黄巢起义的战略部署是怎么样的?黄巢为什么要选择南下征战?-看世界

黄巢起义的战略部署是怎么样的?黄巢为什么要选择南下征战?

  古代王朝兴衰更迭的历史中,许多王朝都少不了农民起义的身影,如汉之亡、唐之亡、明之亡等皆是如此。尤其是“安史之乱”后苟延残喘的唐朝,更是因为黄巢起义军的转战,导致其统治基础土崩瓦解,并最终于“黄巢起义”结束的二十年后彻底灭亡。我们今人回顾这段晚唐时期的风云变幻时,可以发现,在这场起义的背后,实际上有许多耐人寻味的细节。

  今天小编为大家带来为什么要选择南下征战?希望对你们能有所帮助。

Why did you choose to go south? I hope it will help you.

  古代王朝兴衰更迭的历史中,许多王朝都少不了农民起义的身影,如汉之亡、唐之亡、明之亡等皆是如此。尤其是“”后苟延残喘的,更是因为军的转战,导致其统治基础,并最终于“黄巢起义”结束的二十年后彻底灭亡。我们今人回顾这段晚唐时期的风云变幻时,可以发现,在这场起义的背后,实际上有许多耐人寻味的细节。

In the history of the rise and fall of ancient dynasties, many dynasties are indispensable to the peasant uprising, such as the fall of Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and so on. In particular, what lingered after the "yellow nest uprising" was the transformation of the army, which led to its ruling foundation and ultimately to its complete destruction twenty years after the end of the "yellow nest uprising". When we look back on the vicissitudes of the late Tang Dynasty, we can find that there are actually many intriguing details behind the uprising.

  根据史料的记载,黄巢起义军的转战路线为先南后北,之后便是由北向南。公元878年,黄巢起义军开始南下征战。这中间,黄巢起义军以迅雷不及掩耳之势迅速南下,至年底,黄巢起义军便进入福建地区,第二年则顺利攻克广州,并生擒其节度使。可见,黄巢起义军的作战范围是相当广泛的,而在其选择南下征战后,更是使得其成为了晚唐时期波及范围最广泛地一次农民起义。那么,历史上的黄巢起义军,为何要选择南下征战?

According to the records of historical materials, the route of the Yellow nest uprising was from the south to the north, and then from the north to the south. In 878 ad, the Yellow nest uprising army began to March south. In the middle of this, the Yellow nest uprising army quickly went south. By the end of the year, the Yellow nest uprising army entered Fujian. The next year, it successfully conquered Guangzhou and captured its envoys. It can be seen that the operation scope of the Yellow nest uprising army is quite extensive, and after its choice of going south, it has become the most extensive peasant uprising in the late Tang Dynasty. So, why did the Yellow nest uprising choose to fight in the south?

  首先,历史上的黄巢起义军,所以会选择南下征战,很大一部分原因,便在于战略上的考量。以当时的情况来看,随着王仙芝的身亡,起义军已经陷入了一个极其尴尬的境地,这个尴尬境地就是,起义军的生存空间已经十分狭小。并且,当时的唐王朝为了能够有效地遏制黄巢起义军,在当时的中原地区部署了重兵。这样的情况下,黄巢曾一度选择向唐王朝诈降。

First of all, the history of the Yellow nest uprising, so they will choose to fight south, a large part of the reason lies in strategic considerations. According to the situation at that time, with the death of Wang Xianzhi, the rebel army has been in a very awkward situation, which is that the living space of the rebel army has been very narrow. Moreover, in order to effectively contain the Yellow nest rebellion, the Tang Dynasty deployed heavy troops in the Central Plains at that time. In this case, Huang Chao once chose to fall to the Tang Dynasty.

  根据《旧唐书》的记载则为“巢乃渡淮,伪降于骈”而在唐王朝的武备有所松懈之后,黄巢则“寻南陷湖、湘,遂据交、广”可见,黄巢起义军当时在中原地区的生存空间,已经被唐王朝压制。因为,自古以来诈降之计,多为迫。史料的记载也间接印证了这一点,在诈降之后不久,黄巢起义军便开始迅速南下征战。而这一南下所展现的也是黄巢起义军战略上的劣势,因为其军中将士,基本都为中原子弟,不到的地步,自然不会选择远离家乡进行征战。

According to the records in the old Tangshu, it is said that "the nest crossed the Huaihe River and fell to Pian River" while after the military preparations of the Tang Dynasty were slackened, Huang Chao "searched for the South Lake and Hunan, and then according to the diplomatic relations and the wide range", it can be seen that the living space of the uprising army in the Central Plains at that time had been suppressed by the Tang Dynasty. Because, since ancient times, the plan of feigning surrender is mostly forced. The records of historical materials also indirectly confirmed this point. Soon after feigning surrender, the Yellow nest uprising army began to March South rapidly. This southward display is also a strategic disadvantage of the Yellow nest uprising army, because its soldiers are basically the children of the Central Plains, so they will not choose to fight far away from their hometown.

  当然,战略上的劣势仅是一方面原因而已。透过史料我们不难推测,黄巢起义军选择南下,同当时唐王朝统治下的南方地区,有种种问题相关。此前讲过,自“安史之乱”后,供应钱粮的重任,近乎全部落在了南方地区。这样的情况下,在晚唐吏治萎靡的背景下,南方地区的矛盾便已经到了无法调节的地步。

Of course, the strategic disadvantage is only one reason. It is not difficult to speculate from the historical data that the Yellow nest uprising army chose to go south, which was related to various problems in the southern area under the Tang Dynasty at that time. As we have said before, since the "an Shi rebellion", the task of supplying money and food has been almost the whole tribe in the south. In this case, in the context of the decline of official management in the late Tang Dynasty, the contradictions in the southern region have reached an irreconcilable level.

  如在王夫之的《读通鉴论》曾在评价唐懿宗一朝政局时有过这样的评价“夫财上不在国,下不在民”凭此可以推断,唐懿宗、僖宗时期,唐朝已经出现了巨大的财政危机,而作为当时唐朝最为重要的赋税重地,南方地区自然也是如此。而唐王朝当时重要的赋税、官粮以及布匹等等,则多为当地的节度使、刺史截留。此等情况下,一来,南下征战可能有极大的物质收获,再者,南下的黄巢起义军也可以充分借助南方地区的民间矛盾行事。

For example, Wang Fuzhi's "reading the general lessons" once commented on the political situation of Tang Yizong. It can be inferred that in the period of Tang Yizong and guzong, there had been a huge financial crisis in Tang Dynasty, and as the most important place of Taxation in Tang Dynasty, the southern region was naturally the same. In Tang Dynasty, the important taxes, official grains and cloth were mostly withheld by local governors and assassins. Under such circumstances, first of all, the southern expedition may have great material gains. Moreover, the Yellow nest uprising army in the South can also make full use of the folk contradictions in the south.

  其次,唐朝在长江以南地区,虽然也布置有藩镇的存在。但将南方地区的藩镇,同中原地区的藩镇相比,则有很大的差距。这是因为,唐朝中原地区的藩镇,一来在于防遏“”再者,便是维持东南入关中漕运线路。这样的情况下,唐朝的中原藩镇则多备有重兵。反之,南方地区因为负责唐王朝的赋税供应,所以并没有维持大量的兵力,所以其属于唐王朝统治的一个薄弱环节。所以,于当时来看,黄巢起义军南下征战属于一个正确的决定。

Secondly, the Tang Dynasty in the south of the Yangtze River, although there are also layout of the existence of vassals. However, there is a big gap between the southern region and the Central Plains. This is because, in the Central Plains of the Tang Dynasty, one of the vassals was to prevent and control the traffic, and the other was to maintain the transport route from the southeast to Guanzhong. In this case, the Central Plains of the Tang Dynasty were more heavily armed. On the contrary, because the southern region was responsible for the tax supply of the Tang Dynasty, it did not maintain a large number of troops, so it was a weak link of the Tang Dynasty. Therefore, at that time, it was a correct decision for the Yellow nest uprising to March south.

  历史上黄巢起义军南下征战的意义,其实丝毫不亚于起义军攻占长安城。这是因为,在黄巢起义军南下征战的过程中,唐朝的统治基础遭到了巨大地破坏,以至于最终造成了末年,漕运不通的情况,而这点意义对于唐朝的灭亡而言,起到的是不可估量的作用。

In fact, the significance of the Yellow nest uprising army's southward campaign is no less than that of the uprising army's capture of Chang'an city. This is because, in the process of the Yellow nest uprising army's southward expedition, the ruling foundation of Tang Dynasty was greatly damaged, which eventually led to the situation that the water transport was not available in the last year, and this significance played an immeasurable role in the demise of Tang Dynasty.

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