Today, Xiaobian has prepared for you: articles of ancient nobles. Let's have a look at them quickly!
What is aristocracy? In ancient China, there was a special group, whose power, social status and control of property were higher than other social classes, which we call aristocracy. In ancient China, the number of nobles was small, but they controlled the top resources in all aspects of the Empire, which became the goal of other classes.
Since the Xia Dynasty, there have been aristocrats in China. They flourished in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. But after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the aristocracy suddenly weakened and even disappeared in the history of China. Why is that?
First, I will take you back to some famous aristocratic families in China. In the Xia Dynasty, there were Xia families, there were families, and in the spring and autumn and Warring States period, there were six Qing and seven mu. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, there were several aristocratic families, such as Wang Xieyuan. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there were five surnames and seven Wang aristocrats. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, China's aristocracy reached its peak, including the aristocracy, and the aristocracy.
Why is Li Shimin a noble? Let's take a look at Li Shimin's family relationship table. Let's start with Li Shimin's great grandfather, who was the Duke of Longxi County at that time and was granted the state Duke of Tang after its establishment. His grandfather, Li Min, inherited his great grandfather's title and was granted the rank of senior official and general of Zhu state.
When he arrived at his father, he was even more amazing. At the age of 7, he became the Duke of Tang. At the same time, he served as the governor of Taiyuan, an important military town at that time. In addition to his hereditary title, Li Yuan is still a relative of the emperor and the country. The empress of Li Yuan is, and the lonely queen is exactly Li Yuan's aunt, and becomes Li Yuan's cousin. With this relationship, Li Yuan is deeply trusted and entrusted. Therefore, in today's words, Li Shimin is a "second generation of officials", so the Tang Dynasty he and his father established is a dynasty composed of noblemen and noblemen.
Some key data in the book "Chinese social history" are quoted here: "there were 179 prime ministers from suzong of Tang Dynasty to the end of Tang Dynasty, of whom 143 were born in the gentry and the gate lords, accounting for 80%; 22 were born in the middle families, accounting for 12%; while the real civilian prime ministers were only 12, accounting for 7%." This is a set of extremely critical data, which strongly proves that the core of the Tang Dynasty at that time was basically composed of nobles.
How did the aristocratic class of Tang Dynasty go to decline? In the eyes of Xiaobian, the system became the first stepping stone for the gradual disappearance of the aristocracy. An important talent selection system started in Sui and Tang Dynasties was to change the absolute status of the original hereditary aristocrats. Therefore, the imperial examination system of Sui and Tang dynasties had a strong impact on the aristocracy, making it possible for civilians to change their own destiny through their own efforts.
But when the time axis was shifted to the Song Dynasty, the humble family had begun to become the "son of heaven" and the aristocracy was hard to find. Although the founding emperor of Song Dynasty was a military general as well as a king who seized power by force, he was clearly aware of the political disadvantages of he in the late Tang Dynasty, and began to attach importance to literature rather than military, and strongly encouraged reading. In the end, it issued a call that "there is a gold house in the book, and there is a jade in the book". It not only improved the status of scholars, but also expanded the recruitment of officials in the imperial examination. It can be seen that since the Song Dynasty, the rulers of the Song Dynasty attached great importance to the scholars of the Han clan and all classes. When the aristocrats were in great use, the civilian class of the Han clan entered the government to maintain their rule.
The above is the reason why we interpret the decline of aristocracy from the perspective of system. The decline of aristocracy also has the necessity of historical choice. In fact, as early as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the aristocracy has begun to show the image of decline. Many aristocratic children, because they are hereditary, can still firmly sit on the ancestral throne, no matter whether they have achievements or not. There is no pressure to survive, so it's easy to have fun without learning. What really gave these Tang nobles a powerful medicine. Huang Chao was a leader of the peasant uprising army in the late Tang Dynasty, and also a bloodthirsty murderer. In 880 A.D., when Huang Chao captured Chang'an, he ordered to kill Chang'an city. There were lots of bones in Chang'an City, and almost all the nobles in the Tang Dynasty were killed in the city.
Although the rebellion of Huangchao was later pacified, the aristocracy of Tang Dynasty had already disappeared. Zhu Wen, who planned to plan for the Tang Dynasty, was also a murderous Lord, who once again purged the nobles of the Tang Dynasty. At this time, the Chinese aristocracy probably went into the situation of collective destruction, and in the frequent wars afterwards, these aristocrats almost disappeared.
In the end, we will find that the demise of the Chinese aristocracy is not only an alternative to the imperial examination system formulated by the rulers to maintain their rule, but also an inevitable choice for the survival of the fittest in the war. The key time node is the Tang Dynasty. Since then, there has been no aristocracy, and the era of common people has begun.
Do you have different opinions on this? Welcome to leave a message in the comment area.
References: social history of China, those events of the Tang Dynasty, 300 years of the rise and fall of the Tang Dynasty, general history of China's imperial examination system, biography of Taizu Zhu Wen
Disclaimer: the above content comes from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If you violate your original copyright, please let us know, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.