揭秘史上第一支炮兵:南宋曾用火炮击败金军-看世界

揭秘史上第一支炮兵:南宋曾用火炮击败金军

  拿破仑曾以炮兵纵横欧洲,称霸世界。在第二次世界大战时,炮兵被誉为战争之神。然而,炮兵的祖先却诞生在中国。

  最早的炮兵诞生在中国

The earliest artillery was born in China

  曾以炮兵纵横欧洲,称霸世界。在第二次世界大战时,炮兵被誉为战争之神。然而,炮兵的祖先却诞生在中国。

He used to use artillery to crisscross Europe and dominate the world. In the Second World War, artillery was regarded as the God of war. However, the ancestors of the artillery were born in China.

  宋绍兴31年(公元1161年),金主完颜亮以大军30万水陆并举南侵,南廷危在旦夕。当时宋军有个弓箭手出身的壮士名唤魏胜,知道消息后,立即聚集本乡义士700人,北渡淮河,举起抗金大旗,袭取了山东海州,北方百姓纷纷起兵响应,归附魏胜,达数千人。魏胜遂自称山东路忠义军都统制。金主亮闻讯,派出大军10万,围攻海州。魏胜率军奋战,并且制作了“霹雳炮”。以火药填铁筒内,塞以碎石,置炮车上。遇敌引火发药,碎石可击出200步,杀伤敌人。这是世界上第一尊火炮的诞生。在此以前,宋军只有火箭、火牛,尚无火炮。(《》中轰天雷善制火炮,这是小说家虚构,把中国火炮的诞生提前了340年)。魏胜制造了数十辆炮车,行军时用两人推车,宿营时则将炮车排列一周,当作营势。敌人距远,用炮轰击;敌人临近,则由刀斧手从阵中突击奋杀。金兵慑于魏胜的火炮威力,败退而去。自此,中国开始有了世界上第一支炮兵。

In the 31st year of Shaoxing in Song Dynasty (1161 A.D.), Wanyan Liang, the king of Jin, invaded the South with 300000 troops on both land and water. The southern court was in danger. At that time, there was a strong man named Wei Sheng who was born as an archer in the song army. When he heard the news, he immediately gathered 700 volunteers from his hometown, crossed the Huaihe River to the north, raised the anti gold banner, and attacked Haizhou, Shandong Province. The people in the North responded one after another, attaching to Wei Sheng, up to thousands of people. Wei Shengsui claimed to be under the control of the loyal and righteous army of Shandong road. Upon hearing this, Lord Jin sent 100000 troops to besiege Haizhou. Wei Sheng led the army to fight and made the thunderbolt cannon. Fill the iron cylinder with gunpowder, plug it with crushed stone and put it on the gun car. When the enemy ignites the fire and sends the medicine, the crushed stone can shoot out 200 steps to kill the enemy. This is the birth of the first gun in the world. Before that, the song army had only rockets and torches, but no artillery. (thunderbolt is good at making artillery in the novel, which is fictitious by novelists, and has advanced the birth of Chinese artillery by 340 years.). Wei Sheng made dozens of artillery carts. He used two carts when marching and arranged them for a week when camping. If the enemy is far away, he will be bombarded with guns; if the enemy is near, he will be killed by the attackers. The golden soldiers were frightened by the power of Weisheng's artillery and retreated. Since then, China has had the world's first artillery.

  三代巧工造出威猛火炮

Three generations of craftsmen build the powerful firecracker

  时间过去92年,至1253年(宝柏元年),金国被蒙古吞灭。当时中国北方及中原一带皆归蒙古之孙汗统治。这时陕西华县有个能工巧匠,名唤郭侃。他的祖父郭宝玉,父亲郭德海都精通天文、地理,喜欢研究兵器,并且跟随成吉思汗参加过对欧洲的第一次远征。那时他们父子便想研制一种能够曲射的火炮,以便进攻雄踞高山的堡垒,但是没有成功便去世了。郭侃继承祖父和父亲的遗志,终于研制成功。这种火炮能够平射,也能曲射。平射能打半里左右(即今250米),曲射能打二三十丈高(即100米左右)。这在700多年前来说,简直是个奇迹。

In the past 92 years, to 1253 (the first year of baobai), the kingdom of Jin was swallowed up by Mongolia. At that time, northern China and the central plains were ruled by the sun Khan of Mongolia. At that time, there was a skilled craftsman in Huaxian County, Shaanxi Province, named Guo Kan. His grandfather Guo Baoyu, his father Guo Dehai are proficient in astronomy, geography, like to study weapons, and with Genghis Khan participated in the first expedition to Europe. At that time, their father and son wanted to develop a kind of gun capable of curving, so as to attack the fortress, but they died without success. Guo Kan inherited his grandfather's and father's will and finally succeeded in the development. This kind of gun can shoot flat or curved. The level shot can take about half a mile (today's 250 meters), and the curved shot can take about 20-30 meters (that is, about 100 meters). It was a miracle more than 700 years ago.

  郭侃将他的发明献给蒙哥汗。蒙哥汗曾亲自参加过蒙古军的第二次西征,虽然攻占了东欧和俄罗斯,但却被西南亚的高山城堡所阻。当他看见有这样强大威力的火炮,高兴极了,又引起他的雄心。于是派他的皇弟旭烈兀率领西征军,带着郭侃和100名工匠,往征西南亚,开始了世界历史上的第一次炮兵远征。

Guo Kan dedicated his invention to mengge Khan. Mongo Khan had personally participated in the second western expedition of the Mongolian army. Although he occupied eastern Europe and Russia, he was blocked by the high mountain castle in southwest Asia. When he saw such a powerful gun, he was very happy and aroused his ambition. So he sent his younger brother Xu liewu to lead the Western expeditionary army, with Guo Kan and 100 craftsmen, to march to southwest Asia, starting the first artillery expedition in world history.

  远征炮兵大扬神威

The expeditionary artillery is very powerful

  皇弟旭烈兀率军西征,第一个攻击目标是处在里海以南的木刺夷(即现在的伊朗西部)。旭烈兀仗着郭侃的火炮进攻非常顺利,连续攻占几座城堡。但最后攻至吉儿都苦堡,郭侃的火炮根本打不上去。此堡建在山上,高达1500米,进攻又受到挫折。以后旭烈兀用反间计,使木刺夷国王父子自相残杀,旭烈兀乘虚进攻,新国王逃至新的都城梅斤迭司堡。但经不住蒙军的猛攻和郭侃的炮火,终于城破投降。这是中国远征炮兵的第一次立功。

The emperor's younger brother, Xu liewu, led the army to the West. The first target of attack was mu Ciyi (now western Iran) south of the Caspian Sea. Xu liewu attacked with Guo Kan's artillery very smoothly and occupied several castles in succession. However, when he finally attacked jildu fort, Guo Kan's artillery couldn't fight at all. The fort was built on the mountain, up to 1500 meters high, and the attack was frustrated. Later, Xu liewu used a counter plot to make the father and son of King Mu Ciyi kill each other. Xu liewu took advantage of the emptiness to attack and the new king fled to the new capital, meijindiesi fort. However, it could not withstand the Mongolian army's attack and guokan's artillery fire, and finally the city broke and surrendered. This is the first time that Chinese Expeditionary artillery has made contributions.

  旭烈兀随后继续向西南进军,不久攻入阿拔期王朝(在今伊拉克)。其首都报达,即今巴格达。国王木司塔辛骄奢淫逸,大臣谟牙代丁对其怀恨,便派人与旭烈兀联系,愿作内应。旭烈兀不信,谟牙代丁便将首都报达的山川形势、兵力部署和最佳的进军路线绘制成图,派人送给旭烈兀。旭烈兀带兵按照谟牙代丁提供的地图、路线,很快打至首都报达城下。报达城紧临底格里斯河,旭烈兀把郭侃的火炮架在战船上,顺流直通城下,向着城墙开炮,不久便把报达城墙轰塌一角。谟牙代丁趁机向国王木司塔辛禀报说:“陛下,蒙古军的火炮实在厉害,只听‘轰’的一声,便把我们的一角城墙和上面的守军全打没了。陛下如果再不投降,蒙军打进来,就全完了。”

Xuliewu then continued to march to the southwest and soon entered the Abbasid Dynasty (in today's Iraq). Its capital is reported as Baghdad. King Mu Sita was extravagant and extravagant, and his minister Moya Dading hated him, so he sent people to contact Xu liewu and was willing to be an insider. If Xu liewu didn't believe it, Moya dieding drew the mountain and river situation, troop deployment and the best route to March reported by the capital and sent someone to Xu liewu. According to the map and route provided by moyadeding, Xu liewu led his troops to Baoda City, the capital. Baoda city is close to the Tigris River. Xu liewu put Guo Kan's gun on the warship, went straight down the river to the city and fired at the city wall. Soon, Baoda city wall collapsed. Moyaddin took the opportunity to report to King musitasin: "Your Majesty, the artillery of the Mongolian army is really powerful. Just listen to the sound of" boom ", and we have lost a corner of the city wall and the garrison above. If your majesty doesn't surrender again, the Mongols will fight in and it will be all over. "

  国王也被郭侃的火炮声给吓呆了,只好马上自缚,开城投降。而卖国的谟牙代丁却因为不忠于自己的祖国,被旭烈兀砍了头。随后旭烈兀又向叙利亚和埃及进军,建立了东自阿姆河、西至地中海、北自高加索、南到印度洋的庞大的伊儿汗国,延续100余年。

The king was also stunned by the sound of guokan's artillery, so he had to tie himself up and open the city to surrender. However, Moya dieding, a traitor, was beheaded by Xu liewu because he was not loyal to his motherland. Then xuliewu marched to Syria and Egypt, and established a huge ilkhanid from the Amu Darya River in the East, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Caucasus in the north, and the Indian Ocean in the south, lasting for more than 100 years.

  这次远征使得中国的炮兵在世界上大扬威名。

The expedition made Chinese artillery famous in the world.

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