古代赈灾为什么要设置粥棚 而不是直接给粮食给灾民呢-看世界

古代赈灾为什么要设置粥棚 而不是直接给粮食给灾民呢

  “赈灾”在古代是一个非常普遍的话题。这样的事情,在历朝历代经常发生。

  还不知道:古代赈灾的读者,下面小编就为大家带来详细介绍,接着往下看吧~

I don't know yet: readers of ancient disaster relief, the following editor will give you a detailed introduction, and then read on~

  “赈灾”在古代是一个非常普遍的话题。这样的事情,在历朝历代经常发生。

"Disaster relief" is a very common topic in ancient times. Such a thing often happened in all dynasties.

  之所以古代有非常多赈灾的现象,有几个原因。

There are several reasons why there are so many phenomena of disaster relief in ancient times.

  一是生产力水平低下,粮食产量不高,因而粮食总是不够吃。

First, the productivity level is low and the grain output is not high, so the grain is always insufficient.

  二是农作物不具备现代杂交技术,同样也造成产量不高。

Second, crops do not have modern hybrid technology, which also results in low yield.

  三是古代水利工程不健全,很多时候需要靠天吃饭。一旦气候反常,也会造成产量不高。

Third, the ancient water conservancy projects were not sound, and many times they needed to rely on the sky for food. If the climate is abnormal, the output will be low.

  四是古代统治者喜欢折腾老百姓,会经常征集老百姓去进行各种大型活动。比如发动战争,修建皇宫等等。而做这些事情的,主要是青壮。同时青壮又是农业生产的绝对主力,因此,就算有田地,庄稼荒废了,产量当然也就不高。

Fourth, the ancient rulers liked to toss over the common people and would often enlist them to carry out various large-scale activities. For example, launching a war, building a palace and so on. And those who do these things are mainly young and strong. At the same time, being young and strong is the absolute main force of agricultural production. Therefore, even if there are fields and the crops are abandoned, the output is certainly not high.

  五是古代没有化肥和农药。我们现在觉得化肥和农药破坏生态,但不管怎么说,这两样东西却实实在在让现在的农作物产量得到极大地提高。而古代没有这两样东西,一方面庄稼缺乏营养,产量上不去;另一方面害虫杂草又不断和农作物争夺。这样一来,粮食产量怎么可能还很高呢?

Fifth, there was no chemical fertilizer or pesticide in ancient times. We now think that chemical fertilizer and pesticide damage the ecology, but in any case, these two things actually make the current crop production greatly improved. There were no such two things in ancient times. On the one hand, the crops were lack of nutrition, and the yield could not go up; on the other hand, pests and weeds were constantly competing with the crops. In this way, how can food production be high?

  由于粮食产量不高,一遇到天灾人祸,必然就会缺粮。而当一般老百姓缺粮的时候,那些地主大户,又会为了牟取更多的利益,囤积居奇,倒买倒卖。因此,贫困无着的老百姓,就更加没吃没穿了。

As the grain output is not high, there will be a shortage of grain in case of natural and man-made disasters. But when the common people are short of food, those landlords will hoard and sell for more profit. As a result, the poor people are even less fed and clothed.

  老百姓一旦缺少了粮食,必然会闹事,要抢劫,乃至于。由此,必定会引发天下大乱。

Once the common people are short of food, they will make trouble, rob, and even rob. As a result, there will be chaos in the world.

  历朝历代为了避免出现这种天下大乱的局面,总会想办法储备粮食。一旦遇到这种天灾,都会派官员前往开仓赈粮。

In order to avoid this kind of chaos in the world, the dynasties always tried to store food. In case of such natural disasters, officials will be sent to open warehouses for food relief.

  开仓赈粮的方式一般有两种,一种就是按人头,给予一定的粮食。还有一种是设置粥棚,熬粥舀给老百姓喝。而后一种方式,则是比较普遍的方式。

There are generally two ways to open a warehouse for food relief. One is to give a certain amount of food according to the head. Another is to set up a porridge shed and ladle porridge for the common people to drink. The latter is the more common way.

  有一些大户人家,为了体现善行,这时候也会设置粥棚,熬粥给过往的那些四处逃荒乞讨的老百姓喝。

Some large families, in order to show their good deeds, will also set up porridge sheds to cook porridge for the people who used to run around begging.

  那么,古代开仓赈粮的时候,为什么会以设置粥棚的形式,为什么又是以熬粥的方式给老百姓喝呢?为什么不直接给粮食,或者煮干饭给老百姓吃呢?

So, when the ancient warehouse was opened for food relief, why did it take the form of setting up a porridge shed, and why did it take the form of cooking porridge for the people to drink? Why didn't it directly give food or cook dry rice for the people to eat?

  关于这个问题,一般可能有这样一些答案。

Generally, there may be some answers to this question.

  一是粮食太少。没办法直接分配和煮干饭。因为这样一来,肯定不够吃。如果是熬成粥,那么,粥里面还有很多水,这些水喝进肚子里后,会很快让肚子变得饱起来。

First, there is too little food. There is no way to directly distribute and cook dry rice. Because in this way, there must be not enough to eat. If it is boiled into porridge, then there is a lot of water in the porridge. After drinking the water into the stomach, it will soon make the stomach full.

  二是饥民太多。在开仓赈粮的时候,虽然说可以按照户籍情况进行清点,并给予粮食。但是,一般在闹饥荒的时候,饥民到处都有。总不可能只给当地的饥民,不给外地的居民吧?而外地的饥民又很多,有限的粮食,根本就满足不了需求。因此,只能采用熬粥的办法,来解决这个问题。

Second, there are too many hungry people. When opening the warehouse for food relief, although it can be counted according to the household registration, and food will be given. However, when there is a famine, the hungry people are everywhere. It's impossible to give it only to the local hungry, not to the residents of other places. There are many hungry people in other places, and the limited food can't meet the demand at all. Therefore, we can only make porridge to solve this problem.

  三是方法简单。用熬粥的方式实施开仓赈粮,是一种非常简单的办法。因为仓库里不但粮食有限,而且肯定不可能只有大米这些,而是有很多五谷杂粮。这些五谷杂粮,要做成馍馍,或者做成面条这些,会非常麻烦,耗费不少人力物力。而如果只是熬成粥,那样的话,显然就会非常简单。

Third, the method is simple. It's a very simple way to make porridge for food relief. Because there are not only limited grains in the warehouse, but certainly not only rice. Instead, there are many grains. It will be very troublesome and cost a lot of manpower and material resources to make these grains into steamed buns or noodles. And if we just boil it into porridge, it will be very simple.

  四是利于消化。当大饥荒爆发的时候,许多人是非常饥饿的。如果在他们饥饿的时候,给他们吃干饭或者馍馍,都不利于消化。这样反而会让那些饥饿的老百姓死得更快。为了避免老百姓死亡,所以,最好的办法,就是设置粥棚,给饥民们喝粥。这样,既可以让他们变饱,也不会出现被胀死之类的现象了。

Fourth, it is conducive to digestion. When the famine broke out, many people were very hungry. If they are hungry, giving them dry rice or steamed buns is not conducive to digestion. This will make those hungry people die faster. In order to avoid the death of the people, the best way is to set up a porridge shed and give porridge to the hungry people. In this way, they can become full, and they will not be bloated.

  以上讲的这些原因,都有一定的道理。不过,我觉得古代之所以要设置粥棚,熬粥而不是煮干饭给老百姓吃,还有一个非常重要的原因,是为了彰显朝廷给予的恩惠,体现皇恩浩荡。试想,在非常热闹的地方,生火煮粥。一时间搞得热气腾腾,香气扑鼻,远远近近都能闻到食物浓烈的香气,看到热气腾腾的蒸汽,感受到老百姓大汗淋淋的场景。这时候,会不会就有一种皇恩浩荡的感觉呢?

All of the reasons mentioned above are reasonable. However, I think there is a very important reason why we should set up a porridge shed in ancient times to cook porridge instead of cooking dry rice for the common people. It is to show the grace given by the imperial court and the majesty of the emperor. Imagine, in a very busy place, making a fire and cooking porridge. At one time, it was hot and fragrant. You can smell the strong aroma of food from far and near, see the steaming steam and feel the scene of people sweating. At this time, will there be a sense of Royal magnanimity?

  而体现皇恩浩荡,正是最需要的东西。因为这样一来,大家都会拥护朝廷,老百姓就不容易造反了。而老百姓不造反,朝中大臣也不敢随便反叛。因此,国家就能保持长治久安了。

It is the most needed thing to embody the greatness of huangen. Because in this way, everyone will support the court, and the common people will not easily revolt. But the common people did not revolt, and the ministers of the central government did not dare to rebel. Therefore, the country can maintain long-term stability.

  (参考资料:《中国通史》)

(Reference: general history of China)

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