明朝建立之后的疆域比元朝还小 朱元璋为什么主动放弃大部分故土-看世界

明朝建立之后的疆域比元朝还小 朱元璋为什么主动放弃大部分故土

  元朝,是中国历史上疆域最为辽阔的一个时代,除了元朝的几大汗国之外,归元世祖忽必烈直接管辖的领土就达到了1372万平方千米,可以说是盛极一时。然而仅仅过了96年的时间,昔日的元帝国就分崩离析,此时从南方起义的朱元璋看到了这个契机,于是在公元1368年,朱元璋派遣徐达攻克了元大都,从形式上宣告了元朝作为一个全国性政权的灭亡。但是如果我们有仔细看过元朝疆域的话,就会发现明朝的疆域要比元朝小了很多,那么有人就会说了,为什么朱元璋主动放弃了元朝的大部分故土呢?

  很多人都不了解放弃领土的事情,接下来跟着小编一起欣赏。

Many people don't know how to give up territory. Next, I will enjoy it with Xiaobian.

  元朝,是中国历史上疆域最为辽阔的一个时代,除了元朝的几大汗国之外,归直接管辖的领土就达到了1372万平方千米,可以说是。然而仅仅过了96年的时间,昔日的元帝国就分崩离析,此时从南方起义的看到了这个契机,于是在公元1368年,朱元璋派遣攻克了元大都,从形式上宣告了元朝作为一个全国性政权的灭亡。但是如果我们有仔细看过元朝疆域的话,就会发现明朝的疆域要比元朝小了很多,那么有人就会说了,为什么朱元璋主动放弃了元朝的大部分故土呢?

Yuan Dynasty is the most extensive era in Chinese history. In addition to the major khanates of Yuan Dynasty, the territory under direct jurisdiction has reached 13.72 million square kilometers, which can be said to be. However, only 96 years later, the former Yuan Empire disintegrated. At this time, we saw this opportunity from the southern uprising. In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang sent to conquer the Yuan Dadu, formally declaring the death of the Yuan Dynasty as a national power. But if we have a close look at the territory of the Yuan Dynasty, we will find that the territory of the Ming Dynasty is much smaller than that of the Yuan Dynasty. Then someone will say, why did Zhu Yuanzhang voluntarily give up most of the Yuan Dynasty's homeland?

  其实,并不是朱元璋不想收复这些领土,对于他来说,这项工作实在是心有余而力不足。

In fact, it's not that Zhu Yuanzhang didn't want to recover these territories. For him, this work is more than enough.

攻下元朝的都城之后,朱元璋不敢有丝毫懈怠,先后对元朝发动了8次大规模的战役。除了第二次北伐朱元璋没有取得太大的战果之外,其余的几次战役都极大的扩张了明朝的领土,将明朝的国境线也得以扩张到辽东地区,但是以下几个客观条件,却让朱元璋的战果大打折扣。

After conquering the capital of the Yuan Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang dared not slack off, and launched eight large-scale campaigns against the Yuan Dynasty. In addition to the second Northern Expedition, Zhu Yuanzhang did not achieve great results, the other battles greatly expanded the territory of the Ming Dynasty, and expanded the boundary line of the Ming Dynasty to Liaodong area, but the following objective conditions greatly reduced Zhu Yuanzhang's results.

  首先,蒙古骑兵的机动性太强,只要拥有马匹,蒙古军队就有十分强大的机动性,就算朱元璋再怎么神机妙算,每次蒙古骑兵却总能凭借机动优势跑得无影无踪。除此之外,蒙古军队所占据的地方一年四季气候变化十分剧烈,风沙也很大,这对于习惯了中原气候的明军来说是一种难以忍受的折磨。

First of all, the mobility of Mongolian cavalry is too strong. As long as they have horses, the Mongolian army has a very strong mobility. Even if Zhu Yuanzhang is clever, every time the Mongolian cavalry can always run without trace by virtue of the mobility advantage. In addition, the area occupied by the Mongolian army has a very violent climate change all the year round, and the sandstorm is also very large, which is an unbearable torture for the Ming army accustomed to the climate in the Central Plains.

  其次,自从元顺帝北逃之后,元军之中也出现了一位优秀的将领,他就是扩廓帖木儿,俗称,他和元顺帝的儿子元昭宗相依为命,发誓要复兴元朝,并且挫败了明军的第二次北伐,为取得了一些喘息之机。而到了明朝后期,朱元璋又以莫须有的罪名杀掉了很多武将,因此明初的一些一流武将都是被朱元璋亲手送上了黄泉之路,因此明朝就更没有时间抽空来对付蒙古军队了。

Secondly, since Emperor Shun of Yuan Dynasty fled to the north, there has been an outstanding general in the army of Yuan Dynasty. He is the extended Timur. As the saying goes, he and Yuan Zhaozong, the son of Emperor Shun of Yuan Dynasty, swore to revive the Yuan Dynasty, and defeated the second Northern Expedition of the Ming army, in order to get some breathing opportunities. In the late Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang killed a lot of generals on the pretext, so some of the first-class generals in the early Ming Dynasty were sent to the yellow spring road by Zhu Yuanzhang himself, so the Ming Dynasty had no time to deal with the Mongolian army.

  朱元璋去世之后,明朝爆发了长达4年的“靖难之役”,朱棣最终取得胜利,并且随后将首都迁到了北京。此时朱棣早已将蒙古当作一个独立的势力来对待,完全没有了朱元璋的雄心壮志,因此在和蒙古军队的作战之中,朱元璋也倾向于保守作战,只有能守住祖宗留下来的国土就好,而此后的就更不用说了,想收复蒙古所占领的国土完全是心有余而力不足。

After Zhu Yuanzhang's death, the Ming Dynasty broke out a four-year "battle of Jingnan". Zhu Di finally won the battle, and then moved the capital to Beijing. At this time, Zhu Di had already treated Mongolia as an independent force without Zhu Yuanzhang's ambition. Therefore, in the war with the Mongolian army, Zhu Yuanzhang also tended to fight conservatively. Only the land left by his ancestors could be preserved. Since then, let alone the land occupied by Mongolia, he had more than enough heart and less power.

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