古代中国人口都无法突破6000万 为什么到了清朝就突破到一亿了-看世界

古代中国人口都无法突破6000万 为什么到了清朝就突破到一亿了

  从史料记载统计上看,明朝以前,人口规模有一个瓶颈,即使是西汉文景之治时期,或者唐朝开元盛世,中国人口依旧在六千万左右,一直无法突破这个数值。明朝以后,国家统一,社会安定,人口数量激增,峰值时达到一亿多。然而与清朝相比,明朝的人口规模仍然十分有限。

  今天小编给大家带来人口,感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

Today, Xiaobian brings us a population. Readers who are interested in it can have a look with Xiaobian.

  从史料记载统计上看,明朝以前,人口规模有一个瓶颈,即使是西汉文景之治时期,或者,中国人口依旧在六千万左右,一直无法突破这个数值。明朝以后,国家统一,社会安定,人口数量激增,峰值时达到一亿多。然而与清朝相比,明朝的人口规模仍然十分有限。

According to historical records and statistics, before the Ming Dynasty, there was a bottleneck in the size of population. Even in the period of the rule of culture and scenery in the Western Han Dynasty, or even in China, the population was still around 60 million, which could not be broken through. After the Ming Dynasty, the country was unified, the society was stable, and the population increased sharply, reaching a peak of more than 100 million. However, compared with the Qing Dynasty, the population scale of the Ming Dynasty is still very limited.

  据《实录》载,明朝在天三年(公元1623年)时有五千多万人,到了执政,随着连年战乱及天灾人祸,人口数量锐减。明末时有许多百姓为躲避沉重的赋税、流落山林,并没有被记录在户籍,所以明末人口可能不止五千万。然而,当时人口锐减是必然,著名学者易中天就认为明末人口在六千万左右,大部分学者普遍认为,明末实际人口不会超过一亿。可是,清朝建立后,人口规模迅速增长,至十四年(公元1834年)时突破四亿,这时距离明末还不到两百年。什么原因令清朝人口增长如此迅速?

According to the records, there were more than 50 million people in Ming Dynasty in the third year of Tiansan (A.D. 1623), who came to power. With years of wars, natural disasters and man-made disasters, the population declined sharply. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, there were many people living in the mountains and forests to avoid heavy taxes, which were not recorded in the household registration, so the population of the end of the Ming Dynasty may be more than 50 million. However, it was inevitable that the population would decrease sharply at that time. Yi Zhongtian, a famous scholar, believed that the population was about 60 million at the end of Ming Dynasty. Most scholars generally believed that the actual population at the end of Ming Dynasty would not exceed 100 million. However, after the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, the population grew rapidly. By the fourteenth year (1834 A.D.), it had exceeded 400 million, which was less than 200 years before the end of the Ming Dynasty. What made the population of Qing Dynasty grow so fast?

  首先,高产量农作物引进,为清朝人口迅速增长的基础。大航海时代发展,世界联系变得更加紧密,美洲高产量农作物玉米通过南洋进入中国土地。同时期还有土豆、红薯等作物来到中国,并被广泛种植。因为这些作物易种,即使在贫瘠土地依旧有收成,种在肥沃的土地上收成更为普通作物几倍,为人口增长提供粮食保障。

First of all, the introduction of high-yield crops was the basis for the rapid growth of population in the Qing Dynasty. With the development of the era of great navigation, the world has become more closely connected. The high-yield corn crops in America enter China through the South Ocean. At the same time, potatoes, sweet potatoes and other crops came to China and were widely planted. Because these crops are easy to grow, even in poor land, there is still a harvest. In fertile land, the harvest is several times more than that of ordinary crops, providing food security for population growth.

  清朝人口规模扩大还要得益社会渐趋稳定。明朝末年,天下大乱,到了清朝入关,许多人死于战乱及屠杀,人口规模进一步缩小。然而,当清朝渡过初期后,基本就再没发生大规模战事。

The expansion of the population in the Qing Dynasty also benefited from the gradual stability of the society. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, there was a great disorder in the world. When the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, many people died in wars and massacres, and the population scale was further reduced. However, after the early Qing Dynasty, there was no large-scale war.

  针对少数民族关系,清朝实施「」,缓和中央与西南土司的矛盾,也进一步扩大人口活动面积。西北等边远地区,清朝先大规模移民,在土地面积日益紧张,清朝不断开垦荒地。台湾问题解决后,清朝重新利用沿海地区围海造田,耕地面积增多,也在扩大人口中发挥重要作用。

In view of the relationship between ethnic minorities, the Qing Dynasty implemented "to ease the contradiction between the central government and the southwest chieftain and further expand the area of population activities. In the remote areas such as the northwest, large-scale immigrants came first in the Qing Dynasty, and the land area became increasingly tense. The Qing Dynasty continued to reclaim wasteland. After the settlement of the Taiwan issue, the Qing Dynasty made use of the coastal areas to reclaim land from the sea, and the cultivated land area increased, which also played an important role in expanding the population.

  人口规模扩大,还有医学进步。在古代,传染性的疾病往往意味着灾难。汉末三国时期,瘟疫频发,《说疫气》描述:「建安二十二年,疠气流行,家家有殭尸之痛,室室有号泣之哀或阖门而殪,或覆族而丧」,《·食货志》:「永嘉年间,雍州以东,人多饥乏,更相鬻卖,奔迸流移,。又大疾疫,兼以饥馑......流尸满河,白骨蔽野。」明朝时疫病情况也严重,尤其崇祯时,《纪事本末》载:「崇祯十六年八月,上天降灾,瘟疫流行……传染至盛有一二日亡者,有朝染夕亡者,日每不下数百人,甚有全家全亡不留一人者,排门逐户,无一保全」。

Population expansion, and medical progress. In ancient times, infectious diseases often meant disaster. In the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, pestilence occurred frequently. It was described in Shuo Yi Qi: "in the 22nd year of Jian'an, pandemics prevailed, families suffered from zombies, families suffered from crying or closing their doors, or covering their families to mourn." in the annals of food and goods, "in the Yongjia period, people in the east of Yongzhou were starving, selling and rushing,. And a great disease, and famine... Flow corpses all over the river, white bones cover the field. In the Ming Dynasty, the epidemic situation was also serious, especially in Chongzhen. According to the chronicle, in August of the 16th year of Chongzhen, there was a natural disaster, and the plague was prevalent When the infection reached the peak, there were people who died in one or two days, people who died in the morning, in the evening, every day there were not hundreds of people, and even people whose whole family died without leaving one person, there was no one to protect them.

  清初时,疫情依旧严重,但随着西方传教士来到中国,带来西医,疫情逐渐得到控制。比如清朝发现可以抵御天花的人痘接种法,大规模普及,死在天花等传染病下的人数大幅下降。

At the beginning of Qing Dynasty, the epidemic was still serious, but with Western missionaries coming to China and bringing western medicine, the epidemic was gradually controlled. For example, vaccination against smallpox was found in the Qing Dynasty, which was widely spread, and the number of people who died of smallpox and other infectious diseases decreased significantly.

  在明朝末年时,小冰河时期来临,全世界都陷入严寒当中。同时期的欧洲发生粮食危机,日本不断民变,明朝则频发自然灾害,世界人口数量都在这一时期锐减。然而清朝建立后,小冰河时代结束,气候温暖,土地变得肥沃,极适宜农业耕种。清朝也改革了赋税制度,继承明朝「一条鞭法」,宣称「盛世滋丁,永不加赋」,采取「」,「地丁合一」,一体征收,废除人头税。税制改革减轻农民负担,抑制土地兼并,解放生产力。百姓变得富裕,有能力养更多孩子,最终人口大幅增长。

At the end of the Ming Dynasty, when the little ice age came, the whole world fell into cold. At the same time, the food crisis occurred in Europe, Japan's civil commotion and the Ming Dynasty's natural disasters occurred frequently. The population of the world decreased sharply in this period. However, after the Qing Dynasty was established, the ice age ended, the climate was warm, the land became fertile, and it was very suitable for agricultural cultivation. The Qing Dynasty also reformed the tax system, inheriting the "one whip law" of the Ming Dynasty, proclaiming that "in the prosperous times, we will never add taxes", adopting "and" the integration of the local people and the local people "to collect and abolish the head tax. The reform of tax system lightens the burden of peasants, restrains the annexation of land and liberates the productive forces. The people became rich and able to raise more children, and eventually the population grew significantly.

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