揭秘古代贵族消失之谜 唐朝之后的贵族为什么消失了-看世界

揭秘古代贵族消失之谜 唐朝之后的贵族为什么消失了

  什么是贵族?在中国古代存在的特殊的一部分群体,在权力、社会地位和掌控的财产高于社会上的其他阶层,而这一阶层我们称之为贵族。中国古代的贵族阶层数量少,却掌控着帝国的方方面面顶尖的资源,这也成为了其他阶层为之追求的目标。

  今天小编给大家准备了:古代贵族的文章,感兴趣的小伙伴们快来看看吧!

Today, Xiaobian has prepared for you: articles of ancient nobles. Let's have a look at them quickly!

  什么是贵族?在中国古代存在的特殊的一部分群体,在权力、社会地位和掌控的财产高于社会上的其他阶层,而这一阶层我们称之为贵族。中国古代的贵族阶层数量少,却掌控着帝国的方方面面顶尖的资源,这也成为了其他阶层为之追求的目标。

What is aristocracy? In ancient China, there was a special group, whose power, social status and control of property were higher than other social classes, which we call aristocracy. In ancient China, the number of nobles was small, but they controlled the top resources in all aspects of the Empire, which became the goal of other classes.

  我国从夏朝有国家体制开始便有了贵族,兴盛于春秋战国时期,可到了隋唐时期之后,贵族阶层突然转弱,甚至中国之后的历史中逐渐消失。这又是为什么呢?

Since the Xia Dynasty, there have been aristocrats in China. They flourished in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period. But after the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the aristocracy suddenly weakened and even disappeared in the history of China. Why is that?

  小编先带大家一起回顾一下中国一些著名的贵族家族,夏朝有夏家族,有家族,有家族,春秋战国有六卿、的七穆;到魏晋的几大世家,诸如王谢袁;再到隋唐的五姓七望贵族。而隋唐时期,中国的贵族达到了顶峰,包括也是贵族,而且是贵族中的贵族。

First, I will take you back to some famous aristocratic families in China. In the Xia Dynasty, there were Xia families, there were families, and in the spring and autumn and Warring States period, there were six Qing and seven mu. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, there were several aristocratic families, such as Wang Xieyuan. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, there were five surnames and seven Wang aristocrats. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties, China's aristocracy reached its peak, including the aristocracy, and the aristocracy.

  为什么说李世民是贵族中的贵族呢?我们来看看李世民的家庭关系表,我们先从李世民的曾祖父说起,曾祖父是当时的陇西郡公,建立后受封唐国公。祖父李昺承袭了曾祖父的爵位,受封御中正大夫并加封柱国大将军。

Why is Li Shimin a noble? Let's take a look at Li Shimin's family relationship table. Let's start with Li Shimin's great grandfather, who was the Duke of Longxi County at that time and was granted the state Duke of Tang after its establishment. His grandfather, Li Min, inherited his great grandfather's title and was granted the rank of senior official and general of Zhu state.

  而到了自己的父亲更是不得了,7岁七岁袭封唐国公,历任三洲刺史和迁卫尉少卿,还担任过当时军事重镇太原太守。除了世袭的爵位,李渊还是皇亲国戚。的皇后是,而孤独皇后恰恰是李渊的姨母,就成了李渊的表兄弟,有着这层关系李渊更是深得信任和重任。所以,用现在的话说李世民是一个不折不扣的“官二代”,那么他和他父亲建立的唐王朝就是由贵族出身的和贵族出生的臣子组成的王朝。

When he arrived at his father, he was even more amazing. At the age of 7, he became the Duke of Tang. At the same time, he served as the governor of Taiyuan, an important military town at that time. In addition to his hereditary title, Li Yuan is still a relative of the emperor and the country. The empress of Li Yuan is, and the lonely queen is exactly Li Yuan's aunt, and becomes Li Yuan's cousin. With this relationship, Li Yuan is deeply trusted and entrusted. Therefore, in today's words, Li Shimin is a "second generation of officials", so the Tang Dynasty he and his father established is a dynasty composed of noblemen and noblemen.

  这里引用《中国社会史》一书中的一些关键数据:“从唐肃宗到唐朝灭亡期间担任过宰相的一共有179位,其中出生于士族、门阀有143人,占80%;出生于中等家族的有22人,占12%;而真正的平民宰相只有12人,占7%。”这是一组极为关键的数据,有力的证明了当时的唐王朝的核心基本是由贵族组成的。

Some key data in the book "Chinese social history" are quoted here: "there were 179 prime ministers from suzong of Tang Dynasty to the end of Tang Dynasty, of whom 143 were born in the gentry and the gate lords, accounting for 80%; 22 were born in the middle families, accounting for 12%; while the real civilian prime ministers were only 12, accounting for 7%." This is a set of extremely critical data, which strongly proves that the core of the Tang Dynasty at that time was basically composed of nobles.

  强盛如唐朝的贵族阶层有是怎么样走向衰弱的呢?在小编看来,制度成了贵族逐渐消亡的第一块敲门砖。隋唐时期开始的一项重要的人才选拔制度就是,开始改变原有的世袭贵族的绝对地位。因此隋唐的科举制有力的冲击贵族阶层,使得平民开始有了通过自己的努力改变自己的命运的可能。

How did the aristocratic class of Tang Dynasty go to decline? In the eyes of Xiaobian, the system became the first stepping stone for the gradual disappearance of the aristocracy. An important talent selection system started in Sui and Tang Dynasties was to change the absolute status of the original hereditary aristocrats. Therefore, the imperial examination system of Sui and Tang dynasties had a strong impact on the aristocracy, making it possible for civilians to change their own destiny through their own efforts.

  可时间轴拨到宋朝,寒门已经开始成为“天子门生”,贵族踪迹难寻。宋朝的开国皇帝虽然是武将也是武力夺权的帝王,但是他清醒地意识到唐末和的政治弊病,开始重文轻武,大力鼓励读书。到了更是发出了“书中自有黄金屋,书中自有颜如玉”的号召,不仅提高了读书人的地位,还大规模的扩招科举入仕做官的官员。可见从宋朝开始宋朝的统治者是十分的重视寒门士子和各个阶层的读书人,在贵族不堪大用的时候,寒门入仕的平民阶层来维护自己的统治。

But when the time axis was shifted to the Song Dynasty, the humble family had begun to become the "son of heaven" and the aristocracy was hard to find. Although the founding emperor of Song Dynasty was a military general as well as a king who seized power by force, he was clearly aware of the political disadvantages of he in the late Tang Dynasty, and began to attach importance to literature rather than military, and strongly encouraged reading. In the end, it issued a call that "there is a gold house in the book, and there is a jade in the book". It not only improved the status of scholars, but also expanded the recruitment of officials in the imperial examination. It can be seen that since the Song Dynasty, the rulers of the Song Dynasty attached great importance to the scholars of the Han clan and all classes. When the aristocrats were in great use, the civilian class of the Han clan entered the government to maintain their rule.

  以上是我们从制度上解读贵族衰弱的原因,贵族的衰亡还有历史选择的必然。其实早在五代十国时期,贵族就已经开始展现出衰败之象,很多的贵族子弟因为是世袭,无论是有无功绩,仍然可以稳坐祖上官位。没有生存的压力,安逸了自然不学无术找乐子。真正给这些唐朝贵族下一剂猛药的是。黄巢是唐末的一位农民起义军领袖,同时还是一位嗜血的杀人狂魔。在公元880年的时候,黄巢攻占长安的时候就曾下令屠长安城,长安城白骨成堆而大唐的朝中贵族几乎都在这次的屠城中被。

The above is the reason why we interpret the decline of aristocracy from the perspective of system. The decline of aristocracy also has the necessity of historical choice. In fact, as early as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the aristocracy has begun to show the image of decline. Many aristocratic children, because they are hereditary, can still firmly sit on the ancestral throne, no matter whether they have achievements or not. There is no pressure to survive, so it's easy to have fun without learning. What really gave these Tang nobles a powerful medicine. Huang Chao was a leader of the peasant uprising army in the late Tang Dynasty, and also a bloodthirsty murderer. In 880 A.D., when Huang Chao captured Chang'an, he ordered to kill Chang'an city. There were lots of bones in Chang'an City, and almost all the nobles in the Tang Dynasty were killed in the city.

  虽然黄巢的叛军之后被平定了,唐朝的贵族早已大势不在。给唐朝贵族下第二剂猛药的是,计划谋朝的朱温也是嗜杀的一位主,再次对唐朝的贵族进行清洗。中国的贵族大概是在这时候走进了集体灭亡的境地,而在之后的频繁的战乱中这些贵族几乎消失殆尽。

Although the rebellion of Huangchao was later pacified, the aristocracy of Tang Dynasty had already disappeared. Zhu Wen, who planned to plan for the Tang Dynasty, was also a murderous Lord, who once again purged the nobles of the Tang Dynasty. At this time, the Chinese aristocracy probably went into the situation of collective destruction, and in the frequent wars afterwards, these aristocrats almost disappeared.

  终上所述,我们会发现中国贵族的灭亡既是统治者为维护统治所制定的科举制度起到了替代作用,也是战乱优胜劣汰的历史必然选择。而这个关键的时间节点就是唐朝,唐朝此后再无贵族,一个平民的时代开始了。

In the end, we will find that the demise of the Chinese aristocracy is not only an alternative to the imperial examination system formulated by the rulers to maintain their rule, but also an inevitable choice for the survival of the fittest in the war. The key time node is the Tang Dynasty. Since then, there has been no aristocracy, and the era of common people has begun.

  对此各位看官是否有不同的看法呢?欢迎大家在评论区留言哦。

Do you have different opinions on this? Welcome to leave a message in the comment area.

  参考文献:《中国社会史》、《唐朝那些事》、《大唐兴亡三百年》、《中国科举制度通史》、《太祖朱温大传》

References: social history of China, those events of the Tang Dynasty, 300 years of the rise and fall of the Tang Dynasty, general history of China's imperial examination system, biography of Taizu Zhu Wen

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