Why didn't ancient farmers go to reclaim wasteland to revolt? Here's a detailed introduction for you. Let's have a look!
Looking at the feudal history of ancient China for more than 2000 years, all previous dynasties were basically self-sufficient farming society. When it comes to farming society, it is natural that farmers and land are two key factors. This is also the reason why peasant uprisings broke out in the collapse of dynasties.
However, in fact, the population of ancient China is not so large as it is now. Moreover, there were many uncultivated wasteland in the past dynasties. So why did the vast majority of peasants in all dynasties choose to be oppressed and exploited by landlords and not to reclaim their own wasteland?
First, natural disasters and man-made disasters lead to severe administration.
Friends who are familiar with the feudal history of China should know that each one will basically have some natural disasters and man-made disasters in the middle and later periods ("man-made disasters" are more ferocious), which all originate from the inevitable corruption of the government in the middle and later periods of successive dynasties. For, no matter which dynasty shows signs of corruption, the peasants at the bottom will inevitably suffer from heavy taxes and the oppression of corrupt officials.
For example, Liu Zongyuan of the Tang Dynasty wrote a description of "snake catcher". For example, in the late Ming Dynasty, in addition to the original taxes, there were so-called "three rings" that needed to be paid extra ("three rings" were Liao pay, suppression pay and training pay). But in fact, the rulers didn't know that the peasants living at the bottom of the country could not support their families by farming under such a heavy burden of taxes and levies. In other words, once farmers farm, it means they have to bear heavy taxes. And many farmers because they can't afford this endless tax, and finally, they are in debt. What's more, it will do so.
Still photos of Dourgen
据相关史料记载，清朝初期的摄政王多尔衮就曾总结过灭亡的真正原因。而真相也正如他所说的一样，的弊政，虐害人民最厉害的地方莫过于附加征收的辽饷。因为辽饷的沉重负担，于是各地的人民纷纷开始起义造反。可 政府却不以为意，反而又附加了剿饷和练饷。而这人民在这“三饷”的长期压迫之下，早已是。以至于整个 末期的20年间，全国的老百处在一个的状态。最终，曾经的大明王朝这才走向了灭亡。
According to the relevant historical records, Dourgen, the Regent of the early Qing Dynasty, summed up the real cause of the demise. And the truth is just like what he said, the most serious abuse of Ming Dynasty is the additional Liao pay. Because of the heavy burden of Liao's salary, people everywhere began to revolt. However, the Ming Dynasty government did not take it seriously, and instead attached rates and training rates. And this people has long been under the long-term oppression of the "three salaries". So that in the last 20 years of the Ming Dynasty, the whole country was in the same state. In the end, the Ming Dynasty was doomed.
Of course, it is the so-called "peep at a spot and know the whole leopard". In fact, in the middle and later period of each generation of feudal dynasty, there will be various kinds of corrupt and corrupt phenomena. The land cultivated by the farmers all over the country has become the main target and source of exploitation. In order to survive, peasants have to evade taxes. As for the means of tax evasion, they either abandon the original land and flee to become refugees, or sell the land to tax-free officials and squires, and become their tenants to work for them (exploited by them).
Ancient farming tools
Second, technical issues, there are owners of mountains and forests.
As we all know, it is not easy to cultivate new land in ancient times. For example, it will take a long time for farmers to cultivate new cultivated land. Take wheat and rice, the main grain crops planted in ancient China, for example. The newly reclaimed paddy soil and paddy field (the cultivated land for rice planting) requires long-term soil culture to achieve stable output.
Even if modern advanced agricultural technology is adopted, it will take 3-5 years to cultivate a paddy field with medium yield. Therefore, in terms of ancient agricultural technology level, it will only take longer. In addition, newly reclaimed paddy fields generally have little output, and even the first few years of crop failure are common. As for wheat planting, it is not much better than rice planting.
Therefore, according to the tax standard of ancient land, ancient farmers had to pay tax per mu as long as they planted land. But the newly reclaimed land can not get a good harvest from the beginning. So, naturally, no one will open up the wasteland.
In addition, generally speaking, the mountains and forests all over the country have their own owners, and you can't reclaim them if you want. Generally speaking, although there were a lot of wasteland not reclaimed in feudal dynasties. But this is not because of the laziness of the ancient peasants. In fact, they had to choose to be exploited by the landlords.
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