战国时期的魏武卒所向披靡,为什么吴起之后再无魏武卒?-看世界

战国时期的魏武卒所向披靡,为什么吴起之后再无魏武卒?

  在战国中前期群雄争霸的战场上,魏国的“魏武卒”,是一支令列国震撼的力量。

  今天小编为大家带来了一篇关于的文章,欢迎阅读哦~

Today's editor brings you an article about, welcome to read~

  在战国中前期群雄争霸的战场上,的“魏武卒”,是一支令列国震撼的力量。

In the middle and early Warring States period, the "Wei Wu pawn" was a force that shocked the other countries.

  魏武卒,时代由战国军事家亲手创建的军事力量。以与《汉书》的记载,这支部队的每一个步兵,必须具备穿重甲背重弩,半天内奔跑一百里的强大实力。外加军事家吴起极度严格的训练,终于令这支部队。早在吴起镇守西河的时候,魏武卒就迸发出强大的战力,多次以少胜多,将骁勇善战的一步步“碾”出西河要地,精彩撑起魏国的霸业。

Wei Wuzu, the military force created by the militarists of the Warring States period. According to the records of Hanshu, every infantry of this army must have the strong strength of wearing heavy armour, carrying heavy crossbow and running 100 li in half a day. In addition, Wu Qi, a military strategist, had extremely strict training, which finally led to the army. As early as when Wuqi was guarding Xihe River, the soldiers of Weiwu burst out with great fighting power, winning more with less for many times, and "crushing" the valiant and skilful soldiers step by step out of the important area of Xihe River, so as to support the hegemony of Weiguo.

  仅仅就是在吴起统帅期间,这支魏武卒部队,就与战国列强经历了七十六次大战,其中六十四次大胜,其他十二次战平,真正的不败虎师。哪怕吴起因为魏国内部朝堂的倾轧,不得不含恨出走。但他亲手打造的这支魏武卒,依然长期保持着旺盛的战斗力。在至时代,多次打出精彩的战役,特别是令变法前的秦国,长期被堵在西河以西,几乎无力东进。

Just during the period of Wuqi's commander in chief, the army of Weiwu experienced seventy-six wars with the Warring States powers, 64 of which won great victories, and the other 12 drew. It was the true invincible tiger division. Even if Wuqi had to leave because of the internal strife of Wei Dynasty. However, the Wei Wu pawn he built by himself still has a long-term strong fighting capacity. In the era to, many wonderful battles were fought, especially the state of Qin before the reform, which had been blocked in the west of the West River for a long time, and could hardly move eastward.

  虽说在魏惠王时代,随着魏惠王的多次用人与战略失误,魏国在各条战线上遭受惨败,终于一蹶不振。曾经名震天下的魏武卒也彻底损失殆尽,再不复当年之勇。但这支部队曾经强悍的战斗力,依然令后世很多历史票友们生出畅想:倘若战国中后期,魏国能够再次重建一支魏武卒部队。马陵之战后长期积弱的魏国,能不能幡然重振?呼啸东出的秦国大军,会不会再次被堵回里?甚至,战国的历史会不会改写?

Although in the era of King Hui of Wei, with his many mistakes in personnel and strategy, the state of Wei suffered a tragic defeat on all fronts and finally fell into a depression. Weiwu soldiers, once famous in the world, also lost their courage completely. However, the once powerful fighting capacity of this army still makes many historical voters of later generations imagine that if the middle and late Warring States period, the state of Wei can rebuild a military unit of Wei again. After the war of mauling, can the long-term weak state of Wei be revived? Will the roaring army of Qin be blocked back again? Or will the history of the Warring States be rewritten?

  但如果仔细看看战国的形势,这个话题,恐怕就是一个让人沮丧的答案:重建魏武卒,对于战国中后期的魏国来说,几乎是不可能的任务。

But if you look at the situation of the Warring States period carefully, this topic is probably a depressing answer: to rebuild Wei Wuzu, it is almost impossible for Wei in the middle and late Warring States period.

  首先一个原因,就是经济问题。

The first reason is the economic problem.

  魏武卒为什么强悍?除了创建者吴起本人的卓越才能外,更重要的原因,就是其独特的制度:当时的魏国,废除了旧有的制度,采取郡县征兵的新制度。士兵们的待遇十分优厚。特别是能够入选魏武卒,对于士兵们来说,不止意味着莫大的荣誉,更意味着实实在在的利益——每个魏武卒都能分到田宅,且能免除全部的徭役。有如此巨大的利益,这些优中选优的“兵王”们当然士气爆棚,每次打仗都嗷嗷叫。

In addition to the outstanding ability of the founder Wu Qi, the more important reason is his unique system: the state of Wei abolished the old system and adopted the new system of county conscription. The soldiers are well paid. In particular, being selected as a member of the Weiwu army means not only great honor, but also real benefits for the soldiers. Every Weiwu army can be divided into fields and houses, and all the corvee can be exempted. With such huge benefits, the "king of war" who is the best among the best, of course, has a high morale and cries every time they fight.

  但这样的优厚制度,却是建立在魏国当时强大的经济实力上的。经过魏文侯变法的魏国,农业与冶铁业的发展突飞猛进,今天出土的战国时期魏国的各类铁器,无不展现了强大的技术。其农业水平更是长足进步,邺城等地的水利兴修红红火火,魏国河东的盐税也是财源滚滚,粮食储备更无比雄厚。这强大的本钱,才让魏国能够豪气砸钱,不惜重金打造这样一支王牌劲旅。

However, such a system was based on the strong economic strength of the state of Wei at that time. After Wei Wenhou's reform, the development of agriculture and iron smelting industry has made rapid progress. Today, all kinds of iron wares unearthed in the Warring States period show strong technology. Its agricultural level has made great progress. The water conservancy in Yecheng and other places is booming. The salt tax in Hedong of Weiguo is also a source of wealth, and the grain reserves are more abundant. This powerful capital allowed Wei state to throw money with great boldness, at any cost to build such a powerful trump card brigade.

  可是,随着马陵之战魏国的战败,当时的魏国,早已不是当年那般风光。物产丰富的西河,这片当年魏武卒般打下的土地,早已被秦国收入囊中。东部更面临新兴强国的威胁。处于东西两强夹击下的魏国,国土经济损失都极其严重,短期之内,根本没有力量重建魏武卒。

However, with the defeat of Wei in the battle of mausoleum, the state of Wei at that time was not as beautiful as before. Xihe River, rich in natural resources, has long been included in the income of the state of Qin. The East is more threatened by emerging powers. Under the attack of the eastern and Western powers, the economic losses of Wei state were extremely serious. In a short period of time, there was no power to rebuild the soldiers.

  而且更重要的一条是,当年魏文侯改革时,还是“”的伊始,作为“”的魏国,其东部的齐国与西部的秦国,这两个强敌正陷入到内耗中。南方国土广阔的楚国,也正是国力困顿时。此时的魏国,正好可以大展拳脚,践行变法强国的大业。而马陵之战后,战国争霸战争已经空前加剧,秦齐楚各大国征战不休,夹在中间的魏国,应对列国的攻伐,已是。重建?强国?那都不是短期内,甚至不是一代人能完成的事。

What's more, when Wei Wenhou reformed, it was still the beginning of "Wei". As the "Wei state", Qi State in the East and Qin State in the west, these two powerful enemies are falling into internal strife. The state of Chu, with its vast territory in the south, was also in a state of great difficulty. At this time, the state of Wei just can show its strength and practice the great cause of reform and power. After the war of Marling, the war of Warring States for hegemony has been intensified unprecedentedly. The great powers of Qin, Qi and Chu have been fighting endlessly. The state of Wei, sandwiched in the middle, should deal with the attack of other countries. Rebuilding a strong country is not something that can be done in a short time, or even in a generation.

  可以说,倘若当时的魏国,真有决心重建魏武卒,他们也需要拿出卧薪尝胆的勇气来,历经一两代的忍辱负重。方有可能成功。

It can be said that if the state of Wei at that time was really determined to rebuild its soldiers, they also need to show the courage to bear hardships and endure humiliation for one or two generations. Fang may succeed.

  但这一条,却恰是魏国更大的短板:如果说魏惠王时代,是魏国兴衰的转折点,那么魏惠王之后,魏国更没有了这样的统治者。

But this one is just a bigger weakness of the state of Wei: if the era of the king of Wei Hui is the turning point of the rise and fall of the state of Wei, then after the king of Wei Hui, there is no such ruler in the state of Wei.

  马陵之战后,彻底丧失强国地位的魏国,绝大多数的时候,都是破罐子破摔。面对强秦的威胁,基本都靠割地来应对。土地越割越少,国力越来越弱。图强?那是很遥远的事情。

After the war of mauling, the Wei state, which lost its position as a powerful country completely, most of the time, was broken. In the face of the threat of strong Qin Dynasty, we basically rely on cutting off the land to deal with it. The less the land is cut, the weaker the national strength is. Tuqiang? That's a long way off.

  而且,以魏国国王的格局,如果魏国真有人重建了魏武卒,他们恐怕更不安心。不信就看,他在位时期,魏国拥有这样的顶级人才,能够上演窃符救赵的经典妙笔。可这样一个卓越人物,也依然在魏安釐王的猜忌下郁郁而终。可以想象,倘若信陵君能够训练一支魏武卒,此时的魏国国王,又怎么会安心,又怎么会容得下?

Moreover, with the pattern of the king of Wei state, if someone in the state of Wei really rebuilt the soldiers, they would be even more uneasy. If you don't believe it, during his reign, the state of Wei had such a top talent, who could perform the classic magic pen of stealing Fu and saving Zhao. However, such an outstanding person is still depressed under the suspicion of King Wei Anli. It can be imagined that if xinlingjun could train a military soldier of Wei, how could the king of Wei at that time be at ease and tolerant?

  于是,无力重建魏武卒的魏国,其衰落和亡国的命运,自然也不可避免——乍一看,是因为魏国缺少了那样精锐的军队。但即使,这个军事问题,也不止是军事问题。

Therefore, it is inevitable that the state of Wei, unable to rebuild its soldiers, will decline and die. At first glance, it is because of the lack of such an elite army. But even this military issue is not just a military one.

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