魏延的子午谷计谋到底可不可行 1400年后有人替他解开了真相-看世界

魏延的子午谷计谋到底可不可行 1400年后有人替他解开了真相

  历史上对于子午谷奇谋这件事一直争执不休,三国时期的蜀汉丞相诸葛亮第一次北伐曹魏的时候,魏延就向诸葛亮献计,率领5000精兵(也有说一万,史书中有两个版本),走子午道快速感到长安,以出其不意攻占长安。

  对子午谷奇谋很感兴趣的小伙伴们,小编带来详细的文章供大家参考。

Friends who are very interested in the plot of Ziwu Valley, I will bring you detailed articles for your reference.

  历史上对于子午谷奇谋这件事一直争执不休,时期的蜀汉丞相第一次北伐曹魏的时候,就向诸葛亮献计,率领5000精兵(也有说一万,史书中有两个版本),走子午道快速感到长安,以出其不意攻占长安。

In history, there has been a dispute over the plot of the Ziwu valley. When the Prime Minister of the Shu Dynasty first attacked the Cao Wei Dynasty, he made a plan to Zhuge Liang, led 5000 elite soldiers (also say 10000, there are two versions in the history books), walked on the Ziwu road and quickly felt Chang'an, so as to take Chang'an by surprise.

  史书上记载魏延不止一次向诸葛亮提出这条计策,然而都被诸葛亮否决了。

According to historical records, Wei Yan put forward this strategy to Zhugeliang more than once, but it was rejected by Zhugeliang.

  《·魏延传》中记载:

It is recorded in the biography of Wei Yan:

  “延每随亮出,辄欲请兵万人,与亮异道会于潼关,如故事,亮制而不许。延常谓亮为怯,叹恨己才用之不尽。”

"Every time Yan comes out with the light, he would like to invite thousands of soldiers. He would be different from liang in Tongguan, such as a story. Liang system is not allowed. It's often said that it's cowardice. It's useless to sigh and hate yourself. "

  今天,笔者就个大家谈论一下,魏延所提出的子午谷计谋到底是否可行。

Today, I want to talk about whether the Ziwu Valley plan proposed by Wei Yan is feasible.

  子午谷道是跨越秦岭的六条道路之一,是路程最短却又最难走的一条道路,素有“秦岭六道,子午为王”之说,其特殊的地理意义,历史上很多战事都与子午谷相关。

Ziwu Valley Road is one of the six roads across the Qinling Mountains. It is the shortest but the most difficult road. It is known as "six roads of Qinling Mountains, Ziwu is the king". It has a special geographical significance. Many wars in history are related to Ziwu valley.

  由于距离三国时期已经过去很多年了,并且魏延的子午谷奇谋并没有使用,我们无法直接判断这条计策是否可行,只能通过列举方式,进行推算。

Since it has been many years since the Three Kingdoms period, and the Ziwu Valley plot of Weiyan has not been used, we can not directly judge whether this strategy is feasible, but can only be calculated by enumeration.

  后三国时期,曹魏伐蜀,大将钟会就派兵走了子午谷,只不过此时的国力强盛,并且走子午谷只是为了赶路,并非奇兵,蜀国也无力在子午谷设伏,最终成功灭亡蜀汉,这个事迹与魏延当时的背景不同,对比性不高。

In the later Three Kingdoms period, when Cao Wei attacked Shu, Zhong Hui, the general, sent his troops to Ziwu valley. However, at this time, the national strength was strong, and the Ziwu valley was just to catch up with the road, not to be a surprise soldier. Shu Kingdom was also unable to lay down an ambush in Ziwu Valley, and finally succeeded in destroying Shu Han. This story was different from the background of Wei Yan at that time, and the contrast was not high.

  三国之后的东晋时期,大将桓温北伐前秦,就曾效仿魏延的计策,率领精兵偷渡子午谷,结果却被埋伏在半路中的伏击,还没出谷就被全歼。

In the Eastern Jin Dynasty after the Three Kingdoms period, general Huan Wen followed the plan of Wei Yan when he attacked the pre Qin Dynasty in the north. He led the elite soldiers to cross the Ziwu Valley, but they were ambushed in the middle of the road and completely wiped out before leaving the valley.

  历史上最著名的走子午谷的军事行动上,就要数明末时期的闯王高迎祥了。

In the most famous military action in history, Gao Yingxiang, the king of Chuang in the late Ming Dynasty, was to be counted.

  九年,高迎祥在不了解子午谷的时候,就率领五万大军偷渡子午谷,准备超近道奇袭西安占领陕西等地。

In the ninth year, Gao Yingxiang, when he didn't know about the Ziwu Valley, led 50000 troops to sneak across the Ziwu Valley and prepare to attack Xi'an to occupy Shaanxi and other places.

  然而刚进子午谷,就遇到,子午道地势险恶,再加上天气原因,原本七天就能走完的道路走了十几天也没能到头,人困马乏,等到了子午谷黑水峪的时候,又遭遇埋伏在此地的两万明军。

However, as soon as I entered the Ziwu Valley, I met that the terrain of the Ziwu road was dangerous. With the weather, the road that could have been completed in seven days didn't reach the end in more than ten days. There was a shortage of people and horses. When the heishuiyu valley of the Ziwu Valley was reached, I met another 20000 Ming army ambushed here.

  虽然在人数上高迎祥占领绝对优势,但是由于子午谷地势险峻,而明军又事先做好埋伏,处在有利地形,再加上长期的奔走,高迎祥的五万大军战斗力锐减,被明军轻松拿下,高迎祥以及所率领的五万士兵,在这次战役中全部丧命。

Although Gao Yingxiang has an absolute advantage in terms of number of soldiers, due to the precipitous terrain of the Ziwu Valley, and the Ming army's ambush in advance, in a favorable terrain, coupled with the long-term running, Gao Yingxiang's 50000 army's combat strength has been sharply reduced, and it was easily taken by the Ming army. Gao Yingxiang and the 50000 soldiers he led all lost their lives in this campaign.

  这是五万生命买来的教训,纵观历史上的“子午谷奇谋”,几乎没有一例成功的。

This is the lesson that 50000 lives bought. Throughout the history of "Ziwu Valley plot", there is almost no success.

  我们再返回来分析一下魏延的此次计谋。

Let's go back and analyze Wei Yan's plan.

  《魏略》的记载:

Wei Lue records:

  为安西将军,镇长安。亮于南郑与群下计议,延曰:闻夏侯茂少,主婿也,怯而无谋。今假延精兵五千,负粮五千,直从褒中出,循秦岭而东,当子午而北,不过十日可到长安。茂闻延奄至。比东方腥聚合。’亮以为此县危,不如安从坦道,可以平取陇右,十全必克而无虞,故不用延计。”

For general Anxi, mayor an. Liang discussed with the group in Nanzheng, and Yanyue said: "I heard that there were few Marquises in Xia Dynasty, and my son-in-law was also timid and resourceless.". In this holiday, there will be five thousand refined soldiers and five thousand grains. They will go straight out of the commendation and follow the Qinling Mountains to the East. They will go north at noon, but they can reach Chang'an in ten days. Maowen Yan to. It's better than the East. " Liang to this county crisis, rather than an from the road, you can take Longyou, ten must be overcome without Yu, so do not extend the plan. "

  按照魏延的话来讲,夏侯楙胆小无谋,若自己率领5000精兵,走子午谷,夏侯楙看到后就会被吓得弃城而逃,到时候再与丞相回合。

According to Wei Yan's words, Xia hougui is timid and has no plan. If he leads 5000 elite soldiers to walk in the Ziwu Valley, Xia hougui will be scared to abandon the city and run away. Then he will fight with the prime minister.

  对于魏延的这个计策,仔细想来其中有三点漏洞。

There are three loopholes in Wei Yan's plan.

  第一:不考虑天气原因,子午谷地势险恶,堪称一夫当关万夫莫开的地势,魏军随便在路途上驻守一波军队,魏延都无法通过,甚至折损在此地。

First: regardless of the weather, the terrain of the Ziwu Valley is dangerous, which can be called the terrain of one man at a time. The Wei army stationed a wave of troops on the road at will, and Wei Yan could not pass, even lost here.

  第二:夏侯楙即便再胆小无谋,看到5000精兵也不大可能会弃城逃跑吧?走子午谷此等险地,自然需要轻装出发,5000轻装战士,在没有重型攻城设备的情况下,可能攻得下一座城池吗?若攻不下,魏延就会陷入进退两难的地步。

Second: even if Xia hougui is timid and resourceless, he is unlikely to abandon the city and escape when he sees 5000 elite soldiers. In such a dangerous place as Ziwu Valley, he naturally needs to start with light equipment. If 5000 light soldiers do not have heavy equipment to attack the city, can they attack the next City? If they fail to attack, Wei Yan will fall into a dilemma.

  第三:当时诸葛亮手下也只有7万人马,手下大将更是不多,正是用人之际,若分给魏延5000精兵,正面战场上自己还要不要打了?

Third: at that time, Zhuge Liang had only 70000 men, and his generals were even fewer. At the time of employing people, if he was given 5000 elite soldiers to Weiyan, would he not fight in the front battlefield?

  并且,或许诸葛亮还考虑到一点,就是魏延的忠心。

In addition, maybe Zhuge Liang also considered the loyalty of Wei Yan.

  诸葛亮对于魏延的忠心程度一直保持怀疑,认为他有反骨,不然也不会在自己死后留下计策防止魏延谋反。若魏延名义上是献计伐魏,实际上是投降,那又该如何是好?

Zhuge Liang always doubted Wei Yan's loyalty and thought that he was rebellious. Otherwise, he would not leave behind a plan to prevent Wei Yan from conspiring against him. If Wei Yan is nominally planning to attack Wei, but actually surrendering, what should he do?

  不管是处于哪一点,孔明都会拒绝魏延的计策。

No matter where he was, Kong Ming would reject Wei Yan's plan.

  至于魏延的这个子午谷计谋到底可不可行,1400年后的高闯王已经以5万人的性命解开谜题了:这条道路真的是不好走。

As for whether the Ziwu Valley plan of Weiyan is feasible or not, Gao Chuang Wang has solved the mystery with 50000 lives after 1400 years: this road is really hard to walk.

  由此可见,孔明到底有多聪明。

This shows how clever Kong Ming is.

  以上均来自推理,历史无法以结果作为倒向,后世之事难以比对当日之事,还请大家积极讨论

All of the above come from reasoning. History can't take the result as the reverse direction. It's difficult for future generations to compare with that of the day. Please also actively discuss

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