清代八旗制度的演变:顺治年修改官名沿用至终-看世界

清代八旗制度的演变:顺治年修改官名沿用至终

  八旗制度可以溯源到满族的氏族制阶段。当时,满族在从事狩猎活动或军事行动时,通常采取以家族或村寨人口组成的“牛录”(意即“箭”)作为组织单位。最初的“牛录”由每十人组成,公选一名牛录额真(意即“箭主”)作为队长。努尔哈赤起兵后,将属下军民按牛录编制,规定每300人为一牛录。随着努尔哈赤逐渐统一各部,1601年,在他的指示下,正式成立了红、黄、蓝、白四旗,后又将四旗扩大为八旗,即由原来的正四旗各加镶边(黄、白、蓝旗镶红边,红旗镶白边),形成了镶红、镶黄、镶蓝、镶白四旗(“镶”字也写做“厢”)。关于八旗颜色的确定有多种说法,一说是依照“五行相克”说制订的——“两黄旗位正北,取土胜水;两白旗位正东,取金胜木;两红旗位正西,取火胜金;两蓝旗位正南,取水胜火,水色本黑,而旗以指麾六师,或夜行黑色难辩,故以蓝代之。”据说八旗军行军、驻扎时的位置均按此规定执行。

  八旗制度是由女真(满)民族所独创的一种军政合一的组织形式,八旗的官制形式非常独特,其内部的大小官员既是军事统帅,又是行政长官,还负责掌管所有旗人的户籍乃至经济生活。

The Eight Banners system is an organization form of military and political integration created by the Nuzhen (Manchu) nationality. The official system of the eight banners is very unique. The internal officials are not only the military commander, but also the chief executive. They are also responsible for the household registration and economic life of all the banners.

  八旗制度可以溯源到满族的氏族制阶段。当时,满族在从事狩猎活动或军事行动时,通常采取以家族或村寨人口组成的“牛录”(意即“箭”)作为组织单位。最初的“牛录”由每十人组成,公选一名牛录额真(意即“箭主”)作为队长。努尔哈赤起兵后,将属下军民按牛录编制,规定每300人为一牛录。随着努尔哈赤逐渐统一各部,1601年,在他的指示下,正式成立了红、黄、蓝、白四旗,后又将四旗扩大为八旗,即由原来的正四旗各加镶边(黄、白、蓝旗镶红边,红旗镶白边),形成了镶红、镶黄、镶蓝、镶白四旗(“镶”字也写做“厢”)。关于八旗颜色的确定有多种说法,一说是依照“五行相克”说制订的——“两黄旗位正北,取土胜水;两白旗位正东,取金胜木;两红旗位正西,取火胜金;两蓝旗位正南,取水胜火,水色本黑,而旗以指麾六师,或夜行黑色难辩,故以蓝代之。”据说八旗军行军、驻扎时的位置均按此规定执行。

The Eight Banners system can be traced back to the Manchu clan system stage. At that time, when Manchu people were engaged in hunting activities or military operations, they usually took "Niulu" (meaning "arrow") composed of family or village population as the organizational unit. The original "Niu Lu" was made up of ten people, and one Niu Lu Erzhen (meaning "arrow master") was elected as the team leader. After Nurhachi started his army, the army and the people under him were compiled according to the cattle record, and it was stipulated that every 300 people should have one cattle record. With Nurhachi's gradual unification of various departments, in 1601, under his instruction, the four banners of red, yellow, blue and white were officially established, and then the four banners were expanded into eight banners, that is, the original four banners were each edged (yellow, white and blue banners were inlaid with red edges, and the red flag was inlaid with white edges), forming the four banners of red, yellow, blue and white ("Xiang" was also written as "Xiang"). There are many opinions about the determination of the Eight Banners' colors. The first one is formulated according to the theory of "five elements are mutually matched" -- "two yellow banners are located in the north, taking soil to win water; two white banners are located in the East, taking jinshengmu; two red flags are located in the west, taking fire to win gold; two blue flags are located in the south, taking water to win fire, and the color of the water is black, while the flag refers to the six divisions of the flag, or it is hard to argue with the black line at night, so the blue flag takes the place." It is said that the positions of the eight banners at the time of marching and stationing are in accordance with this regulation.

  在组织方面,形成了牛录、甲喇、固山由小到大三级组织形式。八旗制度规定,每5牛录设一名甲喇额真(意为“节主”),5甲喇之上设一名固山额真(旗主),每名固山额真左右设两名梅勒额真(翼主,可理解为旗主的副官)。在八旗制度下,只有旗人没有族人,所有女真族人均按八种旗帜进行编户,全体旗人“出则为兵,入则为民”,平时耕猎,战时出征,每旗可保证提供7500人的“常备军”。八旗形成初期,实行战利品“论功行赏”,军费由旗人分摊。随着战争中掠获人口的大量增加,各旗包衣(家人、仆人)阶层人口日益膨胀,这些人属于各旗旗人的私有财产,在旗兵出征时也常常跟随主人一同作战,因此,八旗军队的实际数量要远远超出规定数字。

In terms of organization, there are three levels of organization: Niulu, Jiala and Gushan. According to the Eight Banners system, one jialaerzhen (meaning "festival leader") is recorded for every five cattle, one Gushan Erzhen (flag leader) is set above the five jiarazhen, and two maileererzhen (wing leader, which can be understood as the adjutant of the flag leader) are set around each Gushan Erzhen. Under the Eight Banners system, only the banners have no clansmen. All the Nuzhen people make up households according to eight kinds of banners. All the banners "go out as soldiers and enter as people". They plow and hunt in peacetime and go out in wartime. Each flag can guarantee a "standing army" of 7500 people. In the early days of the formation of the eight banners, the "reward for meritorious deeds" was carried out, and the military expenses were shared by the banners. With the large increase of the captured population in the war, the population of the coat (family, servant) class of each flag is expanding day by day. These people belong to the private property of each flag man, and they often fight together with their masters when the flag men go on the expedition. Therefore, the actual number of the eight flag army is far beyond the specified number.

  入关后,八旗职官名称在年间又进行了较大调整,从固山额真到牛录额真均作以全新定名,如固山额真改名为都统,梅勒额真为副都统,甲喇额真为参领,牛录额真为佐领。此次改称之后,八旗主要官职名称再未有改动,一直沿用至清终之时。

After entering the customs, the names of the officials in the eight banners were greatly adjusted during the years. From Gushan EZHEN to Niulu EZHEN, they were all newly named. For example, Gushan EZHEN was renamed as Dutong, Meile EZHEN as deputy Dutong, jialaerzhen as the leader and Niulu as the assistant leader. After the change, the name of the main official positions of the Eight Banners remained unchanged until the end of the Qing Dynasty.

  随着后金的发展壮大,蒙古部族和大量汉人纷纷归附。为加强管理,于1633年正式另编汉军为一旗,后经过数次增扩,到1642年,终于编成八旗汉军。1634年,皇太极还把在他统治下的蒙古民族改编成了八旗蒙古。八旗汉军、八旗蒙古和八旗满洲的建制类同,共同构成清代八旗制度的整体。实际上,八旗中的民族构成非常丰富,除满族外,还兼容了蒙古、朝鲜、锡伯、赫哲、达斡尔、鄂温克、鄂伦春等其他民族。据记载,年间,镶黄旗满洲都统第四参领的第十七佐领,是由先后来归的俄罗斯人编成的。在满族的发展过程中,不仅有满族的汉化,同时也有大量蒙古族、汉族等其他民族的满族化,有研究表明,在清初时期民族融合的现象已经十分明显,老北京有一句谚语叫做“不分满汉、但问民旗”说的就是此事。各旗委任都统时,一般不考虑担任都统时人的旗籍,满族可以担任蒙古、汉军八旗都统,汉军、蒙古八旗出身者也可以担任满洲八旗的都统。到朝以后,开始任用不在旗的汉族人士做都统,、、等北洋出身的将领都做过八旗都统。

With the development and expansion of later Jin Dynasty, Mongolian tribes and a large number of Han people have been attached. In order to strengthen management, the Han army was officially reorganized as a flag in 1633. After several times of expansion, the eight flag Han army was finally reorganized in 1642. In 1634, Huang Taiji adapted the Mongolian Nationality under his rule into eight banners of Mongolia. Eight banners of Han Army, eight banners of Mongolia and eight banners of Manchuria have the same organizational system, which together constitute the whole of the Eight Banners system in Qing Dynasty. In fact, the ethnic composition of the eight banners is very rich. In addition to the Manchu, they are also compatible with other ethnic groups such as Mongolia, Korea, Xibo, Hezhe, Daur, Ewenki, and Olunchun. According to records, the 17th assistant leader of the fourth member of Manchurian Dutong with yellow flag was compiled by Russians who came back successively. In the process of Manchu's development, there are not only Manchu's sinicization, but also a large number of other ethnic groups such as Mongolian, Han and so on. Some studies have shown that the phenomenon of ethnic integration in the early Qing Dynasty has been very obvious. There is a saying in old Beijing called "no Manchu, but ask the people's flag". When all the flag committees are appointed to the Dutong, they generally do not consider the flag nationality of the people in the Dutong. The Manchu can be the eight flag Dutong of the Mongolian and Han armies, and the people from the Han and Mongolian eight flags can also be the eight flag Dutong of the Manchu army. After the dynasty, the Han people who were not in the flag began to be appointed as Dutong, and the generals who were born in the northern ocean, such as,, and, had been appointed as Dutong of the eight banners.

  入关后,清朝政府为了保证兵源,在政治经济上给予八旗人丁的优待,其中包括圈拨旗地,免除赋役,发给官兵粮饷。但从此北京和驻防关内各地的八旗人丁被束缚在一个狭窄的圈子里。由于旗人长期脱离生产,原有的淳朴勇武风气逐渐丧失,而生活上安于游惰的风气却蔓延开来。清政府虽提出“扭转风气”、“筹划生计”,但完全属于治标不治本,加上人口大量增加,导致很多旗丁的生活每况愈下。清朝中期以后,财政状况日益恶化,从、年间起,北京旗兵的饷银和禄米分发中已经出现了减成发放的现象,到光绪年间只按照七成发放。到1906年还设立了八旗工厂,想“使八旗子弟,人人皆能各执一业,以为谋生自立之基”,但已经积重难返,于事无补。

After entering the customs, in order to ensure the source of troops, the Qing government gave preferential treatment to the Eight Banners in terms of politics and economy, including encircling the flag land, exempting from taxes and corvee, and paying the officers and soldiers. But from then on, the Eight Banners in Beijing and all over the garrison were confined to a narrow circle. Due to the long-term separation of the banner people from production, the original simple and brave ethos gradually lost, while the ethos of living in idleness spread. Although the Qing government proposed to "turn the tide" and "plan for livelihood", it was totally a solution to the problem and no solution to the root cause. In addition, a large increase in population led to the deterioration of the lives of many banners. Since the middle of Qing Dynasty, the financial situation has been deteriorating day by day. From, to, there has been a phenomenon of reducing the rate of pay and the distribution of Lumi for Beijing's flag soldiers, and only 70% of them were paid in Guangxu years. By 1906, the Eight Banners factory had been set up to "enable all the children of the eight banners to carry out their own businesses in order to make a living and stand on their own", but it would not help.

  后,八旗制度与清王朝一起退出了历史舞台。

After that, the Eight Banners system and the Qing Dynasty withdrew from the stage of history.

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