战国时期的两次秦国会盟!为何一个被扣留,一个可以全身而退?-看世界

战国时期的两次秦国会盟!为何一个被扣留,一个可以全身而退?

  在春秋战国时期,各个诸侯之间的会盟,无疑是比较常见的事情。比如齐桓公、晋文公等霸主,就在春秋时期多次举行会盟。一般来说,在春秋战国时期的会盟中,很少出现扣留对方君主的情况。但是,凡事总有例外,比如在春秋时期,楚国就在会盟时扣留了宋国君主宋襄公。不过,让楚国没有想到的是,自己也会有被人扣留的时候。

  战国时期的两次秦国会盟!小编为大家带来相关内容,感兴趣的小伙伴快来看看吧。

During the Warring States period, there were two Qin states leagues! I've brought you relevant contents. Please come and have a look at them.

  在时期,各个诸侯之间的会盟,无疑是比较常见的事情。比如、等霸主,就在春秋时期多次举行会盟。一般来说,在春秋战国时期的会盟中,很少出现扣留对方君主的情况。但是,凡事总有例外,比如在春秋时期,就在会盟时扣留了君主。不过,让楚国没有想到的是,自己也会有被人扣留的时候。

In the period, the alliance among the princes was undoubtedly a common thing. For example, in the spring and Autumn period, the hegemonic leaders held many meetings. Generally speaking, in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, there were few cases of detaining each other's monarchs. However, there are always exceptions. For example, in the spring and Autumn period, the monarch was detained during the alliance. However, what Chu didn't expect was that he would be detained.

  公元前299年,秦国攻占了楚国八座城池,秦昭襄王约楚怀王在武关会面。楚怀王不听昭睢、劝告,决定前往武关,结果被秦国扣留。与此相对应的是,在扣留楚怀王之后,秦国还和举行会盟,虽然发生了不愉快的事情,秦国却不敢扣留。那么,问题来了,秦国敢扣留楚怀王,却不敢扣留赵惠文王,是因为秦国怕赵国吗?

In 299 BC, the state of Qin conquered eight cities of the state of Chu. King Zhaoxiang of Qin asked King Huai of Chu to meet him in Wuguan. King Huai of Chu did not listen to zhaosui and advice, so he decided to go to Wuguan and was detained by the state of Qin. Correspondingly, after detaining King Huai of Chu, the state of Qin held a meeting with him. Although something unpleasant happened, the state of Qin dare not detain it. So, the question is, does Qin dare to detain King Huai of Chu, but dare not detain King Huiwen of Zhao, because Qin is afraid of Zhao?

  一

One

  “渑池会盟”是发生公元前279年,秦赵两国议定在渑池西河之外进行会盟。在渑池会盟中,秦昭襄王以强凌弱,胁迫赵惠文王鼓瑟且令记入秦史。赵国大臣愤然而起,请秦昭襄王击缶,后者怒而不允,蔺相如正气凛然迫使秦昭襄王击缶,亦令记入赵史。秦昭襄即恼羞成怒,但是,即便是这样,秦国也不敢扣留赵惠文王。

The "union of Mianchi" took place in 279 B.C. In the union of Mianchi, King Zhaoxiang of Qin Dynasty forced King Huiwen of Zhao Dynasty to beat the weak, and recorded it in the history of Qin Dynasty. The Minister of Zhao was indignant and asked the king of Qin Zhaoxiang to hit the fou. The latter was angry and refused. Lin Xiangru forced the king of Qin Zhaoxiang to hit the fou, which was also recorded in the history of Zhao. Qin Zhaoxiang became angry, but even so, the state of Qin did not dare to detain Zhao Huiwen.

  最终,渑池会盟让蔺相如名扬千古,并受到赵惠文王的重用。与此相对应的是,秦国在扣留楚怀王上,则是没有丝毫顾虑。对于为什么秦国敢扣留楚怀王,却不敢扣留赵惠文王这一问题,笔者认为原因分为以下几点。一方面,这是因为赵国国力强盛,秦国不敢和赵国轻易开战。

Finally, the union of Mianchi made Lin Xiangru famous for thousands of years, and was reused by Zhao Huiwen. In contrast, the state of Qin had no worries about detaining the king of Chu Huai. The reasons why Qin dare to detain King Huai of Chu, but dare not detain King Huiwen of Zhao are as follows. On the one hand, this is because the state of Zhao is so powerful that the state of Qin dare not fight with Zhao easily.

  二

Two

  “渑池会盟”是发生公元前279年,而大约始于公元前307年。也即经过胡服骑射后,赵国的国力明显增强,不仅消灭了,还向西边林胡、楼烦用兵,促使赵国的疆域到达云中(今内蒙古托克托县)、九原(今内蒙古包头市)等地。因此,如此强盛的赵国,自然令秦昭襄王所忌惮。与此相对应的是,秦国扣留楚怀王这一事件,发生于公元前299年。

The "union of Mianchi" took place in 279 B.C. and began about 307 B.C. That is to say, after Hu Fu's horse riding and shooting, Zhao's national strength was significantly enhanced. Not only was it eliminated, but also Lin Hu and Lou fan used their troops to the west, pushing Zhao's territory to Yunzhong (today's Tuoketuo County in Inner Mongolia), Jiuyuan (today's Baotou City in Inner Mongolia) and other places. Therefore, such a powerful state of Zhao naturally frightened the king of Zhaoxiang. Corresponding to this, the detention of the king of Chu Huai by the state of Qin took place in 299 BC.

  在此之前,楚国先是在丹阳之战、中败给了秦国,丢失了汉中之地等大片疆域,又在中败给了、、、秦国,从而损失了大量的兵力。正是因为楚国连续遭到重创,秦昭襄王这才有了扣留楚怀王,而不担心楚国报复的底气,因为当时的楚国,正是需要休养生息,恢复国力的阶段,无法反击秦国。但是,如果秦国扣留赵惠文王,赵国自然会反击秦国。

Before that, Chu lost to Qin in the battle of Danyang, lost a lot of territory in Hanzhong, and lost to,,, Qin in the middle, thus losing a lot of troops. It is precisely because the state of Chu has been severely damaged in succession that King Zhaoxiang of Qin has the foundation to detain the king of Chu without worrying about the Revenge of the state of Chu. Because the state of Chu at that time, just in the stage of recuperation and restoration of national strength, is unable to fight back against the state of Qin. However, if the state of Qin detained Zhao Huiwen, the state of Zhao would naturally fight back against the state of Qin.

  三

Three

  更为关键的是,在扣留楚怀王之前,秦国和楚国已经多次交手了。对于楚国的实力,秦国已经是知根知底了。但是,对于秦国来说,赵国还是一个未知的对手,也即双方还没有爆发大规模的战役。比如大家熟悉的,发生于公元前269年,也即渑池会盟的10年后。由此,秦国还没有全面掌握赵国的实力,贸然扣留赵惠文王,确实不是一个理智的选择。

What's more, before detaining the king Huai of Chu, the state of Qin and the state of Chu had already met several times. For the strength of Chu state, Qin State has already known the root and the bottom. However, for Qin state, Zhao state is still an unknown opponent, that is, the two sides have not yet launched a large-scale campaign. For example, as you are familiar with, it happened in 269 B.C., 10 years after the union of Mianchi. Therefore, the Qin State has not fully grasped the strength of Zhao state. It is not a rational choice to detain Zhao Huiwen.

  另一方面,会盟地点的不同,也是楚怀王、赵惠文王结局不同的原因之一。对于楚怀王来说,和秦昭襄王是在武关会盟的,武关当时是秦国的疆域,也即楚怀王这是在羊入虎口。而就渑池会盟来说,当时渑池尚且是韩国的邑,虽然渑池距离秦国比较近,但是,这毕竟是韩国的疆域。对于韩国来说,时而倒向秦国,时而倒向赵国和魏国,其立场无法确定,这也是秦昭襄王没有轻举妄动的重要原因。

On the other hand, the different location of the alliance is one of the reasons for the different ending of King Huai of Chu and King Huiwen of Zhao. For King Huai of Chu, he and King Zhaoxiang of Qin met in Wuguan, which was the territory of Qin state at that time, that is to say, King Huai of Chu entered the tiger's mouth. As for the minchi alliance, at that time, minchi was the capital of South Korea. Although it was close to the Qin state, it was the territory of South Korea after all. For South Korea, sometimes to Qin, sometimes to Zhao and Wei, its position can not be determined, which is also the important reason why King Zhaoxiang didn't act recklessly.

  四

Four

  最后,在渑池会盟时,蔺相如还做了后手准备,也即让率领大军在赵国和韩国的边境等待,只要秦昭襄王敢扣留赵惠文王,廉颇就会立即率军精锐的赵军前来营救。因此,在渑池会盟中,赵国可谓做了比较充分的准备,从而帮助赵惠文王全身而退。但是,楚怀王不听昭睢、屈原劝告,决定前往武关,结果被秦国扣留。

At last, Lin Xiangru made preparations to lead the army to wait at the border between Zhao and South Korea. As long as king Zhaoxiang of Qin dared to detain King Huiwen of Zhao, Lian Po would immediately lead the elite Zhao army to rescue him. Therefore, in the union of Mianchi, Zhao had made sufficient preparations to help Zhao Huiwen leave. However, King Huai of Chu did not listen to zhaosui and Quyuan's advice and decided to go to Wuguan, which was detained by the state of Qin.

  如果楚怀王也在身后准备一支随时出动的大军,秦昭襄王在扣留楚怀王这一决定上,自然要仔细斟酌了,也即楚怀王准备不充分,或者说一点也没有反制的手段,无疑是他遭到扣留,并最终客死异乡的原因之一。因此,在笔者看来,楚怀王的遭遇确实值得同情,但是,其行为还是需要批评和否定的。进一步来说,楚怀王被秦国扣留,赵惠文王能够全身而退,这说明在在兼并战争激烈的战国时期,任何一点天真和单纯都是无法承受的奢侈。只有铁一般坚定的实用主义之花,才能在这个高冷的季节怒放。

If the king of Chu Huai is also behind to prepare a large army to move out at any time, the king of Qin Zhaoxiang should carefully consider the decision to detain the king of Chu Huai, that is to say, the king of Chu Huai is not fully prepared, or there is no means of counter-control, which is undoubtedly one of the reasons why he was detained and finally died in a foreign country. Therefore, in my opinion, the experience of King Huai of Chu is worthy of sympathy, but his behavior still needs criticism and negation. Furthermore, King Huai of Chu was detained by the state of Qin, and King Huiwen of Zhao was able to retreat completely, which shows that in the Warring States period with the fierce war of annexation, any naive and pure luxury could not be tolerated. Only the iron flower of pragmatism can bloom in this cold season.

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