封建时代大量荒地不开垦,农民为何不去开垦荒地要去造反?-看世界

封建时代大量荒地不开垦,农民为何不去开垦荒地要去造反?

  纵览中国古代2000多年的封建历史,其中历朝历代基本上都是自给自足的农耕社会。而说到农耕社会,自然就离不开农民和土地这两个关键因素了。这也正是历代王朝的覆灭因素中,总会有农民起义爆发的缘故。

  古代农民为何不去开垦荒地要去造反?下面小编就为大家带来详细的介绍,一起来看看吧!

Why didn't ancient farmers go to reclaim wasteland to revolt? Here's a detailed introduction for you. Let's have a look!

  纵览中国古代2000多年的封建历史,其中历朝历代基本上都是自给自足的农耕社会。而说到农耕社会,自然就离不开农民和土地这两个关键因素了。这也正是历代王朝的覆灭因素中,总会有农民起义爆发的缘故。

Looking at the feudal history of ancient China for more than 2000 years, all previous dynasties were basically self-sufficient farming society. When it comes to farming society, it is natural that farmers and land are two key factors. This is also the reason why peasant uprisings broke out in the collapse of dynasties.

  耕地

Cultivated land

  然而,事实上中国古代的人口数量比起现在来说并不算多。而且,历朝历代民间未开垦的荒地也有不少。那么历朝历代的绝大多数农民,为何甘愿选择被地主压迫和剥削,也不去开垦一块属于自己的荒地呢?

However, in fact, the population of ancient China is not so large as it is now. Moreover, there were many uncultivated wasteland in the past dynasties. So why did the vast majority of peasants in all dynasties choose to be oppressed and exploited by landlords and not to reclaim their own wasteland?

  第一、天灾人祸,苛政凶猛。

First, natural disasters and man-made disasters lead to severe administration.

  熟悉中国封建历史的朋友应该都知道,每个基本上都会在中后期出现一些天灾和人祸(“人祸”更为凶猛),而这一切都源自于历代王朝中后期无法避免的朝政败坏现象。因为,无论哪个王朝一旦出现朝政腐败的迹象,那么底层的农民百姓必然会遭受苛捐杂税重负,以及贪官污吏的欺压。

Friends who are familiar with the feudal history of China should know that each one will basically have some natural disasters and man-made disasters in the middle and later periods ("man-made disasters" are more ferocious), which all originate from the inevitable corruption of the government in the middle and later periods of successive dynasties. For, no matter which dynasty shows signs of corruption, the peasants at the bottom will inevitably suffer from heavy taxes and the oppression of corrupt officials.

  柳宗元

Liu Zongyuan

  譬如,唐代柳宗元所作的《捕蛇者说》中便曾有过“”的描述。再比如明末时期,加在农民身上的重担,除去原定的赋税之外,还有所谓的“三响”需要额外缴纳(“三响”即辽饷、剿饷和练饷)。可事实上统治者根本不知道,这些生活在底层的农民在如此苛捐杂税的重压之下,已经无法靠种地来养家糊口了。换句话说,农民一旦种地就意味着要担负起沉重的税务。而很多农民因缴纳不起这无尽的税收,最终东拼西借负债累累。更有甚者,还会因此而。

For example, Liu Zongyuan of the Tang Dynasty wrote a description of "snake catcher". For example, in the late Ming Dynasty, in addition to the original taxes, there were so-called "three rings" that needed to be paid extra ("three rings" were Liao pay, suppression pay and training pay). But in fact, the rulers didn't know that the peasants living at the bottom of the country could not support their families by farming under such a heavy burden of taxes and levies. In other words, once farmers farm, it means they have to bear heavy taxes. And many farmers because they can't afford this endless tax, and finally, they are in debt. What's more, it will do so.

  多尔衮剧照

Still photos of Dourgen

  据相关史料记载,清朝初期的摄政王多尔衮就曾总结过灭亡的真正原因。而真相也正如他所说的一样,明朝的弊政,虐害人民最厉害的地方莫过于附加征收的辽饷。因为辽饷的沉重负担,于是各地的人民纷纷开始起义造反。可明朝政府却不以为意,反而又附加了剿饷和练饷。而这人民在这“三饷”的长期压迫之下,早已是。以至于整个明朝末期的20年间,全国的老百处在一个的状态。最终,曾经的大明王朝这才走向了灭亡。

According to the relevant historical records, Dourgen, the Regent of the early Qing Dynasty, summed up the real cause of the demise. And the truth is just like what he said, the most serious abuse of Ming Dynasty is the additional Liao pay. Because of the heavy burden of Liao's salary, people everywhere began to revolt. However, the Ming Dynasty government did not take it seriously, and instead attached rates and training rates. And this people has long been under the long-term oppression of the "three salaries". So that in the last 20 years of the Ming Dynasty, the whole country was in the same state. In the end, the Ming Dynasty was doomed.

  古代农耕

Ancient farming

  当然,正所谓“窥一斑而知全豹”。事实上每一代封建王朝到了统治的中后期,基本上都会出现因各种弊政和腐败现象。而全国农民耕种的田地,便成了被剥削的主要目标和来源。农民为了生存迫不得已只能逃税,至于逃税的手段无非是抛弃原有的土地远走逃亡成为流民,亦或是将土地卖给有免税资格的官吏和乡绅,并成为他们的佃户为其劳作(受其剥削)。

Of course, it is the so-called "peep at a spot and know the whole leopard". In fact, in the middle and later period of each generation of feudal dynasty, there will be various kinds of corrupt and corrupt phenomena. The land cultivated by the farmers all over the country has become the main target and source of exploitation. In order to survive, peasants have to evade taxes. As for the means of tax evasion, they either abandon the original land and flee to become refugees, or sell the land to tax-free officials and squires, and become their tenants to work for them (exploited by them).

  古代农耕工具

Ancient farming tools

  第二、技术问题,山林有主。

Second, technical issues, there are owners of mountains and forests.

  众所周知,开垦新地种植在古代绝非易事。譬如,农民针对新开垦的耕地土壤培养,就需要一个漫长的过程。就拿中国古代主要种植的粮食作物麦子和水稻来说,新开垦的稻土水田(种植水稻的耕地),就需要长期的土壤培养才能达到稳定的产量。

As we all know, it is not easy to cultivate new land in ancient times. For example, it will take a long time for farmers to cultivate new cultivated land. Take wheat and rice, the main grain crops planted in ancient China, for example. The newly reclaimed paddy soil and paddy field (the cultivated land for rice planting) requires long-term soil culture to achieve stable output.

  古代农耕

Ancient farming

  即便是采用现代先进的农业技术,也要3-5年时间才培养成一块中等产量的稻田。因此,以古代的农业技术水平来说,需要的时间只会更长。再加上新开垦的水田一般都没什么产量,甚至起初几年绝收都是常有的事。至于种植麦子的情况,也比种水稻好不了多少。

Even if modern advanced agricultural technology is adopted, it will take 3-5 years to cultivate a paddy field with medium yield. Therefore, in terms of ancient agricultural technology level, it will only take longer. In addition, newly reclaimed paddy fields generally have little output, and even the first few years of crop failure are common. As for wheat planting, it is not much better than rice planting.

  稻田

Paddy field

  因此,如果按古代土地的税收标准来看的话,古代农民只要种地就必须按亩交税。可新开垦的土地却无法从一开始就得到不错的收成。所以,农民们自然也不会有人去开荒了。

Therefore, according to the tax standard of ancient land, ancient farmers had to pay tax per mu as long as they planted land. But the newly reclaimed land can not get a good harvest from the beginning. So, naturally, no one will open up the wasteland.

  古代农耕

Ancient farming

  另外,一般来说全国各地的山林土地也都是各有其主,并不是你想开垦就能随便开垦的。总得来说,历代封建王朝虽有大量的荒地未被开垦。但这却并不是因为古代农民懒惰导致的现象,事实上他们选择被地主剥削也是迫不得已。

In addition, generally speaking, the mountains and forests all over the country have their own owners, and you can't reclaim them if you want. Generally speaking, although there were a lot of wasteland not reclaimed in feudal dynasties. But this is not because of the laziness of the ancient peasants. In fact, they had to choose to be exploited by the landlords.

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