故事起源介绍 “赵氏孤儿”在历史上并不存在-看世界

故事起源介绍 “赵氏孤儿”在历史上并不存在

  《赵氏孤儿》的故事起源

  继2010年陈凯歌电影版《》后,电视剧版的《赵氏孤儿案》热播,再度让这段扑朔迷离的历史成为关注焦点。其实所谓的赵氏孤儿在历史上是不存在的,是根据一些战国时期的传说“创作”出来的。

After Chen Kaige's film version of "in 2010, the TV drama version of" the case of Zhao's orphanage "hit the air, once again making this complicated history become the focus of attention. In fact, the so-called orphans of Zhao family did not exist in history. They were created according to some legends of the Warring States period.

  《赵氏孤儿》的故事起源

The story origin of orphan Zhao

  赵氏孤儿就是历史上的赵武,说到赵武可能很多人都不知道,但是你一定知道春秋五霸中的重耳,赵武的曾祖父赵衰是辅佐晋文公当上国君的重臣。用《》的话来评价赵衰就是:“文公所以返国及霸,多赵衰计策。”所以,重耳做了国君后,功劳最大的赵衰就成了晋国卿大夫,并在朝堂之上代理晋国国政。

Zhao's orphan is Zhao Wu in the history. When it comes to Zhao Wu, many people may not know about it, but you must know Chonger in the five hegemons of the spring and Autumn period. Zhao shu, Zhao Wu's great grandfather, was an important official who assisted Jin Wengong to become a monarch. To use the words of "to evaluate Zhao Shuai" is to say: "Wen Gong returned to China and became a tyrant, so he had more strategies for Zhao Shuai." Therefore, after Chong'er became king of the state, Zhao Shuai, the most meritorious official, became the Minister of the state of Jin and represented the state of Jin on the court.

  赵衰生子赵盾。赵盾在晋襄公死后,立太子夷皋为国君,也就是晋灵公。这位晋灵公可是历史上有名的暴君,他残忍好杀,赵盾屡次进谏,晋灵公都不听,但是他在心底是害怕赵盾的,所以想暗中将其除掉。

Zhao Shuai gave birth to his son Zhao dun. After the death of Duke Xiang of Jin, Zhao Dun made Prince Yi Gao the king, that is, Duke Ling of Jin. Jin linggong is a famous tyrant in history. He is cruel and easy to kill. Zhao Dun has repeatedly admonished him, but Jin linggong doesn't listen to him. But he is afraid of Zhao Dun in his heart, so he wants to kill him secretly.

  故事第一次被文字记载是在《左传·宣公二年》里的“晋灵公不君”,晋灵公和大臣赵盾之间发生了冲突,晋灵公派刺客刺杀赵盾,还好赵盾仁爱待人,人缘极好,早有人给他通风报信。赵盾逃跑了,可还没出国境,就传来了晋灵公被杀的消息,赵盾之弟赵穿杀了晋灵公而立襄公弟黑臀,是为晋成公。赵盾复职,而弑君的这笔账也落在了赵盾的头上。

For the first time, the story was written in the second year of Zuozhuan Xuangong. There was a conflict between jinlinggong and Zhao Dun, the minister. Jinlinggong sent assassins to assassinate Zhao dun. Fortunately, Zhao Dun was kind and friendly, and had a good relationship with others. He had been informed for a long time. Zhao Dun escaped, but before he left the country, there was the news that Duke Ling of Jin had been killed. Zhao Chuang, brother of Zhao Dun, killed Duke Ling of Jin and set up his younger brother, Heigu, for Duke Cheng of Jin. Zhao Dun was reinstated, and the charge of killing the king fell on Zhao Dun's head.

  赵盾死后,他的儿子赵朔承袭了爵位。晋景公三年,赵朔作为晋国的大将率兵救援郑国,并在河上与大战一场,因为这场战争,赵朔娶了晋成公的女儿赵庄姬做了夫人。

After Zhao Dun's death, his son Zhao Shuo inherited the title. In the third year of Jinggong's reign, Zhao Shuo, as the general of the Jin State, led his troops to rescue Zheng State and fought a war on the river. Because of this war, Zhao Shuo married Zhao Zhuangji, the daughter of Jinggong, as his wife.

  而在《左传·鲁成公八年》里,出现晋灭赵氏家族的记载。庄姬与赵朔及其弟赵婴陷入三角恋情,赵氏家族出面干预,后庄姬向晋侯进谗,与赵家有仇的大臣趁机介入,借机清除了赵氏家族。赵朔的儿子赵武被庄姬藏在宫中,长成后重返于朝。

In the eight years of Zuozhuan and luchenggong, there are records of Jin destroying Zhao family. Zhuang Ji fell in love with Zhao Shuo and his younger brother Zhao Ying in a triangle. The Zhao family intervened. Later, Zhuang Ji slandered to the Marquis of Jin. The ministers who had enemies with the Zhao family intervened and took the opportunity to clear the Zhao family. Zhao Wu, Zhao Shuo's son, was hidden in the palace by Zhuang Ji and returned to the dynasty when he grew up.

  在后来史学家司马迁的《史记·晋世家》里,基本延续了《左传》的叙述。但在另一篇《史记·赵世家》中,司马迁用了洋洋洒洒近千文,描述了整个事件的前因后果,也是后来人们所知道的《赵氏孤儿》故事的基本框架——晋景公年间,“奸臣”屠岸贾欲除忠烈名门赵氏,声称当年晋灵公被杀与赵盾有关,率兵灭门。唯一漏网的是已有身孕的赵朔之妻庄姬。屠岸贾穷追不舍,欲斩尽杀绝。庄姬产下赵氏孤儿——赵武后,将其藏在裆下逃过一劫。

In the later historian Sima Qian's records of the Jin family, the narration of Zuozhuan is basically continued. However, in another historical records of Zhao family, Sima Qian used thousands of articles to describe the cause and effect of the whole event, which is also the basic framework of the story of Zhao orphan known later. During the reign of Jin Jinggong, tu'an Jia, the "traitor", wanted to eliminate the loyal and famous Zhao family, claiming that the killing of Jin linggong was related to Zhao Dun and led his troops to kill the family. The only one missing was Zhuang Ji, Zhao Shuo's wife, who was already pregnant. Tu'an Jia was so poor that he wanted to kill all of them. Zhuang Ji gave birth to Zhao's orphan, Zhao Wu, and hid him under the crotch to escape.

  后来,赵朔的门客公孙杵臼与程婴商议救孤,程婴用买来的一个婴儿与之掉包,并与公孙演了一出双簧。屠岸贾率师追赶而来,程婴佯装欲以千金出卖赵氏孤儿,并领着屠岸贾找到了隐匿山中的公孙杵臼和婴儿,二人被杀。

Later, Gongsun Chujiu, Zhao Shuo's disciple, discussed with Cheng Ying to save the orphan. Cheng Ying used one of the babies he bought to swap with him, and played a double reed with Gongsun. Tu'an Gu leads his master to catch up with him. Cheng Ying pretends to sell Zhao's orphan for a fortune, and leads tu'an Gu to find Gongsun Chujiu and the baby in the hidden mountain. They are killed.

  程婴带着赵武远走他乡,忍辱负重苦等15年,终于等来了晋景公下发的赵氏平反令。赵武杀掉屠岸贾,为赵家报了仇,而程婴也自杀以报老友。

Cheng Ying took Zhao Wuyuan to other places, endured humiliation and hardships for 15 years, and finally came to the order of Zhao's pacification issued by Jin Jinggong. Zhao Wu killed tu'an Jia and avenged the Zhao family, while Cheng Ying killed himself to repay his old friends.

  不过,在《春秋》、《国语》中也有对赵氏一门被灭门的零星记载,但均未涉及到“追杀孤儿”这一情节。

However, in the spring and Autumn period and Guoyu, there are also sporadic records of Zhao's door being destroyed, but none of them involves the plot of "chasing and killing orphans".

  对于司马迁所著“赵氏孤儿”故事的来源,有史学家分析,司马迁在写作《史记》时不仅查阅史料还走访各地,故事中的许多细节可能是由民间的各种传说组合而成。

For the source of the story of Zhao's orphan written by Sima Qian, there are historians' analysis. When Sima Qian wrote the historical records, he not only consulted the historical materials but also visited various places. Many details in the story may be composed of various folk legends.

  自司马迁将“赵氏孤儿”的故事成型后,在民间流传最广的是元代纪君祥的杂剧《冤报冤赵氏孤儿》(又名《赵氏孤儿大报仇》)。

Since Sima Qian shaped the story of "orphan Zhao", the most popular folk drama in the Yuan Dynasty is Ji Junxiang's Zaju "avenging the orphan Zhao" (also known as "avenging the orphan Zhao").

  在司马迁的基础上,纪君祥强化了几个戏剧冲突——首先,程婴的身份被确定为民间医生,并用自己的儿子替换赵武,增强了感染力;第二,程婴带着赵武故意投奔屠岸贾,这大概是“最危险的地方也是最安全的地方”最早的一个版本;第三,赵武长大后,程婴以连环画的形式把事件来龙去脉告知赵武,让赵武杀掉“大奸臣”屠岸贾,报了血海深仇。

On the basis of Sima Qian, Ji Junxiang intensified several dramatic conflicts: first, Cheng Ying's identity was determined as a folk doctor, and Zhao Wu was replaced by his own son, which enhanced his appeal; second, Cheng Ying and Zhao Wu deliberately went to tu'anjia, which was probably the earliest version of "the most dangerous place and the safest place"; third, when Zhao Wu grew up, Cheng Ying tells Zhao Wu the story of the incident in the form of a comic book, asking Zhao Wu to kill tu'anjia, the "treacherous official", and revenges deeply.

  司马迁笔下的历史偏差

Historical deviation in Sima Qian's works

  《史记·赵世家》所谓“赵氏孤儿”之说,虚构的成分很多。

There are many fictional elements in the so-called "orphan of Zhao" in the historical records of Zhao family.

  其一,所谓“赵氏遗腹”的史实不足为信。《史记》对赵朔着笔不多,但赵盾死后,赵朔承袭了他的职位。晋景公三年,赵朔以下帅的身份与楚国作战,其政治地位仍高于赵同、、赵婴兄弟。此后,史料对赵氏家族的记载中便没有了他的消息,可能是英年早逝吧。而后,这才有赵婴与庄姬通奸的说法。照此时间间隔推理,景公十七年庄姬不可能怀有赵朔的遗腹。而另据《左传》记载,“六月,晋讨赵同、赵括,武从姬氏畜于公宫”。《国语·晋语九》亦称赵武“从姬氏于公宫”。可见,“下宫之难”时赵武年幼,跟随母亲依舅父(晋景公)而居。如此说来,“搜孤救孤”以及公孙杵臼、程婴的相关记载也就不足为信了。

First, the historical facts of the so-called "remains of Zhao" are not believed. Historical records does not write much about Zhao Shuo, but after Zhao Dun's death, Zhao Shuo inherited his position. In the third year of Jinggong reign of Jin Dynasty, Zhao Shuo was still superior to Zhao Tong, Zhao Ying and Zhao Ying in political status to fight Chu. Since then, there is no news about Zhao family in the historical records. Maybe he died young. Later, it was said that Zhao Ying was adulterous with Zhuang Ji. According to this time interval reasoning, it is impossible for Zhuang Ji, the 17th year of Jinggong, to have Zhao Shuo's remains. According to Zuo Zhuan, "in June, Jin asked Zhao Tong and Zhao Kuo, and Wu followed Ji's livestock in the palace.". "The language of Jin nine" also known as Zhao Wu "from the Ji family in the palace.". It can be seen that when Zhao Wu was young, he lived with his mother according to his uncle (Jin Jinggong). In this way, the relevant records of "search for orphans to save orphans" and Gongsun Chujiu and Cheng Ying are not enough to be believed.

  其二,《史记》关于赵氏被灭族的“下宫之难”发生的时间(晋景公三年,即前597年)互相。同出于司马迁之手的《晋世家》、《史记·十二诸侯年表》均明确记载,该事件发生在晋景公十七年(前583年)。《左传》的相关记载也与此相同。晋景公三年之后的许多历史事件,赵氏多有参与。如晋景公六年,“晋侯使赵同献狄俘于周。”鲁成公五年(前586年),赵婴与庄姬通奸,被赵括、赵同兄弟放逐;晋景公十二年(前588年),晋始置六卿,赵括、赵旃皆为卿。由此推断,“下宫之难”不可能发生于晋景公三年。

Second, the historical records of the time when the "difficulty of going to the palace" happened (Jin Jinggong's three years, i.e. 597 years ago) about Zhao's family being destroyed mutually. The Jin family and the chronology of the twelve princes in historical records, both of which originated from Sima Qian, clearly recorded that the incident happened in the seventeen years of Jinggong (583 BC). The relevant records of Zuozhuan are the same. Zhao took part in many historical events three years later. For example, in the sixth year of Jinggong of Jin Dynasty, "the Marquis of Jin made Zhao Tongxian and captured Di in Zhou Dynasty." In the fifth year of Duke Cheng of Lu (586 BC), Zhao Ying committed adultery with Zhuang Ji and was exiled by Zhao Kuo and Zhao Tong's brothers; in the twelfth year of Duke Jing of Jin (588 BC), Jin started to set up six Qing, Zhao Kuo and Zhao Zhan were both Qing. It can be concluded that "the difficulty of going to the palace" cannot have happened in the third year of Jinggong.

  赵氏被灭族的原因究竟是什么

What are the reasons for Zhao's extermination

  《左传》记载赵氏被灭族,起因于庄姬与赵婴通奸,庄姬谮于晋侯,故赵氏被灭。司马迁生活于之时,由于高后的缘故,本着“为尊者讳,为贤者讳,为亲者讳”的原则,《史记》中,所有关于奸情的事件,一律不记。只好重新编写赵世家这段故事,而“成一家之言”。对比《汉书》,即可了然。

Zuozhuan records that Zhao's family was destroyed because Zhuang Ji and Zhao Ying had adultery and Zhuang Ji was killed by the Marquis of Jin Dynasty. When Sima Qian lived, due to the reason of Gao Hou, in line with the principle of "taboo for the distinguished, for the virtuous, and for the relatives", all incidents of adultery in historical records are not recorded. We had to rewrite the story of the Zhao family, and "become a family of words". Compared with Hanshu, it is clear.

  春秋时期是中国历史上社会大变革、大动乱的时代,当时的政治舞台上主要有三大势力,即以周天子为首的周王室,各国诸侯为首的公室和各国内部的卿大夫。在晋国,卿大夫同晋公室之间的矛盾斗争尤为明显。赵氏被灭族的根本原因是权力斗争,赵氏家族长期控制朝政,自然会引起反弹,其被灭族,是晋国君主意,欲结束大权旁落局面所做的一次努力,根本目的在于改变当时晋国的政治格局。

The spring and Autumn period is an era of great social change and upheaval in Chinese history. At that time, there were three main forces on the political stage, namely, the Zhou royal family headed by the emperor of Zhou, the public offices headed by the princes of various countries and the ministers and officials in various countries. In the state of Jin, the conflict between the officials and the office of the Duke of Jin was especially obvious. The root cause of Zhao's being destroyed is the power struggle. Zhao's family controlled the government for a long time, which will naturally cause a rebound. It was the idea of the king of Jin that Zhao's family was destroyed. The basic purpose was to change the political pattern of Jin at that time.

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