清东陵未解之谜:康熙皇帝的景陵为何三度起火?-看世界

清东陵未解之谜:康熙皇帝的景陵为何三度起火?

  清东陵这块风水宝地,早在明朝的时候就被预定为皇家兆域,可还未及修建,明朝就灭亡了。清入关后,顺治皇帝相中了这里,说“此山王气葱郁非常,可以为朕寿宫”。作为清朝入关后的第一位皇帝,他的孝陵是清东陵中的第一座皇陵,自然是风水最好,规模也最大,占地面积约22万平方米,南北长达11华里。不过,几百年来,民间,特别是东陵地区一直流传着孝陵是空的,顺治帝根本就没有葬入地宫的说法。

      清东陵是中国最后一个王朝首要的帝王后妃陵墓群,也是中国现存规模最大、体系最完整的古帝陵建筑,共建有皇陵五座—帝的孝陵、帝的景陵、帝的裕陵、帝的定陵、帝的惠陵,以及东()、西()等后陵四座、妃园五座、公主陵一座,计埋葬14个皇后和136个妃嫔。  孝陵真的是空的吗?

The eastern Mausoleum of Qing Dynasty is the first mausoleum group of emperors and empresses in the last dynasty of China. It is also the largest and most complete ancient mausoleum building in China. There are five mausoleums, namely, the emperor's Xiao mausoleum, the emperor's Jing mausoleum, the emperor's Yu mausoleum, the emperor's Ding mausoleum and the emperor's Hui mausoleum. There are four mausoleums, five imperial gardens and one princess mausoleum, including the East Mausoleum and the West mausoleum. They are planned to bury 14 empresses and 136 concubines. Is Xiaoling really empty?

  清东陵这块风水宝地,早在的时候就被预定为皇家兆域,可还未及修建,明朝就灭亡了。清入关后,相中了这里,说“此山王气葱郁非常,可以为朕寿宫”。作为入关后的第一位皇帝,他的孝陵是清东陵中的第一座皇陵,自然是风水最好,规模也最大,占地面积约22万平方米,南北长达11华里。不过,几百年来,民间,特别是东陵地区一直流传着孝陵是空的,顺治帝根本就没有葬入地宫的说法。

Dongling, a geomantic treasure land in the Qing Dynasty, was set as a royal Zhaoyu as early as it was built, but before it was built, the Ming Dynasty was destroyed. After entering the pass of the Qing Dynasty, we met here and said, "this mountain is very green and can be called zhenshou palace.". As the first emperor after entering the pass, his Xiaoling is the first imperial mausoleum in the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty. Naturally, Fengshui is the best, with the largest scale, covering an area of about 220000 square meters and 11 Li from north to south. However, for hundreds of years, people, especially in Dongling area, have been saying that Xiaoling is empty. Emperor Shunzhi did not bury it in the underground palace at all.

  花费巨资修建一座陵寝却空着不用,这种说法的确有点匪夷所思,可顺治出家的故事又不得不让人相信这孝陵地宫是空的。传说他在宠妃死后痛不欲生、万念俱灰,一下子看破了红尘,出家当和尚去了。

It's a little strange to say that it costs a lot to build a mausoleum but it's empty. But the story of Shunzhi's becoming a monk has to make people believe that the underground palace of Xiaoling is empty. It's said that after the death of his beloved concubine, he was so miserable that he suddenly saw through the world of mortals and became a monk.

  历史上顺治帝是否真的遁入佛门?据考证,他确乎一度在西苑万善殿削发,头发真的给剃了。可不承想,皇太后赶来,威胁着要把他的佛门师兄烧死,顺治帝不得已才答应蓄发留俗。

Did emperor Shunzhi really escape into Buddhism in history? According to the research, he really shaved his hair at wanshandian, Xiyuan. However, the Empress Dowager came here and threatened to burn his Buddhist elder martial brother. Emperor Shunzhi had no choice but to reserve his hair and stay in the secular world.

  那顺治帝到底是怎么殡天的呢?不管是清朝编纂的正史《世祖实录》,还是《玉林国师年谱》等文献都一致证实,顺治帝死于当时的不治之症——天花,尸体在他死后的一百天火化,骨灰盛于坛内,称为宝宫,于康熙二年葬入孝陵地宫。与顺治一同入葬的还有孝康、孝献两位皇后的骨灰。所以地宫中并不是空的,而是有三个宝宫,也就是我们常说的骨灰坛子。

How did emperor Shunzhi bury heaven? Whether it is the official history of the Qing Dynasty, such as the records of Shizu, or the annals of Yulin Guoshi, it is unanimously confirmed that emperor Shunzhi died of the incurable disease smallpox at that time. The body was cremated a hundred days after his death, and the ashes were stored in the altar, called the Treasure Palace. In the second year of Kangxi, it was buried in the underground palace of Xiaoling. Along with Shunzhi, the ashes of two queens, Xiaokang and Xiaoxian, were buried. Therefore, the underground palace is not empty, but has three treasure palaces, which we often call the urn jar.

  ■孝陵为何从未被盗?

Why has Xiaoling never been stolen?

  清朝灭亡后,清东陵的所有陵寝几乎都被盗贼光顾过,连那些王爷、公主、保姆的墓都无一幸免。而令人不解的是,清东陵的主陵,顺治帝的孝陵却奇迹般逃过了魔掌,如有神佑。

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, almost all the tombs of the eastern Tomb of the Qing Dynasty were visited by thieves, even the tombs of the princes, princesses and nannies were not spared. What is puzzling is that the main Mausoleum of the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty and the Xiaoling of the emperor Shunzhi miraculously escaped from the clutches of the devil, as if blessed.

  其实孝陵之所以成为清东陵唯一没有被盗的陵寝,倒是应该感谢民间传说,就是前面提到的顺治并没有葬入地宫的传说。既然是空的,自然没有什么,这就使大部分盗贼对它失去了兴趣。另外,皇家随葬物品,一般为金银制品、珠宝玉器之类,是用来填补棺缝儿的。而孝陵的地宫里根本就没有棺椁,只不过就是三个骨灰坛子,坛子是不需要填缝儿的,哪里来的珍宝?而且,孝陵的功德碑上的的确确写着“皇考遗命:山陵不崇饰,不藏金玉宝器”。不管是不是此地无银三百两,这些真真假假的传闻,的确起到了保护孝陵的作用。当然,仍有盗贼几次偷挖孝陵,抱着试试看的侥幸心理。幸好当时已经是新中国成立的前后,东陵各村的民兵都加强了戒备,盗匪没能得手,只留下一个不足两米深的大洞

In fact, the reason why Xiaoling became the only mausoleum in the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty that was not stolen is that we should thank the folklore that Shunzhi was not buried in the underground palace. Since it's empty, it's nothing, which makes most thieves lose interest in it. In addition, royal burial objects, generally gold and silver products, jewelry and jade, are used to fill the coffin. There is no coffin in the underground palace of Xiaoling, just three urn jars, which don't need to be caulked. Where is the treasure? What's more, the inscription on Xiaoling's merit and virtue stele really says "the imperial examination's last order: the mausoleum does not worship ornaments and does not store gold and jade treasures". Whether there is no silver here or not, these true and false rumors really play a role in protecting Xiaoling. Of course, there are still thieves who have dug Xiaoling several times, holding the fluke mentality of trying. Fortunately, before and after the founding of the people's Republic of China, the militia in Dongling villages strengthened their vigilance. The bandits failed, leaving only a big hole less than two meters deep

  ■景陵为何三度起火?

Why did jingling burn three times?

  相对孝陵而言,的景陵就没那么幸运了。康熙皇帝在位61年,在文治武功上都取得了重大成就。他开创了中国封建社会的康乾盛世,素有“康熙大帝”之美誉。但不知道为什么,与清朝其他陵寝相比,康熙皇帝的景陵明显的多灾多难。

Compared with Xiaoling, jingling is not so lucky. Emperor Kangxi has been in power for 61 years, and has made great achievements in the arts and martial arts. He created the prosperous period of Kangxi and Qianlong in the feudal society of China, known as "Emperor Kangxi". But I don't know why, compared with other mausoleums of the Qing Dynasty, the jingling Mausoleum of Emperor Kangxi was obviously in disaster.

  十二年(1832年)正月,景陵东西朝房的房檐先后起火,幸亏扑救及时,未造成火灾。道光帝仍严厉惩处了护陵官兵。

In the first month of the 12th year (1832), the eaves of the East and West courthouses in Jingling were on fire successively. Fortunately, the fire was put out in time, but no fire was caused. Emperor Daoguang still severely punished the guards.

  三十一年(1905年)二月二十日早晨,景陵隆恩殿檐际突然起火,景陵隆恩殿内供放着康熙皇帝和4位皇后、1位皇贵妃的神牌。随着烈焰腾空,火势蔓延,整个大殿很快变成了一座火山。这是继光绪二年(1876年)孝陵神功圣德碑亭被烧后,清东陵发生的第二次大火灾。光绪皇帝听说景陵的隆恩殿被烧后震怒,立刻派户部尚书赵尔巽、军机大臣兼户部右侍郎铁良为钦差大臣专程到东陵查办此案。两位钦差大臣用尽了各种手段,折腾了十几天,既未查出火因,也未拿到凶犯,只得回京了。他们在写给光绪帝的奏折中无可奈何地说:火自上出,查无可疑形迹。对此光绪帝也无计可施,最后只得不了了之。

On the morning of February 20, 1905, a fire broke out in the eaves of longen hall in Jingling. There were God cards for Emperor Kangxi, four queens and one imperial concubine in longen hall in Jingling. As the flames soared and spread, the whole hall soon became a volcano. This is the second big fire in the eastern Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty after the burning of the stele Pavilion of Shengde, the magic work of Xiaoling in 1876. When Emperor Guangxu heard that the Longen Hall of Jingling was burned, he immediately sent Zhao Erxun, the Minister of the Ministry of household, and Tieliang, the Minister of military aircraft and the right servant of the Ministry of household, to investigate the case in Dongling. The two Imperial Envoys tried all kinds of means and struggled for more than ten days. They didn't find out the cause of the fire or get the murderer, so they had to go back to Beijing. In the memorial they wrote to Emperor Guangxu, they said helplessly: fire comes from the top and there is no suspicious trace. Emperor Guangxu had nothing to do with it, so he had to end it.

  ■景陵多灾多难为哪般?

■ why is jingling in disaster?

  在惊心动魄的1928年7月那场东陵大盗案期间,景陵地面建筑就已残缺不全。一些木件多有盗损。据后来负责重殓的宗室载泽等记忆,景陵小碑亭周围柁云均失,天花板丢失3块,神厨库门窗均失……尽管如此,由于当时的民风还比较纯朴,景陵地宫尚未发生像慈禧、乾隆那样的掘棺扬尸大案。

During the terrifying robbery of Dongling in July 1928, the ground buildings of Jingling were incomplete. Some wood pieces are damaged by pilferage. According to the memory of Dai Ze, who was later responsible for the funeral, the cloud around the small tablet Pavilion in Jingling was lost, three pieces of ceiling were lost, and the doors and windows of the kitchen were lost However, due to the simple folkway at that time, there was no grave digging and body lifting case like Cixi and Qianlong in Jingling underground palace.

  可是,到1945年,时局动荡,东陵一带沉寂了多年的盗匪便又开始活跃起来。这样,景陵地宫便遭到了灭顶之灾。

However, in 1945, the current situation was turbulent, and the bandits who had been silent for many years in Dongling began to be active again. In this way, jingling underground palace was destroyed.

  景陵的地宫同已开放的裕陵地宫一样,为9券4门式结构,异常坚固,但清附地宫同明陵地宫相比,却又显得十分简单,即地宫入口明显,就在月牙城内,琉璃照壁下线正中处。

The underground palace of Jingling is the same as that of Yuling, which has been opened. It has a 9-ticket-4-door structure and is extremely solid. However, compared with the underground palace of mingling, the underground palace of Qing Dynasty is very simple. That is to say, the entrance of the underground palace is obvious, just in the Crescent City, the center of the line of the glass screen.

  1945年8月,当地人张某带领一队人来到景陵,在陵院内拆了一大堆砖,也未能进入。于是他派出不少人站岗,让精明强干的人整整刨了一夜,才得以进入地宫之中。由于正值雨季,地宫内积水很多,当盗匪们来到金券中时,看到许多棺椁。盗贼急切地用斧劈棺时,棺内突然冒出火来,当场烧伤了2个人,吓得匪徒们四散而去。过了一会儿,看看没什么动静,盗匪才再次进入地宫之中……康熙大帝及其4后1妃的骸骨也被四散在地宫内。

In August 1945, a local man, Zhang Mou, led a team of people to jingling, where they demolished a lot of bricks and failed to enter. So he sent a lot of people to stand guard, so that the smart and capable people planed all night before they could enter the underground palace. Due to the rainy season, there is a lot of water in the underground palace. When the robbers came to the gold coupon, they saw many coffins. When the robber was cutting the coffin with an axe eagerly, a fire suddenly came out of the coffin, and two people were burned on the spot, which scared the bandits away. After a while, there was no movement. The bandits entered the underground palace again The skeletons of Emperor Kangxi and his fourth concubine were also scattered in the underground palace.

  从景陵盗走的珍宝很多,其中最著名的要数康熙帝的殉品“九龙玉杯”了。这件十分名贵的酒杯,只要盛满洒,就可以从杯里看到9条翻转的蛟龙,似在翻腾的大海中追逐嬉闹。传说康熙年间,杨香武曾三盗九龙玉杯未果。康熙帝死后,将这件名贵的酒杯带入棺中。时光流转,九龙玉杯几易其主现已不知下落。景陵这次被盗开后,由于一直未封住地宫入口,加之无人管理,以后又多次被“扫仓”,珍贵文物已荡然无存。

There are many treasures stolen from jingling, among which the most famous one is "Jiulong jade Cup", the sacrificial product of Emperor Kangxi. This is a very precious wine cup. As long as it is filled with water, you can see 9 flipped Jiaolong in the cup, like chasing and frolicking in the billowing sea. It is said that during the reign of Kangxi, Yang Xiangwu stole three Jiulong jade cups but failed. After the death of Emperor Kangxi, the precious wine cup was brought into the coffin. Time goes by. The owner of Jiulong jade cup is now missing. After jingling was stolen and opened this time, the entrance of the underground palace has not been sealed, and there is no one to manage it. Later, it has been "swept" for many times, and the precious cultural relics have disappeared.

  康熙皇帝是享誉世界的一代君主,深受尊敬。景陵的“景”就是“大”、“光明”的意思,以此宣扬他的功德。可景陵如此多灾多难实在令人费解。目前正在进行的清东陵数字保存项目或许能为我们揭开谜底。

Emperor Kangxi is a famous monarch in the world. Jingling's "Jing" means "big" and "bright", so as to publicize his merits and virtues. But it's really puzzling that jingling is suffering from so many disasters. At present, the digital preservation project of the Dongling Mausoleum of the Qing Dynasty may be able to solve the mystery for us.

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