shu are green. The Lord is in love with him day and night.

  行宫见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃断肠声。

Walking in the palace, you can see the sad color of the moon. In the night rain, you can hear the bell breaking.

  天旋地转回龙驭,至此踌躇不能去。

The sky whirled back to Longyu, so I hesitated to go.

  马嵬坡下泥土中,不见玉颜空死处。

Under the Mawei slope, there is no place where jade Yan Kong died.

  君臣相顾尽沾衣,东望都门信马归。

The emperor and his officials are all in touch with each other's clothes. They believe in the return of horses.

  归来池苑皆依旧,太液芙蓉未央柳。

Back to the pool garden are still, too liquid lotus Weiyang Liu.

  芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂。

Hibiscus, such as willows, such as eyebrows, how not to shed tears.

  春风桃李花开日,秋雨梧桐叶落时。

Peach and plum flowers bloom in spring, while parasol leaves fall in autumn.

  西宫南内多秋草,落叶满阶红不扫。

There are many autumn grasses in the south of the West Palace, and the leaves are full of red.

  梨园弟子白发新,椒房阿监青娥老。

The pear garden disciple has new white hair, and the pepper room is old.

  夕殿萤飞思悄然,孤灯挑尽未成眠。

In the palace of the night, the fireflies think quietly, and the solitary lamp does not sleep.

  迟迟钟鼓初长夜,耿耿星河欲曙天。

Late bell and drum at the beginning of the long night, Geng Geng Star River to dawn.

  鸳鸯瓦冷霜华重,翡翠衾寒谁与共。

Mandarin duck tile cold frost Hua heavy, jade quilt cold who with.

  悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。

Long life and death don't last for years, the soul never came to dream.

  临邛道士鸿都客,能以精诚致魂魄。

Hongduke, a Taoist in Linqiong, can be sincere to the soul.

  为感君王辗转思,遂教方士殷勤觅。

In order to feel the king's thoughts, he taught the alchemists to look diligently.

  排空驭气奔如电,升天入地求之遍。

Empty the gas and run like electricity, ascend to the sky and enter the earth.

  上穷碧落下黄泉,两处茫茫皆不见。

On the poor green down the spring, two boundless are missing.

  忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥缈间。

Suddenly I heard that there was a fairy mountain on the sea. The mountain was in the void.

  楼阁玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。

The pavilions are exquisite with five clouds rising, among which there are many fairies.

  中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。

One of the characters is too true, and the appearance of snow skin and flowers is uneven.

  金阙西厢叩玉扇,转教小玉报双成。

The Western Chamber of the Jin que knocks on the jade fan and turns to teach Xiaoyu to report double success.

  闻道汉家天子使,九华帐里梦魂惊。

Hearing that the son of heaven of the Han family had made a dream in Jiuhua's tent.

  揽衣推枕起徘徊,珠箔银屏迤逦开。

Holding clothes and pushing pillows to wander, the silver screen of Pearl chaff is meandering away.

  云髻半偏新睡觉,花冠不整下堂来。

Yunji is half new to sleep, and the Corolla is not neat.

  风吹仙袂飘飘举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。

When the wind blows, the fairy's clothes flutter and lift up, just like the dancing of the rainbow and feather clothes.

  玉容寂寞泪阑干,梨花一枝春带雨。

Yurong lonely tears dry, pear a spring with rain.

  含情凝睇谢君王,一别音容两渺茫。

When I look at the king with affection, my voice is dim.

  昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。

Zhaoyang palace is full of love and Penglai palace is full of sun and moon.

  回头下望人寰处,不见长安见尘雾。

Looking back at the world, I saw no dust in Chang'an.

  唯将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。

The only way to show affection for the old things is to send them with mother of Pearl and gold hairpin.

  钗留一股合一扇,钗擘黄金合分钿。

The hairpin leaves one in one, and the hairpin breaks the gold and divides the mother.

  但教心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。

But the heart of teaching is like gold and tin. Heaven and earth will meet each other.

  临别殷勤重寄词,词中有誓两心知。

When I leave you, I will send you my words again. I have two hearts to know.

  七月七日长生殿,夜半无人私语时。

On the seventh day of July, when there was no one talking in the hall of longevity.

  在天愿作比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。

In heaven, I would like to be a parafoil, in the earth, I would like to be a connecting branch.

  天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵无绝期。

For a long time, the hatred lasts forever.

  简析

Brief analysis

  本诗写唐明皇和杨贵妃的爱情故事,只开头一句以[汉代]唐,其它地名、人名都是实的。诗写于宪宗元和六年(806)冬天,诗人正任屋(今陕西周至)县尉,有一次和陈鸿、王质游仙游寺,经王提议,与陈鸿相约将当时正在民间流传的关于玄宗和宠妃的爱情故事写成作品,陈写成《长恨歌传》,白写了这首诗。诗以喜剧开头而转成悲剧,虽然作者的立意是“欲惩尤物”,却成了一首爱情的颂歌。这首叙事诗的最成功处就是抒情,相当复杂的情节只用精炼的几句就交代过去,而着力在情的渲染,细致地写唐明皇与杨贵妃爱情的浓烈和贵妃死后双方的思念之情。其中有不少名句感人至深,千百年来一直为人传诵。诗中戏剧化和神话化的描写和浓郁的浪漫主义色彩,也是它具有很强的艺术魅力的原因。

This poem is about the love story between Emperor Ming and concubine Yang. The first line of the poem is Tang Dynasty. Other place names and people's names are real. The poem was written in the winter of the sixth year (806) of Xianzong Yuanhe. The poet was appointed as the county captain of the house (today's Zhouzhi in Shaanxi Province). He once visited Xianyou temple with Chen Hong and Wang Zhiyou. At the suggestion of Wang, he and Chen Hong made an appointment to write the love story about Xuanzong and his beloved concubine, which was spreading among the people at that time. Chen wrote the poem in vain. The poem begins with comedy and turns into tragedy. Although the author's intention is "to punish special things", it has become a Ode to love. The most successful part of this narrative poem is lyricism. The rather complicated plot only uses a few refined sentences to explain the past, and focuses on the rendering of feelings. It carefully describes the strong love between Emperor Tang and concubine Yang and the yearning of both sides after the death of concubine Yang. Many of them are moving and have been handed down for thousands of years. The dramatic and mythical description and strong romantic color in the poem are also the reasons for its strong artistic charm.

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