Today, Xiaobian brings you an article about infanticide in the Western Han Dynasty. Welcome to read it~
在初期，为了增加，推出了类似单身税的政策，所以百姓只能早早的就要把 们给嫁出去。到了西汉中期，因为在土地税收方面给予了很多优惠政策，导致国库里的钱已经快不够用了。加上对匈奴勤兵黩武，所以税收重点成了人头税，生的多交的税就多，在这样的情况下，西汉百姓出现了杀婴的情况，因为大家实在是要交不起钱了。而且在西汉年间，生出一个健康 的概率也并不是很高，所以百姓一般也不忍心杀孩子，但高额的赋税只能让他们对现实低头。
In the early days, in order to increase the population, a policy similar to the single tax was introduced, so the people could only marry the children early. By the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, because of many preferential policies in land tax, the money in the State Treasury was almost insufficient. In addition, the Huns were warlike, so the focus of tax became the head tax, and more taxes were paid. In this case, the Western Han people had infanticide, because they really couldn't afford to pay. Moreover, in the Western Han Dynasty, the probability of giving birth to a healthy child was not very high, so the common people generally did not have the heart to kill children, but the high taxes could only make them bow to the reality.
The political power of the Western Han Dynasty was built on the basis of the victory of the peasant uprising in the late Qin Dynasty. In order to consolidate their rule, the rulers of the Western Han Dynasty made great concessions in the tax policy, the most obvious of which was reflected in the land tax of the Western Han Dynasty, which was reduced from "two out of three" to "one out of fifteen", and then changed to "one out of thirty". In the cultural period, the land tax was exempted for more than ten years This is expected to alleviate the fierce class contradictions.
In order to make up for the loss of land tax, the pressure on people in population tax is particularly heavy. There are two kinds of population tax in the Western Han Dynasty, one is the oral tax, the other is the calculated tax; the oral tax is the tax levied on children, and the calculated tax is the tax paid by adults. Generally, the oral tax is paid from the age of seven to the age of fourteen, and then it is paid. Land tax is not necessary for landless people, but population tax is different. Even if you are in extreme poverty, you still have to pay taxes.
During the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the tax collection for seven years old was advanced to three years old, and at the same time, the number increased. So many people were faced with the pressure of paying tax when they were born. This was obviously a very heavy burden for poor farmers, so many people killed their children just after they were born to avoid heavy taxes. To have a child in the Western Han Dynasty, you should at least face the following problems:
First, high mortality
It is recorded in the biography of Waiqi in the Han Dynasty that women are exempt from milk,. Thus, we can see how high the risk of having children in ancient times is. In 1936 and 1938, the infant mortality rate of 18 provinces in the Central Plains was 15.6% and 16.8% respectively, of which Suiyuan was 43%. This is the data decades ago, let alone the Western Han Dynasty more than 2000 years ago. The backwardness of medical treatment was an insurmountable difficulty at that time!
Second, tax evasion and infanticide
Cruel feudal exploitation made people under pressure to choose to kill their children. The important basis for paying taxes in ancient times is to see how many people there are in your family, which is called the population tax. Whoever has a large population will pay more taxes. The pressure of population tax reached its peak in the reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. In order to fight Xiongnu, the powerful and militaristic emperor of Han Dynasty transferred the expenditure of these troops to the people. In front of us, when we were famous, we didn't know how many people killed their children in order to evade the 23 yuan population tax. The big victory in front and the cruel murderer in the rear. I can't imagine the pictures in these comparisons!
This kind of population tax, from the previous 20 yuan to the present 23 yuan, the age of Taxation has also been advanced from seven years to three years old. According to the biography of the Han Dynasty, when the children of the people's property are three years old, they will export money, so the people are very poor, and the children are easy to kill. It is also recorded in the book that the small people are poor and do not support many children. They are strictly controlled by the small people, and they commit the same crime as killing people. It can be seen from these records that in that period, killing children flourished.
Third, feudal superstition
In that age of ignorance and backwardness, even if you have escaped the first two robberies, sometimes it is not safe. In the book, it is recorded that the family property must first take advantage of the good and the bad, and then have it. In ancient times, babies had to face a test of life and death. "Wuwei has many bogeys. If you give birth to children in February or may and have the same birthday with your parents, you can kill them all." similar records can be found in the book of the later Han Dynasty. This is also the case in some tribes in Africa today, for example, they will kill the first child; they will kill the first child with teeth, which is considered unlucky and so on.
In a word, the backward medical treatment, the feudal superstition and the personal factors of the emperor are all the important reasons for the slow population growth. Medical treatment and superstition are the limitations of the times. They have little to do with human beings, but the artificial reasons of emperors such as taxes make people uncomfortable. After all, compared with the Wenjing period, people in the Wudi period are really difficult!
Therefore, although the Western Han Dynasty reduced the pressure on the people in terms of land tax, it increased the burden of population tax, and the people's life is still relatively miserable.
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