揭秘:古代的尚方宝剑和免死金牌哪个更厉害?-看世界

揭秘:古代的尚方宝剑和免死金牌哪个更厉害?

  尚方宝剑:一般都是指古代皇帝收藏在“尚方”的剑,在汉朝的时候这种剑被称为“尚方斩马剑”。也就是说皇帝将这把剑赐予钦差大臣后,让其暂时享有先斩后奏等等皇权才有的权力,在一定期间会被收回。这种剑在民间却被叫做“尚方宝剑”。

  古代的尚方宝剑和免死金牌都是的御赐,象征着至高无上的皇权。这两样往往都是电视和小说里的亮点,然而如果这两样相遇了,那个更厉害?接下来小编就带来历史真相,一起看看吧!

Ancient Shangfang sword and death free gold medal are imperial gifts, symbolizing the supreme imperial power. These two are often the highlights of TV and novels. However, if they meet, what's more powerful? Next, Xiaobian will bring the historical truth. Let's have a look!

  尚方宝剑:一般都是指古代皇帝收藏在“尚方”的剑,在汉朝的时候这种剑被称为“尚方斩马剑”。也就是说皇帝将这把剑赐予钦差大臣后,让其暂时享有先斩后奏等等皇权才有的权力,在一定期间会被收回。这种剑在民间却被叫做“尚方宝剑”。

Shangfang sword: it generally refers to the sword collected by the ancient emperor in Shangfang. In Han Dynasty, this kind of sword was called "Shangfang horse cutting sword". That is to say, after the Emperor gave the sword to the imperial minister, he would temporarily enjoy the power that only the imperial power, such as beheading before performing, would be recovered in a certain period of time. This kind of sword is called "Shangfang sword" among the people.

  一般来说,尚方宝剑是随着事情发生而颁发的,等事情结束后还必须要交回朝廷的,是不能由某个官员长期持有的。现实中,对于手持尚方宝剑的官员来说,更多代表的还是一种荣耀,绝大多数人是不会拿着尚方宝剑去杀人的,即便要杀,也只能是杀一些低级别且是犯了死罪的官员。比如年间的大将楊嗣昌,在递交皇帝请用尚方宝剑的奏章中就说:“巡抚不用命,立解其兵柄,简一监司代之;总兵不用命,立夺其帅印,简一副将代之;监司、副将以下,悉以尚方剑从事。”他即便拥有尚方宝剑,也不敢随意斩杀巡抚和总兵这样的地方大员,必须要向皇帝请示,以皇帝为准。因为对大臣们来说,这毕竟是在代行天子职权,万一没搞好,杀了皇帝不想杀的人,那可就麻烦了。比如,动用尚方宝剑杀掉了正一品,且也持有尚方宝剑的,崇祯听到后十分骇然,可见他根本不想杀毛文龙。虽说毛文龙“十二当斩首”,可也不能由袁崇焕擅自做主就给诛杀了,结果使得疑心重重的心生疑窦,为自己惹来了杀身大祸。袁崇焕在上疏时说:“毛文龙是大将,不是臣可以擅自诛杀的,臣谨坐在草席上请罪。”明知不可为,又何必为之?由此可见,尚方宝剑的使用是有约束的。

Generally speaking, the Shangfang sword is issued along with the incident. It must be returned to the court after the incident is over. It cannot be held by an official for a long time. In reality, for the officials holding the Shangfang sword, it is more a kind of honor. Most people will not kill with the Shangfang sword. Even if they want to kill, they can only kill some low-level officials who have committed capital crimes. For example, Yang Sichang, the general of the year, said in the memorial submitted to the emperor for the use of Shang Fang's sword: "the governor does not need to be appointed, but sets up the handle of his troops, and the chief commander takes the place of him; the chief commander does not need to be appointed, and the chief commander takes the post of his commander, and the deputy commander takes the place of him; the chief commander and the deputy commander take the place of him, and the chief commander and the deputy commander take the place of him with Shang Fang's sword." Even if he had the sword of Shangfang, he would not dare to kill the governor and the general at will. He had to ask the emperor for instructions, subject to the emperor. For the ministers, this is, after all, acting on behalf of the emperor's authority. If it is not done well, it will be troublesome to kill the people the emperor does not want to kill. For example, Chongzhen was horrified to hear that he used the Shangfang sword to kill the genuine one and also held the Shangfang sword. It can be seen that he didn't want to kill Mao Wenlong at all. Although Mao Wenlong "should be beheaded at twelve times", yuan Chonghuan can't take the lead to kill him without permission. As a result, the suspicious heart became suspicious and caused a fatal disaster for himself. "Mao Wenlong is a general, not a minister who can kill without permission. I'd like to sit on the straw mat and ask for a pardon," yuan Chonghuan said at Shangshu It can be seen that the use of Shangfang's sword is restricted.

  免死金牌:是古代帝王颁发给功臣的一种特权凭证。汉朝时期被称为“”,不过汉朝的铁券并没有免死一说,只是作为加官进爵封侯的一种凭证。具有免死功能的铁券是出现在时期,免死次数也有限制,一般是受赐者免死3次以下。随着朝代的发展,免死次数逐渐增加,甚至到了子孙免死1到3次。

Death free gold medal: it is a kind of privilege certificate issued by ancient emperors to meritorious officials. In Han Dynasty, it was called "" but the iron coupons in Han Dynasty did not avoid death, just as a kind of proof to add officials to the rank of marquis. The iron coupons with the function of avoiding death appear in the period, and the number of times of avoiding death is also limited, generally less than 3 times for the recipients. With the development of the dynasty, the number of times to avoid death gradually increased, even to the descendants of one to three times.

  再来看免死金牌,这不是有功就能得到的。持有免死金牌的不是皇亲国戚就是开国功勋,亦或是天子近臣等,试问又有几个手持尚方宝剑的大臣,敢像袁崇焕那样擅自做主诛杀这些人?一旦杀错,自己的小命可就没了。再说了,如果大臣真用尚方宝剑诛杀持有免死金牌的人,肯定会有人弹劾,说皇帝既然给人一面盾,为何又要用矛去攻之呢?如此一来,皇帝的脸面必然受损。在这种情况下,皇帝肯定会丢车保帅,将罪过推到动用尚方宝剑的大臣身上,杀之以平息舆论。所以说,持有尚方宝剑的大臣,只要稍微聪明一点的话,都会躲着免死金牌的。

Let's look at the death free gold medal. It's not something you can get if you do something. Those who hold the gold medal are either the relatives of the emperor or the founding of the country, or the close officials of the emperor. How many ministers with the sword of the Shang side dare to kill these people like yuan Chonghuan? Once they kill them wrong, their lives will be gone. Besides, if the minister really killed the gold medal holder with the sword of the Shang side, someone would impeach him and say that since the Emperor gave a shield to others, why should he attack them with spear? In this way, the face of the emperor would be damaged. In this case, the emperor will surely lose his car to protect the commander, and push the guilt on the minister who uses the sword of the Shang side, killing it to calm the public opinion. Therefore, the minister who holds the sword of Shangfang, as long as he is a little clever, will hide from the gold medal.

  这么说的话,那持有免死金牌的人岂不是可以高枕无忧了?为所欲为了?一般来说是的,但凡事有个度,事情真要闹大,捅到皇帝那可就不好说了。要知道古代的皇帝就是天,连法律、祖制都可以改,更何况一个小小的免死金牌。建立大明时曾大封功臣,公爵六人,侯爵二十八人,并赐丹书铁券。结果后来,他担心自己死后幼主制服不了位高权重的功臣们,于是找各种借口,将他们都杀了个差不多。获赐免死金牌的、等人被送上了断头台,显赫的冯胜也被赐毒酒毒死。还有,在签订《》之前也向朝廷讨要了所谓的尚方宝剑,并得到了赔偿、割地的授权。可条约签订后,他的和北洋大臣两项实权被剥夺,还被拔掉了三眼花翎,收回了黄马掛,成了朝廷的,所谓的尚方宝剑也没起啥护身作用。

If so, can the gold medal holder rest easy? Do whatever he wants? Generally speaking, yes, but if there is a certain degree in everything, it will make a big deal. It's hard to say if he stabs the emperor. We need to know that the ancient emperor was heaven, and even the laws and ancestral systems could be changed, let alone a small gold medal to avoid death. During the founding of the Ming Dynasty, there were six princes, twenty-eight Marquises and six princes, who were granted iron certificates. As a result, he worried that he would not be able to subdue the high-ranking officials after his death, so he found various excuses and killed them all. Those who won the gold medal of death exemption were sent to the guillotine, and Feng Sheng, a famous man, was also given the poison wine. Moreover, before the signing of the book, he asked the court for the so-called Shangfang sword, and was authorized to compensate and cut the land. But after the signing of the treaty, he and the Minister of Beiyang were deprived of their two real rights. They also pulled out their three eyes of flower feathers, took back the yellow horse hang, and became the court's sword. The so-called Shangfang sword did not play a protective role.

  所以说这两样东西无非就是皇帝手中的工具,用来拉拢人心,维护皇权的,就是再有特权也是要听皇帝的,用的好安安稳稳,用的不好或许要丢掉自己的姓名。

So these two things are nothing more than tools in the hands of the emperor. They are used to draw people's hearts and safeguard the imperial power. Even if you have any privileges, you should listen to the emperor. If you use them well, they are safe and stable. If you use them badly, you may lose your name.

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