刘秀为什么总能打胜仗?刘秀靠什么成为一个优秀的国君?-看世界

刘秀为什么总能打胜仗?刘秀靠什么成为一个优秀的国君?

  刘秀是公认的“最会打仗的皇帝”(毛主席语),明末思想家王夫之如此评价刘秀:

  今天小编为大家带来靠什么成为一个优秀的国君?希望对你们能有所帮助。

Today, what does Xiaobian bring to you to become an excellent monarch? I hope it can help you.

  刘秀是公认的“最会打仗的”(毛主席语),明末思想家王夫之如此评价刘秀:

Liu Xiu is generally recognized as "the most able to fight" (Chairman Mao's words). Wang Fuzhi, a thinker in the late Ming Dynasty, said of Liu Xiu:

  “光武之得天下,较高帝而尤难矣!三代而下,取天下者,唯光武独焉,而其次也。自三代而下,唯光武允冠百王矣。光武之神武不可测也。”

"It's more difficult for Guangwu to win the world than for the emperor! Three generations later, the only way to win the world is Guangwu, and the second is also Guangwu. From three generations down, only Guangwu allowed to crown one hundred kings. The magic of light and martial arts is unpredictable. "

  那么,刘秀凭什么总能打胜仗?他到底有什么独到之处呢?

So, why does Liu Xiu always win? What is his originality?

  刘秀

Liu Xiu

  关于刘秀的军事战术思想,论述颇多,本文不赘述。笔者认为,比他的战术思想更重要的是他的军事团队管理思想,和军事战略思想。

There are a lot of discussions on Liu Xiu's military and tactical thoughts, which will not be covered in this paper. In my opinion, more important than his tactical thoughts are his military team management thoughts and military strategic thoughts.

  刘秀的军事团队管理“三字经”:精、合、通

Liu Xiu's "Three Character Classic" of military team management: precision, harmony and communication

  刘秀对军事团队的管理要求,可以概括为三句话:团队构成要精干,宁缺毋滥;团队骨干要通才,上马能治军,下马能治郡;军事行动有配合,以协同作战取胜。

Liu Xiu's management requirements for the military team can be summed up in three sentences: the team composition should be lean, rather lack than abuse; the backbone of the team should be versatile, able to run the army on horseback, and able to run the county on horseback; the military action should be coordinated to win through coordinated operations.

  精:边纳降边遣散,始终保持精干的团队

Elite: reduce while demobilize, always keep a lean team

  刘秀历经的战斗,大多数是以少搏多,尤其是在平定齐地之前,兵力常常捉襟见肘。比如,更始三年刘秀登基前,他派遣西征,“中分麾下精兵两万”,就给了可怜巴巴的两万人,还是中分(一半)。

Most of Liu Xiu's battles have been fought with little effort, especially before he calmed down the land. For example, before Liu Xiu ascended the throne in the third year of the revolution, he sent the western expedition, "20000 elite soldiers under Zhongfen", which gave the poor Baba 20000 people, or Zhongfen (half).

  邓禹

Deng Yu

  那时候的刘秀,已经通过吞并铜马、青犊等农民军,把自己做成了“大富豪”:“悉将降人分配诸将,众遂数十万,故关西号光武为‘铜马帝’。”

At that time, Liu Xiu had become a "magnate" by annexing the peasant army of Tongma, Qingdu, etc.: "knowing that he was going to send people to the generals, hundreds of thousands of them came, so Guangwu was called" Tongma emperor "

  既然这么多兵马,对邓禹太抠门了嘛!其实不是,是刘秀将收编的队伍,大多都被遣散了。比较大规模的遣散行动有三次,一次是统一河北战争中收拢的铜马、青犊军等,第二次是邓禹攻克河东地区后,招募的地方武装,第三次是在关中收降的割据武装。

Since there are so many soldiers and horses, they are too stingy to Deng Yu. In fact, most of the teams Liu Xiu will recruit have been dismissed. There were three large-scale dismissals, one was the Tongma army and Qingdu army gathered in the war of unifying Hebei Province, the second was the local armed forces recruited by Deng Yu after he conquered Hedong area, and the third was the separatist armed forces collected and demobilized in Guanzhong.

  这些武装势力有一个共同特点:都是农民武装。他们数量虽然庞大,往往拖家带口,战斗力不强,所以,战斗一结束,刘秀都将他们遣散返乡。

These armed forces have one common feature: they are all peasant armed forces. Although they are large in number, they often lead families and have poor combat effectiveness. Therefore, once the battle is over, Liu Xiu will send them back home.

  在二征隗嚣的时候,刘秀告诫:你收拢来的士兵战斗力不强,留着空耗粮食,万一出现逃兵,还影响军心,要赶紧遣散他们。哪个将军嫌自己人多?吴汉当然不舍得,结果跟刘秀预料的,当吴汉正在与隗嚣打得最艰苦的时候,收拢来的士兵纷纷逃往,大军士气一落千丈,吴汉只能败退,丢了到手的胜果。

During the second battle, Liu Xiu warned: the soldiers you gathered are not strong in fighting power, and they are left with empty grain. In case of desertion, it will also affect the morale of the army, so they should be dismissed as soon as possible. Which general thinks he has too many people? Of course, Wu Han didn't give up. As Liu Xiu predicted, when Wu Han was fighting with kaixiao the hardest, the gathered soldiers fled one after another, and the morale of the army fell sharply. Wu Han could only lose the victory.

  吴汉

Wu Han

  队伍要精,宁缺毋滥,这句话说起来简单,但是像刘秀那样,真正把它作为团队管理的核心思想来执行的,少之又少。

It's easy to say that the team should be excellent rather than lacking. But like Liu Xiu, there are few people who really implement it as the core idea of team management.

  合:群狼战术,队伍内部的协同作战

Cooperation: Coyote tactics, cooperative operations within the team

  刘秀打仗很喜欢用一种战术——群狼战术,一场战役多位将军相互配合作战,以合力取胜。

Liu Xiu likes to use a kind of tactics - the wolf tactics. In a battle, many generals cooperate with each other to win.

  刘秀的部队是部曲性质,手下大将很多是家族私人武装,因为这个独特性,刘秀的军制似乎“条块分割”,各自为战,看起来不适合打配合战。但是刘秀偏偏就喜欢群狼战术,每一场争斗,他都会同时征调几路人马“群殴”。

Liu Xiu's army is of a trilogy nature, and many of his generals are family private armed forces. Because of this uniqueness, Liu Xiu's military system seems to be "divided into sections", fighting on its own and not suitable for cooperative warfare. But Liu Xiu just likes the wolf tactics. In every fight, he will recruit several people and horses to fight together.

  比如平王郎,所有的将军们一起上,平定河北义军,也是一场群狼逐猎,只有邓禹和冯异西征、南征,是由单方面军独立完成的军事行动。

For example, pingwanglang, all the generals went together to pacify the Hebei rebel army, which was also a hunt for wolves. Only Deng Yu and Feng Yi marched westward and southward, which was an independent military operation carried out by a single front army.

  部曲性质最大的隐患就是利益分割,不容易统一指挥,刘秀靠什么能让将军们做到相互配合,相互协调呢?指挥一元制和行动目标化。

The biggest hidden danger of the nature of the trilogy is the division of interests, which is not easy to unify the command. What can Liu Xiu rely on to make the generals cooperate with each other and coordinate with each other? The command unitary system and action targeting.

  刘秀

Liu Xiu

  虽然是多支部队配合作战,但是总指挥只有一人,每次都不固定,不以职务高低为准,比如,大司马吴汉,就多次作为助手,配合岑彭、祭尊、等人的军事行动。另外战前各部队的行动目标由刘秀亲自参与制定,以目标化管理部队之间的协作,避免了诸多纠纷。

Although there are many troops to cooperate in the battle, there is only one commander in chief, who is not fixed every time and does not depend on his position. For example, the chief commander, Ma Wuhan, has served as an assistant for many times to cooperate with the military operations of cenpeng, Jizun and others. In addition, before the war, Liu Xiu personally participated in the formulation of the operational objectives of the various forces, and managed the cooperation among the forces with objectives, avoiding many disputes.

  刘秀的配合战,最大的好处就是,相互之间可以起到弥补作用,避免了个人可能的失利,对整个战局的影响。比如,吴汉在南阳郡被打残后,靠的人马撑住了局面;被董宪打败后,靠吴汉、、、的支援,又扳回了局面。

The biggest advantage of Liu Xiu's cooperation war is that they can make up for each other, avoid personal possible failure and influence the whole war situation. For example, after Wu Han was beaten and maimed in Nanyang County, he relied on his men and horses to support the situation; after he was defeated by Dong Xian, he relied on the support of Wu Han,,, and pulled the situation back.

  通:文武双全,骨干队伍的基本特征

Communication: the basic characteristics of the backbone team

  仔细梳理的生平经历,就会发现一个有趣的现象:将军们大多是文人出身,以儒将居多,这恐怕是历朝历代开国功臣中绝无仅有的奇观!

If you carefully comb your life experience, you will find an interesting phenomenon: generals are mostly literati, with the majority of Confucian generals, which is probably the only wonder among the founders of the past dynasties!

  刘秀的功臣们大多来自于两类人:一是豪门士族地主阶级,二是新朝士族官员。这两类人都有一个共同点:都是读书人出身。这就是刘秀的将军们,大多是文人的原因。

Most of Liu Xiu's meritorious officials come from two kinds of people: one is the aristocratic landlord class, the other is the officials of the new dynasty. Both of them have one thing in common: they are all scholars. This is why Liu Xiu's generals are mostly literati.

  岑彭

Cen Peng

  文人带兵打仗,总有一点公鸡打鸣的意思,能行吗?事实证明,不光行,而且很优秀。将军们马上治军,马下治郡,武能定国,文能安邦。冯异、岑彭、、、就是其中最杰出的代表,每攻克一地,将军们立刻任命官员,梳理行政事务,安定地方百姓,让到手的地盘,迅速恢复秩序,老百姓对刘秀的归心,就是这么来的。

The literati always have the meaning of rooster crowing when they lead the soldiers to fight. Can they do it? Facts have proved that they are not only good, but also excellent. The generals immediately run the army, the county, the country and the country. Feng Yi, cen Peng,,, are the most outstanding representatives. Every time they conquer a place, the generals immediately appoint officials, sort out administrative affairs, stabilize local people, let the territory they have, and quickly restore order. That's how the people come to Liu Xiu's heart.

  文武双全的骨干力量,给团队带来的沟通成本大大降低。比如上面所讲,团队在条块分割状态下,能完成密切配合,就跟将军们的整体素质有很大关系。

The backbone of both culture and martial arts greatly reduces the communication cost to the team. For example, as mentioned above, if the team can complete close cooperation under the condition of block division, it has a lot to do with the overall quality of the generals.

  再比如说,一般团队中的派系斗争,往往会闹得很复杂,甚至你死我活(比如手下的淮西派和浙东派)。刘秀的团队,平静地像一潭死水,从来没有大的矛盾冲突爆发,更没有复杂的派系斗争。翻遍史书,刘秀是“绝版”。

For another example, the factional struggle in the general team is often very complicated, even life and death (such as the Huaixi faction and the East Zhejiang faction). Liu Xiu's team is like a stagnant pool of water. There has never been a big conflict or complicated factional struggle. Looking through historical books, Liu Xiu is out of print.

  刘秀的军事战略思想“三字经”:慎、止、仁

Liu Xiu's "three character classics" of military strategic thought: caution, restraint and benevolence

  战争的胜负在战术,决定战术的是战略,刘秀的战术里,始终渗透着慎战、知止和仁爱的核心思想,这些思想就是指导战争的战略核心。

The victory or defeat of the war lies in the tactics, which are decided by the strategy. Liu Xiu's tactics are always permeated with the core ideas of careful warfare, knowledge and benevolence, which are the strategic core guiding the war.

  刘秀

Liu Xiu

  慎战,不打无谓之仗

Be careful not to fight meaningless battles

  刘秀是一代战神,但同时他又是一个极其厌恶战争的人(《》:帝积苦兵间),他对战争的态度是,能不打就尽量不打。这样的例子,在刘秀身上比比皆是。

Liu Xiu is a god of war, but at the same time, he is a man who hates war very much. Such examples are everywhere in Liu Xiu.

  比如,为了以和平手段拿下洛阳,他抛开杀兄成见,以宽恕为代价,兵不血刃占据洛阳。

For example, in order to win Luoyang by peaceful means, he put aside the stereotype of killing his brother and occupied Luoyang at the cost of forgiveness.

  对左右摇摆的阀隗嚣,刘秀,对他进行了长达五六年不间断的劝说,甚至隗嚣被打得只剩一下一座孤城时,他还试图说服隗嚣:“若束手自诣,父子相见,保无佗也。”

Liu Xiu has been persuading him for five or six years. Even when he was beaten to a lonely city, he tried to persuade him: "if you can't help yourself, your father and your son will meet each other, and there is no Tuo."

  最后一个对手,在被攻破都城前夕,刘秀还在给他写信劝降:“往年诏书比下,开示恩信,勿以来歙、岑彭受害自疑。今以时自诣,则家族完全;若迷惑不喻,为肉虎口,通哉奈何!将士疲惫,吏士思归,不乐久相屯守,诏书手记,不可数得,朕不食言。”

The last opponent, on the eve of being defeated by the capital, Liu Xiu still wrote to him to persuade him to surrender: "in the past years, compared with the imperial edicts, he expressed his gratitude and trust, so as not to doubt that he and cenpeng had suffered from it. Now, if we have reached the goal of the times, our family is complete. If we don't understand it, it's a meat and tiger mouth. What can we do? The generals are tired, the officials want to return, and they are not happy to be garrisoned for a long time. The imperial edicts are written by hand, which can't be counted. I don't break my promise. "

  公孙述

Gongsun Shuo

  这姿态,好像要失败的是刘秀。刘秀此举,绝非故作姿态,他对投降者历来优待,比如朱鲔,比如刘盆子、,甚至不断怂恿隗嚣与他作对的王元,被迫投降后,刘秀也给了他一个郡太守的官衔。

This gesture seems to fail Liu Xiu. Liu Xiu's action is not a pretense. He has always treated the capitulators favorably, such as Zhu tuna, such as Liu Bonzi, or even Wang Yuan, who constantly encouraged him to fight against him. After he was forced to surrender, Liu Xiu also gave him the rank of county chief.

  这些行为,都显示了刘秀对战争的基本态度——不打无谓之仗,慎战!《兵法》说,战争的最高境界就是“不战而屈人之兵”,开篇就以“兵者,国之大事,死生之地,存亡之道”,告诫人们,慎战、不战才是战争的核心。刘秀能成为战神级人物,正是因为秉承了兵家“慎战”的思想。

These behaviors all show Liu Xiu's basic attitude towards war -- not to fight meaningless battles, but to be cautious about fighting! "Art of war" says that the highest level of war is "to defeat people without fighting". At the beginning, it begins with "soldiers, state affairs, places of death and ways of survival". It warns people that careful fighting and not fighting are the core of war. Liu xiuneng became a god of war figure precisely because he inherited the strategist's thought of "careful fighting".

  知止,不求完胜立足不败

Know how to stop, never win, never lose

  知止是一种境界,也是刘秀的战争艺术,他不做力所不能及之事,也不做企图超出预期的事。很多人的失败,不是因为不够成功,而是在追求完胜的过程中,栽了跟头!知止的战略指导思想,让刘秀很少打败仗,更不会惨败。

Zhizhi is not only a state, but also Liu Xiu's art of war. He doesn't do things beyond his power, or try to exceed his expectations. Many people fail not because they are not successful enough, but because they stumble in the pursuit of success! The strategic guiding ideology of Zhizhi makes Liu Xiu seldom lose, let alone fail miserably.

  刘秀

Liu Xiu

  彭宠反叛后,负责救援的刘隆行动失败,刘秀不顾朱浮的请求,放任彭宠两年没有征讨,原因就是力所不能及,不能“怒而兴兵”,必须克制个人欲望。二征隗嚣,因为吴汉的失误,导致粮草供应困难,刘秀又及时撤军,不求完胜。

After Peng Chong rebelled, Liu long, who was in charge of rescue, failed. Liu Xiu, despite Zhu Fu's request, let Peng Chong go for two years without asking for help. The reason is that he can't "rise the army in anger" and must restrain his personal desire. In the second battle, due to the mistakes of Wu and Han Dynasties, the supply of food and grass was difficult. Liu Xiu withdrew in time, not seeking complete victory.

  邓禹西征后期,屡屡受挫,刘秀几次下诏,令邓禹放弃西征。邓禹无法面对西征失败,不顾刘秀诏令,对连续发动“自杀式”袭击,结果,出征时两万人,回来时仅剩二十四骑!

In the late period of Deng Yu's western expedition, he was frustrated repeatedly. Liu Xiu issued several imperial edicts to Deng Yu to give up the western expedition. Deng Yu was unable to face the failure of the western expedition. Despite Liu Xiu's edict, he launched a "suicide" attack on a row of people. As a result, when he went out, he had 20000 people, and when he came back, he had only 24!

  在征讨河北农民军时,刘秀特别注意“知止”,不做的事,甚至主动帮他们设计好出路。刘秀还曾经利用这一点,给更始政权的大将谢躬挖了个大坑。那一回,刘秀耍了个阴招,怂恿谢躬对青犊军“包饺子”,谢躬果然上当了,走投无路的青犊军反过来把谢躬杀得大败而逃。

Liu Xiu paid special attention to what he didn't do and even helped them design their way out. Liu Xiu also used this to dig a big hole for Xie Bowe, the general who changed the regime. That time, Liu Xiu played a sinister move to encourage Xie Bowe to "make dumplings" for Qingdu army. Xie Bowe was really pawned. The desperate Qingdu army in turn killed Xie Bowe and fled.

  克制欲望,及时停手,看着消极,其实大智慧,虽有可能错失完胜的机会,但往往让自己立于不败之地。战争的结果,往往不取决于赢了多少,而是避免栽跟头!比如,一生都很牛,乌江一战就送命!

Control desire, stop in time, and look at the negative. In fact, great wisdom may miss the chance to win, but often keeps itself invincible. The outcome of a war often doesn't depend on how much you win, but on avoiding a fall! For example, you've been a bull all your life and died in the first World War in Wujiang!

  铜马军势力范围

Tongma army's sphere of influence

  仁爱,让战争不失回到本源

Benevolence, let war return to its origin

  如果说刘秀配不得一个“仁”字,绝没有第二位开国之君敢用这个字!刘秀将他的“仁”,贯穿于战争之中。从数量上来说,刘秀消灭的农民军数量最庞大,至少一百多万。有人说农民军战斗力弱,好对付,那么请问,更始政权为何败在赤眉军手下?的新朝为何对付不了农民军?邓禹也被农民军打得?事实上,农民军的摧毁能力绝对一流,他们滚雪球式的人数暴涨速度,让谁见了都要发狂。与其说刘秀打败了他们,莫不如说刘秀征服了他们。刘秀跟农民军作战,就两条原则:一是降服,二是遣散。农民军都是一群为生存底线而战的人,一旦被逼到绝路上,他们的战斗力比谁都强,可是如果给他们出路,他们立刻又回到最淳朴的状态。这需要仁爱之心,真正走到他们的心里去。

If Liu Xiu can't match the word "Ren", no second founding monarch dare to use it! Liu Xiu runs his "Ren" throughout the war. In terms of quantity, Liu Xiu destroyed the largest number of peasant troops, at least more than one million. Some people say that the peasant army is weak and easy to deal with. Then why did the regime change lose under the red eyebrow army? Why can't the new dynasty deal with the peasant army? Deng Yu was also beaten by the peasant army? In fact, the destruction ability of the peasant army is absolutely first-class. Their snowball like population surge speed makes everyone crazy. It's not so much Liu Xiu defeated them as Liu Xiu conquered them. Liu Xiu fought with the peasant army on two principles: first, surrender, and second, demobilization. The peasant army is a group of people fighting for the bottom line of survival. Once they are cornered, their combat effectiveness is better than anyone else. But if they are given a way out, they will immediately return to the most simple state. It takes a heart of love to really reach them.

  战铜马刘秀为何被人称作“铜马帝”?就是因为铜马军几乎整体搬移到刘秀帐下了。刘秀是怎么降服他们的呢?诚意、大爱!“降者犹不自安,光武知其意,敕令各归营勒兵,乃自乘轻骑按行部陈。降者更相语曰:‘萧王推赤心置人

Why is Liu Xiu called "the copper horse emperor"? It's because the copper horse army almost moved to Liu Xiu's account as a whole. How did Liu Xiu subdue them? Sincerity and great love! "Those who came down were still uneasy. They only knew their intentions by martial arts, and ordered them to return to the barracks and enlist soldiers, but they rode on their own light bikes and followed the lines of Chen. The lower said: "King Xiao pushes his heart to set people up

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