西汉时期的杀婴儿现象到底有严重 古人在现实面前低头了-看世界

西汉时期的杀婴儿现象到底有严重 古人在现实面前低头了

  在汉朝初期,刘邦为了增加人口,推出了类似单身税的政策,所以百姓只能早早的就要把孩子们给嫁出去。到了西汉中期,因为在土地税收方面给予了很多优惠政策,导致国库里的钱已经快不够用了。加上汉武帝对匈奴勤兵黩武,所以税收重点成了人头税,生的多交的税就多,在这样的情况下,西汉百姓出现了杀婴的情况,因为大家实在是要交不起钱了。而且在西汉年间,生出一个健康孩子的概率也并不是很高,所以百姓一般也不忍心杀孩子,但高额的赋税只能让他们对现实低头。

  今天小编为大家带来了一篇关于西汉杀婴的文章,欢迎阅读哦~

Today, Xiaobian brings you an article about infanticide in the Western Han Dynasty. Welcome to read it~

  在初期,为了增加人口,推出了类似单身税的政策,所以百姓只能早早的就要把孩子们给嫁出去。到了西汉中期,因为在土地税收方面给予了很多优惠政策,导致国库里的钱已经快不够用了。加上对匈奴勤兵黩武,所以税收重点成了人头税,生的多交的税就多,在这样的情况下,西汉百姓出现了杀婴的情况,因为大家实在是要交不起钱了。而且在西汉年间,生出一个健康孩子的概率也并不是很高,所以百姓一般也不忍心杀孩子,但高额的赋税只能让他们对现实低头。

In the early days, in order to increase the population, a policy similar to the single tax was introduced, so the people could only marry the children early. By the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, because of many preferential policies in land tax, the money in the State Treasury was almost insufficient. In addition, the Huns were warlike, so the focus of tax became the head tax, and more taxes were paid. In this case, the Western Han people had infanticide, because they really couldn't afford to pay. Moreover, in the Western Han Dynasty, the probability of giving birth to a healthy child was not very high, so the common people generally did not have the heart to kill children, but the high taxes could only make them bow to the reality.

  西汉政权是建立在秦末农民起义胜利的基础上的,西汉统治者为了巩固自己的统治,所以在赋税政策上作出了比较大的让步,其中最明显的体现在西汉对的土地税上面,由的“三分取其二”降低到十五税一,后改为三十税一,文景时期曾有十数年免田赋。”期望以此来缓解此前激烈的阶级矛盾。

The political power of the Western Han Dynasty was built on the basis of the victory of the peasant uprising in the late Qin Dynasty. In order to consolidate their rule, the rulers of the Western Han Dynasty made great concessions in the tax policy, the most obvious of which was reflected in the land tax of the Western Han Dynasty, which was reduced from "two out of three" to "one out of fifteen", and then changed to "one out of thirty". In the cultural period, the land tax was exempted for more than ten years This is expected to alleviate the fierce class contradictions.

  西汉政府减轻土地税,必定影响到政府的财政收入,而为了弥补在土地税上的损失,所以在人口税方面对百姓的压力就显得特别的沉重。西汉的人口税主要有两种,一种是口赋,一种是算赋;口赋是针对孩童征收的税收,算赋是成年人缴纳的赋税,一般口赋从七岁开始缴纳,截止十四岁,此后就是缴纳算赋。土地税对于无地者而言,可以不用缴纳赋税,但是人口税则与之不同,即便你是赤贫之身,仍然要缴纳税金。

In order to make up for the loss of land tax, the pressure on people in population tax is particularly heavy. There are two kinds of population tax in the Western Han Dynasty, one is the oral tax, the other is the calculated tax; the oral tax is the tax levied on children, and the calculated tax is the tax paid by adults. Generally, the oral tax is paid from the age of seven to the age of fourteen, and then it is paid. Land tax is not necessary for landless people, but population tax is different. Even if you are in extreme poverty, you still have to pay taxes.

  汉武帝执政的一段时期,将七岁征口赋提前至三岁,同时在数量上又有所增加,所以导致当时很多人一出生就面临要交口赋的压力,这对贫苦农民而言,显然是一个非常沉重的担子,以至于很多人在孩子刚出生就将其杀死,以逃避重税。在西汉生孩子你至少要面对以下的问题:

During the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the tax collection for seven years old was advanced to three years old, and at the same time, the number increased. So many people were faced with the pressure of paying tax when they were born. This was obviously a very heavy burden for poor farmers, so many people killed their children just after they were born to avoid heavy taxes. To have a child in the Western Han Dynasty, you should at least face the following problems:

  其一,超高的死亡率

First, high mortality

  在《汉书外戚传》中记载:妇人免乳大故,。由此,可见在古代生孩子的风险有多高。在时期就有这样的数据:在1936和1938年,中原十八省婴儿的死亡率分别是百分之十五点六和百分之十六点八,其中绥远省竟高达百分之四十三。这是几十年前的数据,更何况两千多年前的西汉。医疗的落后,在当时是无法克服的困难!

It is recorded in the biography of Waiqi in the Han Dynasty that women are exempt from milk,. Thus, we can see how high the risk of having children in ancient times is. In 1936 and 1938, the infant mortality rate of 18 provinces in the Central Plains was 15.6% and 16.8% respectively, of which Suiyuan was 43%. This is the data decades ago, let alone the Western Han Dynasty more than 2000 years ago. The backwardness of medical treatment was an insurmountable difficulty at that time!

  其二,逃税杀婴

Second, tax evasion and infanticide

  残酷的封建剥削使百姓不堪压力,选择杀死自己的孩子。在古代纳税的重要依据就是看你家有几口人,称为人口税。谁家的人口多,纳的税就多。这种人口税的压力,到了汉武帝时期达到了高峰。雄才大略、穷兵黩武的汉武帝为了打匈奴就把这些军队的支出转移到了百姓身上。、在前方威名赫赫之时,不知道在汉朝普通的百姓中间有多少人亲手杀掉了自己的孩子,为的就是逃避那二十三钱的人口税。前方的大胜与后方的残忍杀子,这些对比中画面我不敢想象!

Cruel feudal exploitation made people under pressure to choose to kill their children. The important basis for paying taxes in ancient times is to see how many people there are in your family, which is called the population tax. Whoever has a large population will pay more taxes. The pressure of population tax reached its peak in the reign of Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty. In order to fight Xiongnu, the powerful and militaristic emperor of Han Dynasty transferred the expenditure of these troops to the people. In front of us, when we were famous, we didn't know how many people killed their children in order to evade the 23 yuan population tax. The big victory in front and the cruel murderer in the rear. I can't imagine the pictures in these comparisons!

  这种人口税,从之前的二十钱到现在的二十三钱,征税年龄也从七岁提前到了三岁!《汉书传》记载:民产子三岁则出口钱,故民重困,至于生子輒杀。在《》中同样有记载:小民困贫,多不养子,彪严为其制,与杀人同罪。从这些记载中可以看出,在那个时期杀子之盛。

This kind of population tax, from the previous 20 yuan to the present 23 yuan, the age of Taxation has also been advanced from seven years to three years old. According to the biography of the Han Dynasty, when the children of the people's property are three years old, they will export money, so the people are very poor, and the children are easy to kill. It is also recorded in the book that the small people are poor and do not support many children. They are strictly controlled by the small people, and they commit the same crime as killing people. It can be seen from these records that in that period, killing children flourished.

  其三,封建迷信

Third, feudal superstition

  在那个愚昧落后的年代,即使你逃过了前两劫,有时也并不安全。在《》中记载:家产子,必先占吉凶,后乃有之。生孩子看吉凶,这在古代也是婴儿不得不面对的一个生死考验。“武威多妖忌,凡二月、五月产子,及与父母同生日着,悉数杀之”,类似这样的记载我们在《后汉书》不难发现。在现在的非洲某些部落还有这种情况,比如他们会杀掉第一个孩子;会杀掉先长上牙的孩子,认为这不吉利等等。

In that age of ignorance and backwardness, even if you have escaped the first two robberies, sometimes it is not safe. In the book, it is recorded that the family property must first take advantage of the good and the bad, and then have it. In ancient times, babies had to face a test of life and death. "Wuwei has many bogeys. If you give birth to children in February or may and have the same birthday with your parents, you can kill them all." similar records can be found in the book of the later Han Dynasty. This is also the case in some tribes in Africa today, for example, they will kill the first child; they will kill the first child with teeth, which is considered unlucky and so on.

  总之,医疗的落后、封建迷信以及帝王的个人因素都是人口增长缓慢的重要原因。医疗和迷信是时代的局限性,与人为没有太大的关系,但赋税等帝王的人为原因就让人很不舒服了。毕竟,相比于文景时期,武帝时期的百姓真是太不易了!

In a word, the backward medical treatment, the feudal superstition and the personal factors of the emperor are all the important reasons for the slow population growth. Medical treatment and superstition are the limitations of the times. They have little to do with human beings, but the artificial reasons of emperors such as taxes make people uncomfortable. After all, compared with the Wenjing period, people in the Wudi period are really difficult!

  所以,西汉虽然在土地税方面给百姓减轻了压力,但是却加重了人口税的负担,百姓的生活仍然是比较悲惨的。

Therefore, although the Western Han Dynasty reduced the pressure on the people in terms of land tax, it increased the burden of population tax, and the people's life is still relatively miserable.

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