晚清清政府立宪运动 光绪皇帝慈禧太后如何施政-看世界

晚清清政府立宪运动 光绪皇帝慈禧太后如何施政

  1908年11月14、15日,光绪皇帝和慈禧太后相继离世。这使得革命更加迫在眉睫。光绪皇帝只不过是一个丧失自由的傀儡,装点大清帝国门面的工具,但慈禧太后却是一个有着钢铁般的意志以及非凡手腕的强力统治者。1900年,眼看京城被八国联军占领,她意识到:中国长期以来实行的闭关锁国政策已经走到穷途末路。于是某些改革措施在她的允许下得以推行,这使她的国民吃惊不小,因为在1898年那位年轻的进步的皇帝正是因为鼓励这些改革而受到她的惩罚。慈禧太后究竟想把改革推行到何种程度一直是公众热议的问题;但无论如何,她意识到已经不能采取镇压的手段来对付改革派,所以她因势利导,站出来领导改革。因此她的死给大清王朝的未来带来了极大的不安定因素。进步势力和保守势力,究竟哪一派会在政府中占据主导地位呢?

      传教士看晚清立宪:议员天真地以为在美国

Missionaries' view of constitutionalism in the late Qing Dynasty: members naively think that in the United States

  1908年11月14、15日,皇帝和太后相继离世。这使得革命更加迫在眉睫。光绪皇帝只不过是一个丧失自由的傀儡,装点大清帝国门面的工具,但慈禧太后却是一个有着钢铁般的意志以及非凡手腕的强力统治者。1900年,眼看京城被占领,她意识到:中国长期以来实行的闭关锁国政策已经走到穷途末路。于是某些改革措施在她的允许下得以推行,这使她的国民吃惊不小,因为在1898年那位年轻的进步的皇帝正是因为鼓励这些改革而受到她的惩罚。慈禧太后究竟想把改革推行到何种程度一直是公众热议的问题;但无论如何,她意识到已经不能采取镇压的手段来对付改革派,所以她因势利导,站出来领导改革。因此她的死给大清王朝的未来带来了极大的不安定因素。进步势力和保守势力,究竟哪一派会在政府中占据主导地位呢?

On November 14 and 15, 1908, the emperor and Empress Dowager died one after another. This makes the revolution even more urgent. Emperor Guangxu was just a puppet without freedom and a tool to decorate the front of the Qing Empire, but Empress Dowager Cixi was a powerful ruler with iron will and extraordinary skill. In 1900, seeing the capital occupied, she realized that China's long-standing policy of seclusion had come to an end. So some reforms were carried out with her permission, which surprised her people. In 1898, the young progressive Emperor was punished for encouraging these reforms. The extent to which Empress Dowager Cixi wants to carry out the reform has always been a hot issue among the public. However, she realized that she could not deal with the Reformers by means of repression, so she took advantage of the situation to lead the reform. Therefore, her death brought great unrest to the future of the Qing Dynasty. Which faction, progressive or conservative, will dominate the government?

  光绪死得太巧

Guangxu died so skillfully

  很多人怀疑皇帝的去世不是因为自然原因。慈禧太后身边有很多死忠,无助的皇帝却不喜欢他们。假如太后死了,皇帝还活着,他必将向这些侮辱过他的官员复仇,这些官员的日子不会好过,甚至会丢了性命。不过,光绪皇帝的身体一直很虚弱,年仅37岁去世倒也正常,只不过他死得太巧,仅仅是在慈禧去世的前一天死去,这不得不让很多人产生种种联想。可是表示怀疑的人也拿不出什么证据,因为宫闱秘闻在中国属于最高机密,保守得很严密;不管怎么说,一小部分人坚持认为,如此巧合的死亡实在少见。

Many people suspect that the emperor's death was not due to natural causes. Empress Dowager Ci Xi has a lot of loyal people around her, but the helpless emperor doesn't like them. If the Empress Dowager is dead and the emperor is still alive, he will revenge on the officials who insulted him. The life of these officials will not be easy or even lose their lives. However, Emperor Guangxu's body has always been weak, and it is normal for him to die at the age of 37. However, he died just one day before Cixi's death, which has to make many people have various associations. But the doubters can't give any evidence, because the secrets of the palace are the top secret in China, and they are kept strictly; anyway, a small number of people insist that such a coincidental death is rare.

  皇位的继承者,是慈禧临终前孤注一掷的赌博。这个孩子是光绪的弟弟醇亲王的儿子;醇亲王自己又担任了摄政王,载沣一时位高权重,毕竟是皇帝的亲生父亲,他做起事来便少了很多顾虑。比起前辈皇族来说,载沣拥有更好的时代机遇,可以更多地看到外面的世界。他曾在1901年作为皇室代表前往德国就1900年6月德国公使在京被杀事件道歉。大量事实证明,这位摄政王精力充沛并有发展民主的兴趣。但他还是不具备转型时期的中国所需要的那种卓越领导人的特质。

The heir to the throne is Cixi's last gamble. This child is the son of Prince Chun, Guangxu's younger brother; Prince Chun himself is the Regent, and zaifeng is in a high position for a while. After all, he is the emperor's biological father, so he has a lot of concerns. Compared with the previous royal family, zaifeng has a better opportunity to see the outside world. He went to Germany as a royal representative in 1901 to apologize for the murder of the German minister in Beijing in June 1900. The Regent proved to be energetic and interested in developing democracy. But he still doesn't have the qualities of an outstanding leader that China needs in the transition period.

  新寡的皇后成为了新任皇太后,她干扰了载沣的领导力,她不仅没有帮到小叔子,反而起到了消极作用。这个心胸狭隘的女人对于自己部族的敌人怀有刻骨仇恨。而载沣所做的,也不是在安抚汉人日益高涨的不满情绪,反而激化了这种不满,本应在国家事务中拥有更多发言权的汉人仍然没有太多发言机会。载沣忙着把权力集中到满人手中,他公然任命亲戚朋友担任陆海军及国内事务的最高职位,而这些亲戚朋友有相当一部分缺乏管控能力,性格贪婪、作风腐败。

The new widowed empress became the new empress dowager. She interfered with the leadership of zaifeng. Instead of helping her uncle, she played a negative role. The narrow-minded woman has a deep hatred for the enemies of her tribe. What zaifeng did was not to appease the growing discontent of the Han people, but to intensify the discontent. The Han people who should have more say in the national affairs still did not have much chance to speak. Zaifeng is busy concentrating his power in the hands of Manchu people. He openly appoints relatives and friends to the top positions in land, navy and domestic affairs. Some of these relatives and friends lack control ability, are greedy and corrupt.

  新官上任三把火,载沣上任的第一把火就是罢黜首席军机大臣。在这个争议四起的时期,袁世凯这位最适合为政府出谋划策的政治家被罢官了,他的继任者就是在1906年率领中国代表团访问美国、见多识广的端方。端方是怀有开明思想的满人,这就意味着其仕途将走得更加平稳,很多人寄望于他的领导。然而端方却在1909年10月辞职,这使得所有对中国怀有真诚的朋友对大清王朝的未来感到担忧。表面上看,端方辞职的原因,是他允许下属去拍摄慈禧出殡的全过程,并在慈禧陵墓附近的大树上架起了电线。其实,他辞职的主要压力还是来自宫内的敌人。皇帝的家眷与串通一气,侮辱国家官员,这样的政府还有什么希望呢?

The first fire of the new official's taking office is to depose the chief military secretary. During this period of controversy, Yuan Shikai, the most suitable politician to advise the government, was dismissed. His successor was a well-informed leader who led a Chinese delegation to visit the United States in 1906. Duanfang is a man with enlightened ideas, which means that his official career will be more stable, and many people hope for his leadership. However, duanfang resigned in October 1909, which made all sincere friends to worry about the future of the Qing Dynasty. On the surface, duanfang resigned because he allowed his subordinates to film the whole process of Cixi's funeral and set up wires on the trees near Cixi's mausoleum. In fact, the main pressure of his resignation is from the enemies in the palace. What hope is there for such a government where the emperor's family members collude with each other to insult state officials?

  大清王朝此时的另一个巨大损失是1909年10月4日老牌军机大臣的去世。他去世的那一天对中国而言是极为黯淡的一日。

Another great loss of the Qing Dynasty at this time was the death of the old military aircraft minister on October 4, 1909. The day of his death was a bleak one for China.

  受到新思潮影响的帝国民众在生活中和精神上都发生了很多变化。民心思变,接受了西方知识却只是一知半解的年轻人容易被鼓动且不善服从。中央政府因此而显得愈加羸弱,革命的绝佳时机已经到来。

Many changes have taken place in the life and spirit of the imperial people affected by the new ideological trend. Young people who have accepted Western knowledge but only a little knowledge are easily encouraged and disobedient. As a result, the central government has become weaker, and the best time for revolution has come.

  天真的议员以为自己在美国

Naive congressman thinks he's in America

  立宪运动随即汹涌而至。1909年10月14日是中国历史上一个值得纪念的日子。拥有21名成员的中国第一个省级议会成立。国内多家报纸都用大量篇幅进行了报道,有两家报纸还在头版用大红字来庆祝此事。很多省会城市建立起了雄伟的建筑,用作将来议会的办公地点,有一些则建在旧时考试考棚的废墟上。

The constitutional movement then surged. October 14, 1909 is a memorable day in Chinese history. China's first provincial parliament with 21 members was established. Many domestic newspapers have devoted a lot of space to the report, and two newspapers are also celebrating the event with big red characters on the front page. Many provincial capitals have built majestic buildings to serve as offices for the future parliament, while some have been built on the ruins of the old examination shed.

  然而,这些议员的素质却是千差万别。我们本来就不应该期望,君主制下的民主会因团结和智慧展现出什么特色。因为有些议员的行为根本毫无价值。不过,也有些议员表示他们会严肃对待这份工作,个别议员甚至表现出了自己的能力和勇气。他们对国家事务大胆建言,自由主动地为中央政府提供建议。中央政府对这样的建议虽然表示欢迎,但却不给予重视。地方政府的领袖们很愤怒,因为他们的意见不获中央政府重视,中央和地方之间的因此日益加深。

However, the quality of these members varies greatly. We should not have expected that democracy under the monarchy would show any characteristics due to unity and wisdom. Because the actions of some members are of no value at all. However, some members said they would take the job seriously, and some even showed their ability and courage. They made bold suggestions on state affairs and provided advice to the central government freely and initiatively. Although the central government welcomed such proposals, it did not pay attention to them. The leaders of local governments are angry because their opinions are not valued by the central government, and the relationship between the central government and local governments is deepening.

  国会的自由程度要比省级议会低得多。国会议员并非都由选举产生,其200名成员中有100人实际上是由省议会提名而来的。在美国,统治阶级为了让“安全”的人当选为“老板”而控制参议员选举,同样,这个国会里剩下的100人也是由帝国政府推选的,包括满族皇室、贵族和富商、官员,都是值得朝廷“信赖”的对象。

Congress is much less free than provincial councils. Not all members of Congress are elected. 100 of their 200 members are actually nominated by the provincial assembly. In the United States, the ruling class controls the election of senators in order to make the "safe" people elected as the "boss". Similarly, the remaining 100 people in this Congress are elected by the imperial government, including the Manchu royal family, aristocrats, rich businessmen and officials, which are all worthy of the "trust" of the court.

  国会在1910年10月3日召开的首次会议,再次证明了它无法体现国家的新思想。可是仍然令人惊讶的是,许多国会议员打破了当时的限制,发起了争取国会独立和权力的抗议,虽然这些言行都相当浅薄,这些天真的议员以为自己享有美国国会议员的待遇。考虑到环境因素,这个在专制政府眼皮底下召开的国会还算相对成功,毕竟它表现出了一种独立性,因为原先在清朝皇室秘密监控下的官员聚会也是几乎不可能的。清朝政府最初的计划是在1915年召集国会。立宪派希望能将时间提前,反对党表示了激烈的反对,要求“推迟时间”。最后,由于国会和省议会态度坚决,政府最终被迫妥协,颁布法令将立宪改革时间提前至1913年。

The first meeting of Congress on October 3, 1910, proved once again that it could not embody the new ideas of the country. However, it is still surprising that many members of Congress broke the restrictions at that time and launched a protest for the independence and power of Congress. Although these words and deeds are quite superficial, these naive members think they enjoy the treatment of members of Congress. Considering the environmental factors, the Congress held under the eyes of the autocratic government is relatively successful. After all, it shows a kind of independence, because the gathering of officials originally under the secret control of the Qing Royal family is almost impossible. The original plan of the Qing government was to convene parliament in 1915. The constitutionalists hoped to advance the time, and the opposition expressed fierce opposition and demanded "postponement of time". Finally, due to the resolute attitude of the Congress and provincial assembly, the government was finally forced to compromise and issued a decree to advance the constitutional reform to 1913.

  无论国会有多少缺陷,但它的精神影响力却是巨大的。代议制政府存在的基础是获得了一定范围内的民众的认可,而之前中国人认可的都是专制的皇帝和地方督抚。过去,由于地方自治的传统,士绅们只能在各自的生活区域内发表影响政府的言论,而现在他们已经可以对国家和省级事务发表意见,虽然政府不一定尊重他们的意见。代议制政府的原则一旦确立,就绝对无法取缔,无论它在具体实践中要遭受多长时间的限制。

No matter how flawed Congress is, its spiritual influence is enormous. The existence of representative government is based on the recognition of a certain range of people, while the former Chinese people recognized the autocratic emperors and local governors. In the past, because of the tradition of local autonomy, the gentry could only express their opinions affecting the government in their respective living areas. Now they can express their opinions on the state and provincial affairs, although the government does not necessarily respect their opinions. Once the principle of representative government is established, it can never be banned, no matter how long it will suffer in practice.

  埋藏炸药的导火线被发现得越来越多,政府的恐慌也越来越明显。1911年5月8日,清朝政府颁布法令废除由五名军机大臣组成的军机处,成立由奕劻和十个行政部门首脑组成的立宪内阁。奕劻在这个夏天颁发了一项因“迟到”而传为笑柄的政策,这份出名的政策文件包括如下内容:

More and more detonators have been found, and the government's panic is becoming more and more obvious. On May 8, 1911, the Qing government issued a decree to abolish the military machinery department composed of five military machinery ministers, and set up a constitutional cabinet composed of Yizhe and ten heads of administrative departments. This summer, Yi Chu issued a policy that became a laughingstock for being late. This famous policy document includes the following:

  官方体制正在进行改革,组织内阁的目的是建立负责任的政府以及指导宪政的准备过程—皇太后和皇上很清楚现在国家正处于关键时刻,因此命令引进宪政,将实施宪政作为让国家强大的唯一方法。皇帝陛下对此极为关注。他很留意人们的呼声,因此缩短了建立立宪政府的时间。这一改变需要政府做出极大努力。

The official system is undergoing reform. The purpose of organizing the cabinet is to establish a responsible government and guide the preparation process of constitutionalism. The Empress Dowager and the emperor know that the country is at a critical moment, so they order to introduce constitutionalism and take the implementation of constitutionalism as the only way to make the country strong. His majesty paid great attention to this. He paid close attention to people's voices, so he shortened the time for the establishment of a constitutional government. This change requires great efforts from the government.

  孤立于世终将被全面交往所取代,我们的保守政策也应由进步政策所替代。我国的财政、内政、教育、工业、交通、司法、国防、从属国事务、国际事务和其他事务都须改革,所有领域都不应落下。

Isolation from the world will eventually be replaced by comprehensive exchanges, and our conservative policies should also be replaced by progressive policies. China's finance, internal affairs, education, industry, transportation, justice, national defense, subordinate affairs, international affairs and other affairs must be reformed, and all areas should not be left behind.

  政策“来得太迟”

Policy "too late"

  这项政策的确“来得太迟”,因为腐朽的满族勋贵小圈子所实施的政策已没有人再相信。腐败、反动和低效的统治阶层已不能满足中国新精神的需要。这个集团除了个别人以外,已经承认了任何事情都是被迫行之,要不是出于恐惧,他们一步都不想动。

This policy is indeed "too late", because no one believes the policy implemented by the decadent Manchu meritorious minority. The corrupt, reactionary and inefficient ruling class can no longer meet the needs of China's new spirit. The group has admitted that everything is forced to do except for the individual. If it is not for fear, they do not want to move at all.

  革命时机已然成熟,一系列的起义事件让革命的到来不可避免。可怕的征兆接踵而至,惶惶不安的摄政王发布公告,可怜兮兮地承诺他将答应实施所有能平息民愤的条件。

The time of revolution is ripe. A series of uprisings make the revolution inevitable. Terrible signs followed, and the distraught Regent issued a proclamation, pitifully promising that he would grant all the conditions that would quell the public's anger.

  然而最终在10月10日爆发。1911年10月下旬,惶恐不安的载沣拥立五岁的小皇帝登基,并不顾脸面地发布罪己诏,表示帝国目前面临的困境“都是他自己的错”。

But it eventually erupted on October 10. In late October 1911, Dai Feng, who was in a panic, established a five-year-old emperor to the throne, and did not face to face to issue an imperial edict of guilt, saying that the current difficulties facing the Empire were "all his own fault".

  这种面子情结实在太可笑,载沣的罪己诏让痛苦和滑稽在其中混为一体。

This kind of face complex is really ridiculous. The guilt of zaifeng calls for the combination of pain and funny.

  国会在北京再次召开,并立即采取了一种积极进攻的态度。100名满清勋贵被另外的100名议员胁迫得不敢张嘴说话,即便是他们当中的温和派在试图发言时也因被大肆嘲弄而选择了闭嘴。于是,在一次会议中,国会就确立了宪法的19个基本原则,比1907年宣布的立宪计划迈出了一大步。这些基本原则仅给君主留下了毫无实质意义的权力,使人民成为了国家的真正主人,虽然他们要处于严格的有限立宪政府管理之下。11月3日,载沣发布诏令接受十九条基本原则,并表示他“将专门用一天时间前往太庙向清朝列祖列宗宣告,并向全国张贴皇榜公布宪法”。

Congress reconvened in Beijing and immediately took a positive attitude. 100 Manchu chiungui were too intimidated by another 100 members to open their mouths. Even the moderates among them chose to shut up because they were ridiculed. Thus, in a meeting, Congress established 19 basic principles of the constitution, a big step forward from the constitutional plan announced in 1907. These basic principles only leave the monarch with meaningless power and make the people become the real masters of the country, although they are under the strict management of a limited constitutional government. On November 3, zaifeng issued an imperial edict to accept the 19 basic principles and said that he would "go to Taimiao for one day to announce to the ancestors of the Qing Dynasty, and post the constitution to the whole country.".

  与此同时,战火在加速燃烧。11月3日,上海光复,革命派拥有了出海口,并控制了这一海关税收丰厚的战略基地。留守南京这个六朝古都的清朝将领负隅顽抗,革命军不得不与之开战。12月3日城破之日,守城的清朝将领组织了几支没来得及逃离和等着政府发饷的部队作了零星抵抗,最终

At the same time, the fighting is speeding up. On November 3, Shanghai was restored. The revolutionaries had access to the sea and controlled this strategic base with rich customs revenue. The generals of the Qing Dynasty who stayed in Nanjing, the ancient capital of the Six Dynasties, had to fight against it. On December 3, when the city was broken, the generals of the Qing Dynasty organized several troops who had not been able to escape and waited for the government to pay to make sporadic resistance

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