靖康之耻:宋徽宗和宋钦宗被俘后怎么死的?-看世界

靖康之耻:宋徽宗和宋钦宗被俘后怎么死的?

  宋徽宗是宋钦宗之父,钦宗子承父业后仅仅一年有余,即和宋徽宗一起被金兵俘虏,两人均在大金渡过残余岁月。公元1125年(宋钦宗靖康元年一月—),金军分东、西两路南下攻宋。东路由完颜宗望领军攻燕京。西路由完颜宗翰领军直扑太原。东路金兵破燕京,渡过黄河,南下汴京(今河南开封)。

  之耻和被俘后的生活

Shame and life after capture

  宋徽宗是宋钦宗之父,钦宗子承父业后仅仅一年有余,即和宋徽宗一起被金兵俘虏,两人均在大金渡过残余岁月。公元1125年(宋钦宗靖康元年一月—),金军分东、西两路南下攻宋。东路由完颜宗望领军攻燕京。西路由完颜宗翰领军直扑太原。东路金兵破燕京,渡过黄河,南下汴京(今河南开封)。

Emperor Huizong is the father of emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty. His son was captured by Jin Bing together with Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty only one year after he inherited his father's career. Both of them spent the remaining years in Dajin. In 1125 ad (January of the first year of Jingkang, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty), the Jin army attacked the Song Dynasty in two ways: East and West. In the East Road, wanyanzongwang led the army to attack Yanjing. West Road led by Yan Zonghan to Taiyuan. On the East Road, Jin Bing broke through Yanjing, crossed the Yellow River, and went to Bianjing in the South (now Kaifeng, Henan).

  金兵直逼汴京(今开封市)时,北宋徽宗赵佶又气又急,身子一日不如一日,于是把皇位传给太子。继位的太子就是宋钦宗,宋钦宗和宋徽宗一样,也是苟且偷安、不思自强之辈,结果断送了大山,自己也做了俘虏。被俘的还有徽宗和他的哥哥、弟弟及他的32个儿子、22个女儿,除九子在外勤王、幼女仅一岁外,都做了俘虏,连同宫廷后妃、宗室贵戚、大臣约3000人被金人掳到北方。

When Jin Bing made a direct attack on Bianjing (now Kaifeng City), Zhao Ji, Emperor Huizong of the Northern Song Dynasty, was angry and anxious, and his body was not as good as that of the day before, so he passed the throne to the prince. The crown prince who succeeded him was Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty. Like Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty was also the generation who lived in peace and did not think about self-improvement. As a result, he killed Dashan and became a prisoner himself. Among them, Huizong, his brother, younger brother, 32 sons and 22 daughters were captured. Except for the nine sons, who were only one year old in the field, all of them were captured. Together with the Royal concubines, imperial concubines and ministers, about 3000 of them were taken to the north by the Jin people.

  钦宗到达金营后,受到无比的冷遇,宗望、宗翰根本不与他见面,还把他安置到军营斋宫西厢房的三间小屋内。屋内陈设极其简陋,除桌椅外,只有可供睡觉的一个土炕,毛毡两席。屋外有金兵严密把守,黄昏时屋门也被金兵用铁链锁住,钦宗君臣完全失去了活动自由。

When Emperor qinzong arrived at Jinying, he was treated coldly. Zongwang and Zonghan did not meet him at all. They also placed him in the three huts in the West Wing of the barracks. In addition to tables and chairs, there is only one Kang and two blankets for sleeping. There were gold soldiers guarding the house closely. At dusk, the door of the house was also locked by the gold soldiers with iron chains. The emperor and his officials lost their freedom of movement completely.

  当时正是农历四月,北方还很寒冷,徽宗、钦宗二帝和郑氏、朱氏二皇后衣服都很单薄,晚上经常冻得睡不着觉,只得找些柴火、茅草燃烧取暖。钦宗的朱皇后当时26岁,艳丽多姿,还经常受到金兵的调戏。

It was April of the lunar calendar at that time. It was still cold in the north. The clothes of Emperor Huizong, Emperor qinzong and empress Zheng and Zhu were very thin. They were often too cold to sleep at night, so they had to find some firewood and thatch to burn for warmth. At that time, empress Zhu of qinzong was 26 years old, gorgeous and colorful, and was often molested by Jin Bing.

  被掳人员到达金朝京师会宁府时,金人举行了献俘仪式,命令二帝及其后妃、宗室、诸王、驸马、公主都穿上金人百姓穿的服装,头缠帕头,身披羊裘,袒露上体,到金朝阿骨打庙去行“牵羊礼”。朱皇后忍受不了如此奇耻大辱,当夜自尽了,金人还为两位起了侮辱性封号,称徽宗为“昏德公”,称钦宗为“重昏侯”。

When the captives arrived at the Huining mansion, the capital of the Jin Dynasty, the Jin people held a ceremony of offering captives. They ordered the two emperors and their concubines, clans, kings, consorts and princesses to put on the clothes of the Jin people, wrap their heads around handkerchiefs, wear sheep and fur, expose their upper bodies, and go to the arguta Temple of the Jin Dynasty for the "sheep leading ceremony". Empress Zhu couldn't stand such a humiliation. She committed suicide that night. The Jin people also gave an insulting title to both of them, calling Huizong "Duke of faint virtue" and qinzong "Marquis of heavy faint".

  二帝被劫持到北方后,先被关押在五国城,因为受不了金人的折磨,一日徽宗将衣服剪成条,结成绳准备悬梁自尽,被钦宗抱下来,父子俩抱头痛哭。后金人又将二帝移往均州,此时徽宗已病得很厉害,不久就死在土炕上了,钦宗发现时,尸体都僵硬了。

After being abducted to the north, the two emperors were first imprisoned in the five kingdoms city. Because they could not stand the torment of the Jin people, one day, Emperor Huizong cut the clothes into strips and formed a rope to hang the beam to commit suicide. They were carried down by Emperor qinzong, and both father and son cried bitterly. Later, the Jin people moved the two emperors to Junzhou. At that time, Emperor Huizong was very ill and died on the Kang soon. When Emperor qinzong found it, the bodies were stiff.

  徽宗的尸体被架到一个石坑上焚烧,烧到半焦烂时,用水浇灭火,将尸体扔到坑中,据说,这样做可以使坑里的水做灯油。钦宗悲伤至极,也要跳入坑中,但被人拉住,说活人跳入坑中后坑中的水就不能做灯油用了,所以,不准钦宗跳入坑中。徽宗死时54岁,徽宗死后,钦宗继续遭受折磨,最后也惨死在北方。

Huizong's body was burned in a stone pit. When it was half burnt, it was put out with water and thrown into the pit. It is said that this can make the water in the pit used as lamp oil. Emperor qinzong was extremely sad and would jump into the pit, but he was held by others, saying that the water in the pit after the living man jumped into the pit could not be used as lamp oil. Therefore, Emperor qinzong was not allowed to jump into the pit. Huizong died at the age of 54. After Huizong died, qinzong continued to suffer, and finally died miserably in the north.

  绍兴二十六年(1156)六月,宋钦宗病死,宋钦宗死因另据遗《大宋宣和遗事》,1156年6月,金主完颜亮命钦宗出赛马球。钦宗皇帝身体孱弱,患有严重的风疾,又不善马术,很快从马上摔下,被乱马铁蹄践踏死。

In June of the 26th year of Shaoxing (1156), Emperor qinzong of song died of illness. The cause of death of emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty is also based on the "great song Xuanhe bequeath". In June of 1156, Emperor Jin Wanliang ordered emperor qinzong to play polo. Emperor qinzong was weak, suffering from severe wind disease and poor equestrian skills. He fell off his horse and was trampled to death.

  宋徽宗和宋钦宗最后怎么死的?

How did song Huizong and song qinzong finally die?

  宣和七年1125年大金攻宋,宋徽宗退位,长子赵桓在十二月十三日继位,后庙号钦宗,年号靖康。靖康元年正月同意割让太原、中山与河间三镇,后反悔。

In 1125, Xuanhe's seventh year, Emperor Huizong abdicated. Zhao Huan, the eldest son, succeeded him on December 13. Later, the temple was called emperor qinzong and the year was Jingkang. In the first month of the first year of Jingkang, he agreed to cede Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian, and then he repented.

  靖康元年1126年十一月遭到十几万金军攻打,于月底攻至开皇都开封,同时派康王等三路人往金军,分别割让太原、中山与河间三镇,河北,河东。被围城十几日后听信迷信,派郭京迎战金军,被攻破城门,破城后金军随意封锁城内各地金银为已。

In November 1126, the first year of Jingkang was attacked by hundreds of thousands of gold troops. At the end of the month, they attacked Kaifeng, the capital of kaihuang. At the same time, Kangwang and other three people were sent to the Jin army to cede Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian, Hebei and Hedong. After being besieged for more than ten days, he was believed to be superstitious and sent Guo Jing to fight against the Jin army. After being defeated, the Jin army blocked the gold and silver around the city at will.

  仍保有大片国土时的大宋钦宗,十二月向金国正式投降。交付全城尽半兵器,搜括开封市内的金银贡献于金军,承认割让北方太原等三镇。而此时康王并没有去金营割地,而是借勤王之名拥兵自守一路南逃(此时正是出山在康王刘浩下效力时,曾随宗泽与金开战)。

In December, Emperor qinzong of the Song Dynasty formally surrendered to the kingdom of Jin. He delivered half of the city's weapons, searched for gold and silver in Kaifeng and contributed to the Jin army, admitting to ceding Taiyuan and other three towns in the north. At this time, King Kang didn't go to the gold camp to cut the land, but took advantage of the name of King Qin to support his troops and fled southward (it was at this time when he went out of the mountain to work under Liu Hao, King Kang, who had followed Zongze to fight with Jin).

  靖康二年1127年宋钦宗和宋微宗本人及后妃、皇子、公主等三千多人被俘虏,另俘虏皇室少女,妇女、宫女、官女、民女等共一万五千多人,运至大金国土,大部分作。

In 1127, the second year of Jingkang, song qinzong and song Weizong were captured by more than 3000 people, including his concubines, princesses and princesses. In addition, they captured more than 15000 Royal maidens, including women, palace maids, official maidens and people's maidens, who were transported to the land of Dajin for most of their works.

  宋钦宗赵恒这位苦命的皇帝,做皇帝只一年多,被金人掳去,受尽折磨终身监禁达三十年之久。

Zhao Heng, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty, was only emperor for more than one year. He was abducted by the Jin people and imprisoned for 30 years.

  通常历史家公认北宋亡于1126年。此后徽钦二宗先后死于五国城

It is generally acknowledged by historians that the Northern Song Dynasty died in 1126. Since then, two families of Huiqin have died in the five kingdoms city

  耻辱啊,大当时文有李刚,武有宗泽,后有岳飞,但关键在大宋根底已腐败不堪,多数人想着如何保命,如何保官,同时又是重文轻武的朝代,对于猛烈的金朝攻势,节节失利,又没有好的组织起来抵抗。唉,可叹!

Shame, there were Li Gang in the literature, Zongze in the Wu, and Yue Fei in the later. But the key point was that the root of the Song Dynasty was corrupt. Most people thought about how to protect their lives and officials. At the same time, it was a dynasty that emphasized the culture but despised the military. For the fierce attack of the Jin Dynasty, there was no good organization to resist. Alas, sigh!

  宣和七年1125年冬,灭辽后金朝大举进攻宋朝。四十四岁宋徽宗退位,二十六岁的长子赵桓在十二月十三日继位,后庙号钦宗。时金对宋实行进攻和议和双管齐下的方针。

In the winter of 1125 in the seventh year of Xuanhe, the Jin Dynasty attacked the Song Dynasty after the Liao Dynasty was destroyed. Song Huizong abdicated at the age of 44, and Zhao Huan, 26, his eldest son, succeeded him on December 13. Later, the temple was called qinzong. The policy of attack and negotiation was carried out in the Jin Dynasty.

  靖康元年1126年正月,金军兵临国都开封城下。宋钦宗欲车驾南逃,被尚书右丞李纲劝阻。李纲在危难时刻主持开封防御,几次打退攻城的金军。陕西的老将种师道率军入援。宋钦宗又希图发兵夜劫敌营,侥幸取胜。宋将姚平仲劫营失败后,宋钦宗慌忙与金人订立城下之盟,同意割让太原、中山与河间三镇。东路金军退走后,宋钦宗又翻悔割地。宋徽宗回到开封。

In the first month of 1126 in the first year of Jingkang, the Jin army came to Kaifeng, the capital of the state. Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty wanted to drive south, but was dissuaded by Li Gang, the right Prime Minister of the minister. Li Gang presided over Kaifeng's defense in times of crisis and defeated the Jin army who had attacked the city several times. The veteran generals of Shaanxi led the army into the army. Song qinzong also hoped to send troops to rob the enemy camp at night and won by chance. After the Song Dynasty failed to rob Yao pingzhong's camp, song qinzong hurriedly entered into an alliance with the Jin people and agreed to cede Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian. After the Jin army retreated in the East Road, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty repented again. Emperor Huizong returned to Kaifeng.

  靖康元年1126年十月七十六岁种师道病卒,生前曾出四次关键建议:第一次是二月初姚平仲夜劫金营失败,种师道建议再次出兵劫营,或者每夜发兵几千人袭扰敌人,可以成功,宋钦宗不用。第二次是完颜斡离不退兵,种师道建议乘金军半渡之际,发动奇袭,否则必为他日之患,宋钦宗也不用。第三次是太原失守后,种师道急令调兵京城,第四次是临终遗奏,建议皇帝退守关中,众臣建议良臣李纲、宗泽代守开封,宋钦宗不用。在北宋立国一百六十年,养成一种浓重的重文轻武风气,一时国中无大将可用。此时的宋朝内部由宋徽宗重用,童贯,宋江,方腊之乱后,被宋钦宗换掉一批旧朝,朝中紧急缺员的情况下,面临金军的进攻。失去种师道无疑让宋钦宗更无助。

In 1126, the first year of Jingkang, at the age of 76, he gave four key suggestions: the first one was Yao pingzhong's failure to rob the gold camp at night in early February, and the latter suggested that he should send another army to rob the camp, or send thousands of soldiers to harass the enemy every night, which could be successful. Song qinzong didn't need it. The second time was when Wanyan good offices could not leave the army. The priest suggested that when the Jin army was halfway across the border, he should launch a surprise attack. Otherwise, it would be a disaster in the future. Song qinzong didn't need it either. The third time is that after the fall of Taiyuan, the seedmaster urgently ordered the troops to be transferred to the capital. The fourth time is the last legacy. He suggested that the emperor withdraw from the central government. The ministers suggested that the good officials, Li Gang and Zongze, should guard Kaifeng instead of emperor qinzong. In the 160 years since the founding of the state in the Northern Song Dynasty, there was a strong culture of emphasizing culture and ignoring martial arts. There was no general available in the state for a while. At that time, after the chaos of song Huizong, Tong Guan, Song Jiang, and Fang La, song qinzong replaced a batch of old dynasties. In the case of an emergency shortage of personnel in the dynasty, he faced the attack of the Jin army. The loss of the sermon undoubtedly made emperor qinzong more helpless.

  十一月宋钦宗让宋徽宗劝说九弟康王割地太原、中山与河间出使金国,同时又派耿南仲和聂昌出使,割让河北与河东。康王与金军反方向行至河北的相州,与知州汪伯彦歌舞升平。同终日巡城的的六世孙通判赵不试形成鲜明对比。后至磁州宗泽守地,宗泽劝其利用身份号召周围五州兵力出师真定。围魏救赵,分散金军进攻开封注意力。康王不愿出兵,只求自身安全,回到相州整日花天酒地。奉命割让河北的耿南仲被卫州(今河南汲县)人驱逐,也来到相州,与耿延禧父子团聚,而另一奉命割让河东的聂昌却被当地人杀死。至此割地计划无一成功。

In November, Emperor qinzong of song asked Emperor Huizong of song to persuade King Kang, his ninth brother, to cede Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian to the kingdom of Jin. At the same time, he sent Geng nanzhong and Nie Chang to cede Hebei and Hedong. Kang Wang and Jin Jun traveled in the opposite direction to Xiangzhou, Hebei Province, where they sang and danced with Wang Boyan, the Zhizhou Prefecture. It is in sharp contrast to the judgment of sun Tong, the sixth son who patrols the city all day, that Zhao should not try. Later, when he came to Cizhou, Zongze urged him to use his identity to call on the surrounding five states to send out their troops. Encircle Wei and save Zhao, distract Jin army from attacking Kaifeng. Kangwang did not want to send troops. He only wanted his own safety and went back to Xiangzhou for a long time. Geng nanzhong, who was ordered to cede Hebei Province, was expelled from Weizhou (now Jixian County, Henan), and also came to Xiangzhou to reunite with Geng Yanxi's father and son, while Nie Chang, who was ordered to cede Hedong, was killed by the local people. So far, none of the plan has been successful.

  十一月二十五日金朝东路军完颜斡离不率十万屯兵城东北,十一月二十七日开始攻击,由于救援太原,用兵河北河东,共出兵30几万,而后种师道临死前曾招二十六万八千人,死后被议和派唐恪和耿南仲以财力不支为名撤销,现正规军仅七万加上冲破阻截来援的南道总管张叔夜临时率兵一万三千人再加上临时征调的开封附近保甲(民兵),在市井招兵,最后拼凑了十七万人。

On November 25, the Eastern Road army of the Jin Dynasty left the northeast of the city of 100000 troops. On November 27, it began to attack. As a result of the rescue of Taiyuan, it used troops in Hedong, Hebei Province, with a total of more than 300000 troops. Then, before the death of the apostate, it recruited two hundred and sixty-eight thousand people. After the death, it was negotiated to send Tang Ke and Geng nanzhong to cancel in the name of financial shortage. Now, the regular army only has 70000 troops to break through the blockade to help Zhang Shuye, manager of the South Road, led 13000 troops temporarily, and Baojia (militia) near Kaifeng who was temporarily recruited. At last, 170000 soldiers were assembled.

  时监察御史张所的上奏。一、弹劾唐恪误国无能;二、说王宗濋自恃骄贵,不知军事;三、建议召李纲回京,委以重任;四、举荐谙熟兵机的正七品武功大夫吴革,提议破格用人,以吴革出任殿前都指挥使、兼守御副使;五、强调绝不能放弃河北与河东,应当下诏收回割地的命令,号召两河民众组织义兵,抵抗金兵。宋钦宗御笔:唐恪罢少宰,改太宰。李纲复资政殿大学士、领开封府事,速回京师。仍重用王宗濋,吴革当量才而用。

He supervised Zhang Suo's performance. 1、 To impeach Tang Ke for his incompetence; to say that Wang Zong Quan was proud of himself and didn't know the military; to suggest that Li Gang should be called back to Beijing and entrusted with a heavy task; to recommend Wu Ge, a senior martial arts official with a good command of military aircraft, and to propose that he should break the rules and employ people, and take Wu Ge as the commander in charge of the front of the palace and the deputy commander of the guard; to emphasize that he should never give up Hebei and Hedong, and should issue an imperial edict to take back the secession The people of the river organized righteous soldiers to resist the golden soldiers. Imperial pen of emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty: Tang Ke changed from Shao Zai to Tai Zai. Li Gang returned to the senior government hall, led Kaifeng government affairs, and quickly returned to the capital. Wang Zong Quan was still used, and Wu Ge equivalent was used.

  闰十一月宋钦宗迷信,命王宗濋副都统郭京准备六甲神兵七千杀退金军。

In November, song qinzong was superstitious and ordered Wang Zongquan, the vice capital of Guo Jing, to prepare for the death of 7000 soldiers in Liujia.

  闰十一月十三日,宋钦宗召见金使,金使要求国相和皇帝亲临敝寨和谈,宋钦宗不愿亲往,后改要求相前去议,太上皇,皇子,越王与郓王为质,可退兵,候河北、河东两路割地了毕,即送太上皇等归城。宋钦宗亦不与。在攻城战期间宋钦宗曾两次上守城劳军,期望振奋军心。内殿对是死战还是议和,众说云云,宋钦宗也犹豫不绝。

On November 13, song qinzong summoned Jin emissary. Jin emissary asked the state minister and the emperor to come to our village for peace talks. Song qinzong didn't want to go in person. Later, he asked the minister to discuss. The emperor, his son, the king of Yue and the king of Yun were the quality. They could retreat. After the land was cut off in Hebei and Hedong, they sent taishanghuang to the city. Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty was not with him either. During the siege, song qinzong twice defended the city and labored, hoping to inspire the army. In the inner hall, people said that it was a dead battle or a peace, and song qinzong also hesitated.

  闰十一月二十四日郭京率其新征六甲神兵代替守城军,一开始后被大败,郭京扔下宣化门只身逃跑。攻城金兵冲进并占领宣化门,利用城楼设施对内,与城中军民展开以此门为战略的战斗,死伤无数百姓。秦元、王宗濋与刘延庆三军数万之众出逃,此时宋钦宗仍以来神兵大胜,后得知城破,悲痛不以。

On November 24, leap, Guo Jing led his new soldiers to replace the city guard. At the beginning, Guo Jing was defeated and left Xuanhua gate to escape alone. The golden soldiers stormed into Xuanhua gate and occupied it. They used the tower facilities to fight with the army and the people in the city. They killed and injured countless people. Tens of thousands of troops of Qin yuan, Wang Zong Quan and Liu Yanqing fled. At this time, song qinzong still won a great victory. Later, he learned that the city was broken and he was not grieved.

  闰十一月二十六日景王和李若水出使议和,金军要求河东河北河中割让,并交付犒军金银。第二日宋钦宗亲自出使达成协议。

On November 26, King Jing and Li Ruoshui went out to discuss peace, and Jin Jun demanded that the Hebei River in Hedong be ceded and the gold and silver be paid to the army. The next day, Emperor qinzong personally sent an envoy to reach an agreement.

  十二月一日宋钦宗正式在城外上降表。一百万锭和银五百万锭的犒军费。被诱降至金帐,废宋,至此北宋亡。与钦宗出降时康王用勤王之势在相州开元帅府,副元帅汪伯彦,挂名宗泽。并拥兵与开封反方向行军自守。

On December 1, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty formally lowered his watch outside the city. One million ingots and five million silver ingots for military reward. He was lured to the golden account and abolished the Song Dynasty. When he and Emperor qinzong came out, King Kang used the power of King Qin to be in the Kaiyuan mansion of Xiangzhou. Wang Boyan, deputy marshal, was named Zongze. They also supported the army and marched against Kaifeng to defend themselves.

  二月七日王时雍、徐秉哲和范琼将宋徽宗和皇族、后妃等三千多人,或者乘轿,或者乘牛车,或者徒步,陆续押送到金营。至十一日被金军将帅选取女子达一万五千六百多人,皇室女多被瓜分,仍不能凑足犒军费,下令开封府搜刮金银,此间金营每天都有非正常死亡事件。

On February 7, Wang Shiyong, Xu Bingzhe and fan Qiong escorted more than 3000 people, including song Huizong, the royal family and the empress, to Jinying one after another by car, ox cart or on foot. On the 11th, more than 15000 women were selected by the general of the Jin army, and most of the royal women were divided up. However, they were still unable to make enough money to reward the army. They ordered Kaifeng government to search for gold and silver. There were abnormal deaths in the gold camp every day.

  三月七日金朝对行册命礼,国号为楚,以建康府为国都。在时百姓称之为“伪楚”。后于四月四日宣布了自己逊位,请孟主持大政。

On March 7, the Jin dynasty recorded the rites of life, the name of the state was Chu, and Jiankang Prefecture was the capital of the state. At that time, people called it "pseudo Chu". Later, he announced his abdication on April 4 and asked Meng to preside over the grand government.

  三月二十八日金军撤离开封,押解宋钦宗金军五月十七日到代州(治今山西代县

On March 28, the Jin army withdrew from Kaifeng and escorted song qinzong's Jin army to daizhou on May 17

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