Food allergy refers to the abnormal immune response of the body to the ingredients in food, which leads to physiological dysfunction or tissue damage, and then causes a series of clinical symptoms. Some people think that food allergy is "skin rash, itchy want to hit the wall". In fact, the performance of food allergy varies from person to person, skin rash is only one of its manifestations, but also often manifested as gastrointestinal discomfort, oral ulcer, asthma, etc., which may lead to anaphylactic shock. Now follow 360 common sense net to understand!
What food can cause allergy?
There are many foods that can cause allergy, but for most people, there are mainly the following categories of foods that are easy to be allergic:
Cereals and products containing gluten, such as wheat, rye, barley, oats, spelt wheat or their hybrids;
Crustaceans and their products, such as shrimp, lobster, crab, etc;
Fish and its products;
Eggs and their products;
Peanut and its products;
Soybean and its products;
Milk and dairy products, including lactose;
Nuts and nut products, such as almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, cashews, pecans, Brazil nuts, etc.
In addition, fruits such as orange, kiwi, strawberry and banana, meat such as beef, mutton, chicken and pork, and other foods such as celery, mustard and sesame may cause allergies.
How does food allergy break?
It's a pity that now we haven't got a cure for food allergy. We can only rely on not eating the food that causes allergy. As a result, people with allergies are generally very careful with their food. However, it's better to say that a single food is afraid of some complex compound food. I don't know if there is something hidden in it that can make me win. It's like gambling when I buy it. What should I do?
The best way is to "find out the enemy from the shadow and expose to the sun". That is to say, clearly write on the food label which allergens are contained, so as to know your own and your enemy and prevent eating allergens.
Allergen labeling is important
Labeling allergen information on food label is very important for avoiding food allergy and protecting consumers' health. At present, many countries are forced to clearly label allergens, such as the United States, Japan and so on. However, China's national food safety standard, general principles for the labeling of prepackaged food (gb7718-2011), does not require the labeling of allergens. Therefore, the labeling of allergens in domestic food is not standardized at present. Some foods are not labeled at all, but in different forms. Some of them are not easy to find even if they are labeled. Therefore, many experts suggest that we should pay attention to this problem and standardize the labeling of allergens.
In addition, China's export food is often recalled because of no allergen labeling or allergen labeling is not qualified, which brings adverse effects to export enterprises. Therefore, no matter from the perspective of consumer health protection or international trade, we should improve food labeling management and pay attention to allergen information.
Three ways to deal with food allergy
速发型食物过敏能在进食后迅速发生，患者自己就能很快发现；但是迟发型食物过敏多在进食后两小时左右出现，较难与进食联系。这需要患者和医护人员共同努力，详细询问和回忆病史。患者可配合医生记录食物日记，有助于发现过敏的食物。通过回忆病史和发病前的食物，对高度怀疑的过敏原进行较安全的皮肤点刺试验和血清过敏原 IgE 检查，以明确食物过敏的诊断。
Fast food allergy can occur quickly after eating, and patients can find it quickly; however, late food allergy usually occurs about two hours after eating, which is difficult to contact with eating. This requires the patient and medical staff to work together to ask and recall the history in detail. The patient can cooperate with the doctor to record the food diary, which is helpful to find the allergic food. By recalling the history and the food before the onset of the disease, the safe skin prick test and serum allergen IgE test were carried out for the highly suspected allergens to make clear the diagnosis of food allergy.
The mild food allergy can be relieved naturally or improved after the treatment of antiallergic drugs. For the patients with severe food allergy, the key to the treatment is to quickly relieve the airway obstruction and circulatory failure. Epinephrine should be given intramuscularly first. If the attack is far away from the hospital, it is necessary to equip the high-risk objects who may have anaphylactic shock with adrenaline drugs and injection devices to teach the patients to save themselves in the event of an accident. This has become the main way to rescue anaphylactic shock in most countries.
预防原则可归纳为四个字：避、忌、替、移。其中最有效的办法是避免进食已知的可引起过敏的食物。有的婴幼儿患者长大后对过敏食物的反应会消失，而成人在避免食用过敏食物后 1～2 年，对该食物过敏的现象也能逐渐减弱或消失。
The principle of prevention can be summed up into four words: avoid, avoid, replace and move. The most effective way is to avoid eating foods that are known to cause allergies. Some infant patients will disappear when they grow up, while adults will gradually weaken or disappear when they avoid eating allergic food for 1-2 years.