明英宗从敌营回来为何还能复位成功?朱祁钰败在了哪里?-看世界

明英宗从敌营回来为何还能复位成功?朱祁钰败在了哪里?

  明朝有个皇帝,一生大起大落。他从小锦衣玉食、顺风顺水,由太子到皇帝,没有遇到任何挫折,但成年不久就成了敌国的阶下囚。他就是明朝唯一一个被俘虏过的皇帝朱祁镇。当年瓦刺来袭,朱祁镇在宠臣王振的怂恿下携五十万大军御驾北征。奈何瓦刺勇猛,而王振又胡乱指挥,最终明军大败,堂堂一国之君不幸被俘。与此同时,朱祁镇之弟朱祁钰先被孙太后任为监国,接着又被满朝文武推崇为新帝。他和新任兵部尚书于谦相互配合,整顿武装,在北京保卫战中接连取胜。为求和,瓦刺首领也先将朱祁镇送回北京。但此时的皇帝已是朱祁钰,他不甘心将皇位拱手相让,那朱祁镇后来又是如何重获皇位的呢?

  今天小编为大家带来了从敌营回来为何还能复位成功?欢迎阅读哦~

Today, Xiaobian brings you back from the enemy camp. Why can it be reset successfully? Welcome to read~

  有个,一生大起大落。他从小锦衣玉食、顺风顺水,由太子到皇帝,没有遇到任何挫折,但成年不久就成了敌国的阶下囚。他就是明朝唯一一个被俘虏过的皇帝。当年瓦刺来袭,朱祁镇在宠臣的怂恿下携五十万大军御驾北征。奈何瓦刺勇猛,而王振又胡乱指挥,最终明军大败,堂堂一国之君不幸被俘。与此同时,朱祁镇之弟先被孙任为监国,接着又被满朝文武推崇为新帝。他和新任相互配合,整顿武装,在中接连取胜。为求和,瓦刺首领将朱祁镇送回北京。但此时的皇帝已是朱祁钰,他不甘心将皇位拱手相让,那朱祁镇后来又是如何重获皇位的呢?

There is one, a life of ups and downs. He grew up in good clothes and good food, with the wind and water, from the prince to the emperor, without any setbacks, but soon became a prisoner of the enemy. He was the only emperor captured in the Ming Dynasty. At that time, when WACI attacked, Zhuqi Town, encouraged by his favorite minister, led 500000 troops to the north. However, he wa stab was brave, and Wang Zhen commanded at random. At last, the Ming army was defeated and the king of a country was captured. At the same time, Zhu Qizhen's younger brother was first appointed as the supervisor of the state by sun Ren, and then was praised as the new emperor by the Manchu Dynasty. He and the new president cooperated with each other, reorganized the armed forces and won successively in China. In order to make peace, the leader of Wasi sent Zhuqi town back to Beijing. But the emperor at that time was Zhu Qiyu. He was unwilling to surrender the throne. How did Zhu Qizhen regain the throne later?

  明英宗

Mingyingzong

  一、程朱理学根深蒂固,嫡长子继承制深入人心。

First, the philosophy of Cheng and Zhu is deeply rooted, and the system of inheriting the eldest son is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.

  如果说是程朱理学的发起年代,那明朝则是程朱理学的实践阶段。明朝采取八股文考试制度,科考内容完全以的《四书集注》与宋元人注的《五经》为依据。且政府严禁读书人议论政事,只允许其背诵。在这种学习环境下,朝廷命官皆为程朱理学的拥护者。理学在皇帝继承制中体现得最深刻的便是嫡长子皇位继承制。该制度规定:“国家建储,礼以长嫡,天下之本在焉,居长者必立正储君

If it is the age of the initiation of Neo Confucianism, the Ming Dynasty is the stage of its practice. In the Ming Dynasty, the eight part essay examination system was adopted. The contents of the examination were based on the four books and five classics. Moreover, the government forbids scholars to discuss political affairs and only allows them to recite them. In this learning environment, all the officials in the imperial court are supporters of Neo Confucianism. The most profound embodiment of Neo Confucianism in the system of emperor's inheritance is the system of emperor's eldest son's succession. The system stipulates: "the state builds the reserve, the ceremony is to grow the legitimate, the foundation of the world is in Yan, the elder must stand upright and reserve the monarch

”、“兄终弟及,须立嫡母所生者,庶母所生,虽长不得立”。自创立该制度以来,后来者除外无一不遵从。

”"The elder brother, the younger brother and the younger brother must be born by his legitimate mother, but not by his common mother.". Since the establishment of the system, all but the latter have failed to comply.

  可以说该制度深入人心,仅在特殊情况下有所变通。而朱祁钰就是在明朝生死存亡之际获得皇位,但这种非正常登基并不被世人由衷认可。当明朝安定且正主朱祁镇回来之后,遵从理学的官僚集团又开始注重皇位的正统性。在他们眼中,正统身份神圣不可侵犯,德才并不重要。譬如朱棣当年舍弃英勇善战的次子朱高煦,立肥胖无能的嫡长子为储君。所以尽管朱祁镇之前治国不当,且听信小人谗言,使国家陷于水深火热之中,但其与生俱来的嫡长子身份足以获得众多朝臣推崇,而朱祁钰则因身份不正遭到众人反对。不过这些饱受理学熏陶的官僚起初还不至于直接让朱祁钰下台,而是通过极力维护朱祁镇长子的太子之位来确保皇位正统。

It can be said that the system is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, and only has been modified in special circumstances. Zhu Qiyu won the throne in the Ming Dynasty, but this kind of abnormal accession was not recognized by the world. When Zhu Qizhen, the stable and upright leader of the Ming Dynasty, came back, the bureaucrats who followed Neo Confucianism began to pay attention to the orthodoxy of the throne. In their eyes, the orthodox identity is sacrosanct, and virtue is not important. For example, Zhu Di abandoned his second son, Zhu gaoxu, who was brave and good at war, and set up his fat and incompetent eldest son as a reserve prince. Therefore, although Zhu Qizhen had not run the country properly before, and listened to the slander of villains, which made the country in a hot water, but his inborn identity of the first son was enough to be respected by many courtiers, and Zhu Qiyu was opposed because of his improper identity. However, these bureaucrats, who were influenced by Neo Confucianism, did not directly let Zhu Qiyu step down at first, but made great efforts to maintain the position of Prince of Zhu Qizhen's eldest son to ensure the legitimacy of the throne.

  电视剧中的朱祁镇与朱祁钰

Zhu Qizhen and Zhu Qiyu in TV series

  二、朱祁钰优柔寡断,朱祁镇趁机复位。

Second, Zhu Qiyu is indecisive, and Zhu Qizhen takes the opportunity to reset.

  实际上朱祁钰当时已手握重权,如若他向朱棣那般,及时将朱祁镇与其子杀掉就不会酿就后来的悲剧。然而他性格优柔寡断,既狠不下心斩杀兄长与反抗者,又自我怀疑自己的正统地位。早在朱祁镇回来之际,朱祁钰就为皇位一事担心不已。因为他从小也深受理学影响,心中不免对嫡长子继承制有所忌惮。但皇位来之不易,实在不愿主动交出。

In fact, Zhu Qiyu was already in power at that time. If he killed Zhu Qizhen and his son in time as he did to Zhu Di, it would not be a tragedy later. However, he was indecisive and could not kill his elder brother and rebel, and doubted his orthodox status. As early as Zhu Qizhen came back, Zhu Qiyu was worried about the throne. Because he was also deeply influenced by learning from an early age, he was afraid of the inheritance system of his first son. But the throne did not come easily, and he was unwilling to hand it over.

  北京普度寺,明朝时为南宫

Pudu temple in Beijing, south palace in Ming Dynasty

  他为了改变自己非嫡长子继承皇位所陷入的被动局面,废除了朱祁镇长子的太子之位并改立自己的长子。但可惜的是新太子仅立一年半就夭折,而此时宫中有御史徐正告诉他:“今日臣民有望上皇复位者,有望废太子沂王嗣位者,陛下不可不虑。宜出沂王于沂州,增高南城数尺,伐去城边高树,宫门之锁亦宜灌铁,以备非常。”此话并非空穴来风,后来确实有不少大臣上言恢复朱见深的储位。但朱祁钰却毫无警惕,不仅把徐正大骂一顿,还瞻前顾后,不敢对朱祁镇及其子有大动作,生怕臣僚指责他有伤亲之谊。

In order to change the passive situation in which his illegitimate eldest son succeeded to the throne, he abolished the position of Prince of the eldest son of Zhuqi town and changed his eldest son. But it's a pity that the new prince died in only one and a half years. At that time, Xu Zheng, a royal historian in the palace, told him, "Your Majesty must not worry about the people who are expected to return to the Emperor today and who are expected to abolish the throne of Prince Yi. It is advisable to leave Yiwang in Yizhou, increase the height of the South City by a few feet, cut down the tall trees on the edge of the city, and fill the locks of the palace gate with iron in case of emergency. " This is not an empty story. Later, many ministers said that Zhu Jianshen's Reserve would be restored. However, Zhu Qiyu was not alert. He not only scolded Xu Zhengda, but also looked forward to him. He did not dare to make a big move against Zhu Qizhen and his son for fear that his officials would accuse him of hurting his family friendship.

  他也曾下令伐去南宫大树、上铁锁、挺杖上言复储者,但这种不伤筋骨的防范对政变者来说是的。但凡朱祁钰稍有松懈,防范就不复存在。所以当他生病时,少有人关心其龙体,更多人则趁机发起。从某种程度上说,朱祁镇成功复位乃朱祁钰一手造就。

He had also ordered the removal of Nangong trees, the installation of iron locks, and the recovery of those who spoke with sticks, but this kind of defense without hurting their muscles and bones was right for the coup makers. However, if Zhu Qiyu is a little lax, the prevention will no longer exist. So when he was sick, few people cared about his dragon body, and more people took the opportunity to launch. To some extent, the successful restoration of Zhuqi town was created by Zhu Qiyu.

  于谦

Yu Qian

  三、朱祁钰独宠于谦,数权臣妒忌生念。

Third, Zhu Qiyu is only fond of modesty, and several powerful officials are envious.

  于谦“粉骨碎身全不怕,要留清白在人间”的人尽皆知。他性格耿直,容易得罪人,又深受朱祁钰信任,以、为首的朝臣与一类宦官十分嫉妒他。说实在的,于谦受宠程度不仅令人羡慕,还使人感到仕途无望。当时朱祁钰非但将一切政务皆交给他运作,而且对他的生活也关怀备至。比如他生病了,朱祁钰派御医诊治,他所需药材乃皇家专享,朱祁钰直接赐予。这般信任与爱护,一些有想法的大臣自然羡慕嫉妒恨。他们为了离间皇帝与于谦的亲密关系,到处散播谣言。

Yu Qian is known to all who are "not afraid of breaking up the body, but want to stay innocent in the world". He was upright and easy to offend people, and was deeply trusted by Zhu Qiyu. The courtiers and eunuchs who were led by and were very jealous of him. To be honest, Yu Qian's popularity is not only enviable, but also hopeless. At that time, Zhu Qiyu not only entrusted all government affairs to him for operation, but also took care of his life. For example, if he is ill, Zhu Qiyu will send a royal doctor for diagnosis and treatment. The herbs he needs are exclusively for the royal family. Zhu Qiyu will give them directly. Such trust and love, some have ideas of the minister natural envy envy hate. In order to separate the emperor from Yu Qian, they spread rumors everywhere.

  于谦墓

Tomb of Yu Qian

  可是这一切毫无作用,皇帝仍旧信任于谦。由此他们逐渐意识到只要朱祁钰在位一天,就无法撼动于谦的地位,而他们则没有取而代之的可能。只有将朱祁钰连根拔起,他们方能。此外于谦秉性刚正,从不在意权谋,从始至终他既没有建议朱祁钰当心英宗复位,又没有注意到石、徐、曹等人一面争取孙太后支持,一面与英宗暗中谋划。所以直到夺门之变来临,朱祁钰都毫不知情,而朱祁镇则悄无声息地成功复位。

But all this did not work, and the emperor still believed in modesty. Thus they gradually realized that as long as Zhu Qiyu was in power for one day, he could not shake Yu Qian's position, and they had no possibility to replace him. Only when Zhu Qiyu is uprooted can they. In addition, Yu Qian was upright and never cared about power. From the beginning to the end, he did not suggest Zhu Qiyu to be careful about the restoration of Yingzong, nor did he notice that Shi, Xu, Cao and other people sought the support of Empress Dowager sun, while secretly plotting with Yingzong. So until the change came, Zhu Qiyu did not know, and Zhu Qizhen was quietly successfully reset.

  总而言之,朱祁镇的复位之路乃大势所趋。其实他刚从敌营回来那会儿,心中只觉庆幸,并未想夺回皇位,但百官皆有此意,且孙太后也暗中支持,所以他成功复位不足为怪。

In a word, the way to restore Zhuqi town is the general trend. In fact, when he just came back from the enemy camp, he was only thankful that he didn't want to regain the throne, but all the officials wanted to, and Empress Dowager sun also secretly supported him, so it's no surprise that he succeeded in restoring.

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