After Chen Kaige's film version of "in 2010, the TV drama version of" the case of Zhao's orphanage "hit the air, once again making this complicated history become the focus of attention. In fact, the so-called orphans of Zhao family did not exist in history. They were created according to some legends of the Warring States period.
The story origin of orphan Zhao
Zhao's orphan is Zhao Wu in the history. When it comes to Zhao Wu, many people may not know about it, but you must know Chonger in the five hegemons of the spring and Autumn period. Zhao shu, Zhao Wu's great grandfather, was an important official who assisted Jin Wengong to become a monarch. To use the words of "to evaluate Zhao Shuai" is to say: "Wen Gong returned to China and became a tyrant, so he had more strategies for Zhao Shuai." Therefore, after Chong'er became king of the state, Zhao Shuai, the most meritorious official, became the Minister of the state of Jin and represented the state of Jin on the court.
Zhao Shuai gave birth to his son Zhao dun. After the death of Duke Xiang of Jin, Zhao Dun made Prince Yi Gao the king, that is, Duke Ling of Jin. Jin linggong is a famous tyrant in history. He is cruel and easy to kill. Zhao Dun has repeatedly admonished him, but Jin linggong doesn't listen to him. But he is afraid of Zhao Dun in his heart, so he wants to kill him secretly.
For the first time, the story was written in the second year of Zuozhuan Xuangong. There was a conflict between jinlinggong and Zhao Dun, the minister. Jinlinggong sent assassins to assassinate Zhao dun. Fortunately, Zhao Dun was kind and friendly, and had a good relationship with others. He had been informed for a long time. Zhao Dun escaped, but before he left the country, there was the news that Duke Ling of Jin had been killed. Zhao Chuang, brother of Zhao Dun, killed Duke Ling of Jin and set up his younger brother, Heigu, for Duke Cheng of Jin. Zhao Dun was reinstated, and the charge of killing the king fell on Zhao Dun's head.
After Zhao Dun's death, his son Zhao Shuo inherited the title. In the third year of Jinggong's reign, Zhao Shuo, as the general of the Jin State, led his troops to rescue Zheng State and fought a war on the river. Because of this war, Zhao Shuo married Zhao Zhuangji, the daughter of Jinggong, as his wife.
In the eight years of Zuozhuan and luchenggong, there are records of Jin destroying Zhao family. Zhuang Ji fell in love with Zhao Shuo and his younger brother Zhao Ying in a triangle. The Zhao family intervened. Later, Zhuang Ji slandered to the Marquis of Jin. The ministers who had enemies with the Zhao family intervened and took the opportunity to clear the Zhao family. Zhao Wu, Zhao Shuo's son, was hidden in the palace by Zhuang Ji and returned to the dynasty when he grew up.
In the later historian Sima Qian's records of the Jin family, the narration of Zuozhuan is basically continued. However, in another historical records of Zhao family, Sima Qian used thousands of articles to describe the cause and effect of the whole event, which is also the basic framework of the story of Zhao orphan known later. During the reign of Jin Jinggong, tu'an Jia, the "traitor", wanted to eliminate the loyal and famous Zhao family, claiming that the killing of Jin linggong was related to Zhao Dun and led his troops to kill the family. The only one missing was Zhuang Ji, Zhao Shuo's wife, who was already pregnant. Tu'an Jia was so poor that he wanted to kill all of them. Zhuang Ji gave birth to Zhao's orphan, Zhao Wu, and hid him under the crotch to escape.
Later, Gongsun Chujiu, Zhao Shuo's disciple, discussed with Cheng Ying to save the orphan. Cheng Ying used one of the babies he bought to swap with him, and played a double reed with Gongsun. Tu'an Gu leads his master to catch up with him. Cheng Ying pretends to sell Zhao's orphan for a fortune, and leads tu'an Gu to find Gongsun Chujiu and the baby in the hidden mountain. They are killed.
Cheng Ying took Zhao Wuyuan to other places, endured humiliation and hardships for 15 years, and finally came to the order of Zhao's pacification issued by Jin Jinggong. Zhao Wu killed tu'an Jia and avenged the Zhao family, while Cheng Ying killed himself to repay his old friends.
However, in the spring and Autumn period and Guoyu, there are also sporadic records of Zhao's door being destroyed, but none of them involves the plot of "chasing and killing orphans".
For the source of the story of Zhao's orphan written by Sima Qian, there are historians' analysis. When Sima Qian wrote the historical records, he not only consulted the historical materials but also visited various places. Many details in the story may be composed of various folk legends.
Since Sima Qian shaped the story of "orphan Zhao", the most popular folk drama in the Yuan Dynasty is Ji Junxiang's Zaju "avenging the orphan Zhao" (also known as "avenging the orphan Zhao").
On the basis of Sima Qian, Ji Junxiang intensified several dramatic conflicts: first, Cheng Ying's identity was determined as a folk doctor, and Zhao Wu was replaced by his own son, which enhanced his appeal; second, Cheng Ying and Zhao Wu deliberately went to tu'anjia, which was probably the earliest version of "the most dangerous place and the safest place"; third, when Zhao Wu grew up, Cheng Ying tells Zhao Wu the story of the incident in the form of a comic book, asking Zhao Wu to kill tu'anjia, the "treacherous official", and revenges deeply.
Historical deviation in Sima Qian's works
There are many fictional elements in the so-called "orphan of Zhao" in the historical records of Zhao family.
First, the historical facts of the so-called "remains of Zhao" are not believed. Historical records does not write much about Zhao Shuo, but after Zhao Dun's death, Zhao Shuo inherited his position. In the third year of Jinggong reign of Jin Dynasty, Zhao Shuo was still superior to Zhao Tong, Zhao Ying and Zhao Ying in political status to fight Chu. Since then, there is no news about Zhao family in the historical records. Maybe he died young. Later, it was said that Zhao Ying was adulterous with Zhuang Ji. According to this time interval reasoning, it is impossible for Zhuang Ji, the 17th year of Jinggong, to have Zhao Shuo's remains. According to Zuo Zhuan, "in June, Jin asked Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo, and Wu followed Ji's livestock in the palace.". "The language of Jin nine" also known as Zhao Wu "from the Ji family in the palace.". It can be seen that when Zhao Wu was young, he lived with his mother according to his uncle (Jin Jinggong). In this way, the relevant records of "search for orphans to save orphans" and Gongsun Chujiu and Cheng Ying are not enough to be believed.
Second, the historical records of the time when the "difficulty of going to the palace" happened (Jin Jinggong's three years, i.e. 597 years ago) about Zhao's family being destroyed mutually. The Jin family and the chronology of the twelve princes in historical records, both of which originated from Sima Qian, clearly recorded that the incident happened in the seventeen years of Jinggong (583 BC). The relevant records of Zuozhuan are the same. Zhao took part in many historical events three years later. For example, in the sixth year of Jinggong of Jin Dynasty, "the Marquis of Jin made Zhao Tongxian and captured Di in Zhou Dynasty." In the fifth year of Duke Cheng of Lu (586 BC), Zhao Ying committed adultery with Zhuang Ji and was exiled by Zhao Kuo and Zhao Tong's brothers; in the twelfth year of Duke Jing of Jin (588 BC), Jin started to set up six Qing, Zhao Kuo and Zhao Zhan were both Qing. It can be concluded that "the difficulty of going to the palace" cannot have happened in the third year of Jinggong.
What are the reasons for Zhao's extermination
Zuozhuan records that Zhao's family was destroyed because Zhuang Ji and Zhao Ying had adultery and Zhuang Ji was killed by the Marquis of Jin Dynasty. When Sima Qian lived, due to the reason of Gao Hou, in line with the principle of "taboo for the distinguished, for the virtuous, and for the relatives", all incidents of adultery in historical records are not recorded. We had to rewrite the story of the Zhao family, and "become a family of words". Compared with Hanshu, it is clear.
The spring and Autumn period is an era of great social change and upheaval in Chinese history. At that time, there were three main forces on the political stage, namely, the Zhou royal family headed by the emperor of Zhou, the public offices headed by the princes of various countries and the ministers and officials in various countries. In the state of Jin, the conflict between the officials and the office of the Duke of Jin was especially obvious. The root cause of Zhao's being destroyed is the power struggle. Zhao's family controlled the government for a long time, which will naturally cause a rebound. It was the idea of the king of Jin that Zhao's family was destroyed. The basic purpose was to change the political pattern of Jin at that time.
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