Today, Xiaobian brings us a population. Readers who are interested in it can have a look with Xiaobian.
从史料记载统计上看，以前， 规模有一个瓶颈，即使是西汉文景之治时期，或者，中国 依旧在六千万左右，一直无法突破这个数值。 以后，国家统一，社会安定，人口数量激增，峰值时达到一亿多。然而与清朝相比， 的人口规模仍然十分有限。
According to historical records and statistics, before the Ming Dynasty, there was a bottleneck in the size of population. Even in the period of the rule of culture and scenery in the Western Han Dynasty, or even in China, the population was still around 60 million, which could not be broken through. After the Ming Dynasty, the country was unified, the society was stable, and the population increased sharply, reaching a peak of more than 100 million. However, compared with the Qing Dynasty, the population scale of the Ming Dynasty is still very limited.
According to the records, there were more than 50 million people in Ming Dynasty in the third year of Tiansan (A.D. 1623), who came to power. With years of wars, natural disasters and man-made disasters, the population declined sharply. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, there were many people living in the mountains and forests to avoid heavy taxes, which were not recorded in the household registration, so the population of the end of the Ming Dynasty may be more than 50 million. However, it was inevitable that the population would decrease sharply at that time. Yi Zhongtian, a famous scholar, believed that the population was about 60 million at the end of Ming Dynasty. Most scholars generally believed that the actual population at the end of Ming Dynasty would not exceed 100 million. However, after the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, the population grew rapidly. By the fourteenth year (1834 A.D.), it had exceeded 400 million, which was less than 200 years before the end of the Ming Dynasty. What made the population of Qing Dynasty grow so fast?
First of all, the introduction of high-yield crops was the basis for the rapid growth of population in the Qing Dynasty. With the development of the era of great navigation, the world has become more closely connected. The high-yield corn crops in America enter China through the South Ocean. At the same time, potatoes, sweet potatoes and other crops came to China and were widely planted. Because these crops are easy to grow, even in poor land, there is still a harvest. In fertile land, the harvest is several times more than that of ordinary crops, providing food security for population growth.
The expansion of the population in the Qing Dynasty also benefited from the gradual stability of the society. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, there was a great disorder in the world. When the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, many people died in wars and massacres, and the population scale was further reduced. However, after the early Qing Dynasty, there was no large-scale war.
In view of the relationship between ethnic minorities, the Qing Dynasty implemented "to ease the contradiction between the central government and the southwest chieftain and further expand the area of population activities. In the remote areas such as the northwest, large-scale immigrants came first in the Qing Dynasty, and the land area became increasingly tense. The Qing Dynasty continued to reclaim wasteland. After the settlement of the Taiwan issue, the Qing Dynasty made use of the coastal areas to reclaim land from the sea, and the cultivated land area increased, which also played an important role in expanding the population.
Population expansion, and medical progress. In ancient times, infectious diseases often meant disaster. In the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period, pestilence occurred frequently. It was described in Shuo Yi Qi: "in the 22nd year of Jian'an, pandemics prevailed, families suffered from zombies, families suffered from crying or closing their doors, or covering their families to mourn." in the annals of food and goods, "in the Yongjia period, people in the east of Yongzhou were starving, selling and rushing,. And a great disease, and famine... Flow corpses all over the river, white bones cover the field. In the Ming Dynasty, the epidemic situation was also serious, especially in Chongzhen. According to the chronicle, in August of the 16th year of Chongzhen, there was a natural disaster, and the plague was prevalent When the infection reached the peak, there were people who died in one or two days, people who died in the morning, in the evening, every day there were not hundreds of people, and even people whose whole family died without leaving one person, there was no one to protect them.
At the beginning of Qing Dynasty, the epidemic was still serious, but with Western missionaries coming to China and bringing western medicine, the epidemic was gradually controlled. For example, vaccination against smallpox was found in the Qing Dynasty, which was widely spread, and the number of people who died of smallpox and other infectious diseases decreased significantly.
At the end of the Ming Dynasty, when the little ice age came, the whole world fell into cold. At the same time, the food crisis occurred in Europe, Japan's civil commotion and the Ming Dynasty's natural disasters occurred frequently. The population of the world decreased sharply in this period. However, after the Qing Dynasty was established, the ice age ended, the climate was warm, the land became fertile, and it was very suitable for agricultural cultivation. The Qing Dynasty also reformed the tax system, inheriting the "one whip law" of the Ming Dynasty, proclaiming that "in the prosperous times, we will never add taxes", adopting "and" the integration of the local people and the local people "to collect and abolish the head tax. The reform of tax system lightens the burden of peasants, restrains the annexation of land and liberates the productive forces. The people became rich and able to raise more children, and eventually the population grew significantly.
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