古代官员制度:为什么清官有时比贪官更可恨?-看世界

古代官员制度:为什么清官有时比贪官更可恨?

  在普通民众心中,清官可谓是完人,是神的化身,身上只有耀眼的光环而不可能有哪怕是白璧微瑕的黑子。然而,翻阅古人留下的笔墨,我们却能发现一个耐人寻味的“群体意识断裂”—士大夫阶层对清官的评价实在是不能令普通百姓满意,有时甚至大相径庭。

  清官信仰是中国古代法律文化的一大特色,千百年来老百姓对清官乐此不疲的期盼和传颂,使得这种信仰甚至形成了一种文化。、等著名清官的名字即使三尺之童也耳熟能详。作为反映社会普通民众心理的一面镜子,宋元时期,清官文学(包括公案小说、话本、杂剧等)开始大量涌现和流行;到了现代社会,电视剧中还有大量的清官戏来延续这种传统。老百姓为他们的“青天大老爷”立庙塑身,四时享祀,香火千年不绝。这既是因为清官自身所具有的可贵品质—清正廉洁、刚正不阿、铁面无私、体恤民情等等,也从反面说明这样一个可悲的问题:那就是贪官污吏层出不穷,“滔滔者天下皆是”,老百姓处在被侮辱与被损害的境地,孤立无援,迫切希望有人能为民父母,为他们做主。清官的事迹正是百姓这种心理需求的集中反映,悲观一点说,是一种画饼充饥式的心理补偿。

The belief of Qing officials is a major feature of ancient Chinese legal culture. For thousands of years, people's endless expectation and praise of Qing officials have even formed a kind of culture. The names of famous Qing officials, such as,, are familiar to even the children of three feet. As a mirror reflecting the psychology of ordinary people, Qing official literature (including public case novels, storybooks, zaju, etc.) began to emerge and become popular in song and Yuan Dynasties; in modern society, there are a large number of Qing official plays in TV plays to continue this tradition. The common people built temples and statues for their "great masters of Qingtian". They were worshipped for four times, and the fragrance and fire lasted for thousands of years. This is not only because of the valuable qualities of the honest officials themselves, such as honesty, uprightness, selflessness, compassion for the people, etc., but also from the opposite side, it shows such a sad problem: that is, the corrupt officials emerge in endlessly, the surging people are all over the world, the common people are in the situation of being insulted and damaged, helpless, eager to have someone to be their parents and make decisions for them 。 The deeds of the Qing officials are the concentrated reflection of the people's psychological needs. To be pessimistic, they are psychological compensations in the form of painting cake to satisfy hunger.

  在普通民众心中,清官可谓是完人,是神的化身,身上只有耀眼的光环而不可能有哪怕是白璧微瑕的黑子。然而,翻阅古人留下的笔墨,我们却能发现一个耐人寻味的“群体意识断裂”—士大夫阶层对清官的评价实在是不能令普通百姓满意,有时甚至大相径庭。

In the hearts of ordinary people, a pure official can be said to be a perfect person, the incarnation of God. There is only a dazzling aura on his body, and there can be no even a black man with white flaws. However, we can find an intriguing "group consciousness fracture" when we look at the ink left by the ancients, that is, the evaluation of the scholar bureaucrats on the Qing officials can not satisfy the ordinary people, sometimes even quite different.

  晚清小说家刘鹗对这一问题有直接的阐述。他在《老残游记》中说:“清廉人原是最令人佩服的,只有一个脾气不好,他总觉得天下都是小人,只他一个人是君子。这个念头最害事的,把天下大事不知害了多少……赃官可恨,人人知之;清官尤可恨,人多不知。盖赃官自知有病,不敢公然为非;清官则自以为我不要钱,何所不可,刚愎自用,小则杀人,大则误国。”为了支持这个论断,他在书中塑造了玉贤和刚弼这两个以清廉自居但同时又刚愎自用、滥施重刑、草菅人命的酷吏形象,并让他们办了许多冤假错案。

Liu e, a novelist in the late Qing Dynasty, has a direct exposition of this issue. He said in the travels of the old disabled: "honest people are the most admirable, only one has a bad temper. He always thinks that the world is a villain, only he is a gentleman. This idea is the most harmful thing. I don't know how many things have been harmed Stolen officials are hateful, and everyone knows it; pure officials are hateful, and many people don't know it. The official who covers the stolen goods knows that he is ill, and dare not commit a crime openly; the official who is honest thinks that I don't want money, but I don't want money. If I am headstrong, if I am small, I will kill, if I am big, I will lose my country. " In order to support this conclusion, he portrays two despicable officials, Yuxian and gangbi, who are honest and upright but headstrong, abusing severe punishment and cursing people's lives, and lets them handle many unjust, false and wrong cases.

  刘鹗认为,清官的毛病在于道德上有一种绝对的优越感,这使他们觉得自己的所作所为都问心无愧,从而容易陷入自以为是甚至刚愎自用的境地。对自己的行为盲目自信,做事所凭恃的只是道德上的居高临下,现实情况、世俗人情一概斥之为乡愿,只顾一点,不及其余。这种心态是极其有害的,往小的方面说,比如听理刑狱时,容易滥用刑罚、草菅人命;往大了说对国计民生无所补益,反而会误事。

Liu e thinks that the fault of the honest officials is that they have an absolute sense of superiority in morality, which makes them feel that they have a clear conscience for what they have done, so that they are easy to fall into the position of being self righteous or even headstrong. Blind self-confidence in their own behavior, do things on the basis of only moral supremacy, the reality, secular human feelings are rejected as the local wish, just a little, less than the rest. This kind of mentality is extremely harmful. On the small side, for example, when listening to the prison, it is easy to abuse the penalty and neglect human life; on the big side, it will do no good to the national economy and people's livelihood, but it will be a mistake.

  古代士大夫阶层对清官的批评远早于刘鹗,与包拯同时代的就对清官的盲目自信提出了批评。他在上的《论包拯除三司使上书》中,对包拯作为风宪官劾罢两名大臣后接替其职位的做法表示了否定,认为这样做会使“言事之臣,倾人以觊得,相习而成风”。包拯辩解他本无此心,欧阳修说:“夫心者藏于中,而人所不见;迹者示于外,而天下所瞻。今拯欲自信其不见之心,而外掩天下之迹,是犹手探其物,口云不欲,人谁信之。此臣所谓嫌疑之不可避也。”他还很有针对性地对包拯的道德优越感做了抨击:“夫有所不取之谓廉,有所不为之谓耻。近臣举动,人所仪法。使拯于此时有所不取而不为,可以风天下以廉耻之节。”

The ancient scholar bureaucrats criticized the Qing officials far earlier than Liu E. they criticized the blind confidence of the Qing officials at the same time as Bao Zheng. In his last book on Bao Zheng's removal of the third secretary envoy, he denied Bao Zheng's practice of impeachment and replacement of two ministers by Feng Xian official. He believed that this practice would lead to "officials who talk about things, who cast people to covet them and become accustomed to them". Bao Zheng explained that he didn't have this idea. Ouyang Xiu said: "the man with a heart hides in the middle, but the man can't see it; the man with a trace shows in the outside, and the world looks forward to it. Today's desire for salvation is to be confident in his unseen heart, but to cover up the world's traces is to search for things with your hands, but not with your mouth. Who believes. This minister's so-called suspicion cannot be avoided. " He also criticized Bao Zheng's sense of moral superiority in a very targeted way: "if you don't take something, you will be honest; if you don't do something, you will be ashamed.". The behavior of close officials is what people like. To save at this time and not to take, you can wind the world to the festival of shame. "

  欧阳修的看法代表了相当一批宋代士大夫的态度:他们对包拯的节操无疑是赞赏的,但是政事有其自身的特点,与个人修为不可等量齐观。包拯仅仅重视道德上的无可指摘,却忽视了其行为对朝政风气的影响。这样仅凭道德自信的一意孤行,“朝廷事体或有不思”,“思虑不熟,处之乖当”。

Ou Yangxiu 's view represents the attitude of quite a number of scholar officials in the Song Dynasty: they undoubtedly appreciate Bao Zheng' s moral integrity, but the political affairs have their own characteristics and cannot be equated with personal cultivation. Bao Zheng only paid attention to the moral indisputable, but ignored the influence of his behavior on the political atmosphere. In this way, only by virtue of moral self-confidence, "the court may not think about things or not", "do not think well, and be obedient.".

  明代的海瑞同样也招致了士大夫阶层的批评,而且比包拯更甚,几乎已经到了不见容于当世的地步。海瑞一生廉洁耿介,平时所学以刚为主,自号刚峰,慨然以天下为己任,但命途多舛,道不得行,几次为官开场时轰轰烈烈,却都黯然收场。其中原因,当然并不仅仅因为“天下皆浊我独清”。万历给他的断语是:“虽当局任事,恐非所长,而用以镇雅俗,励颓风,未为无补。”表面上肯定了海瑞的长处,实际上是一种批评和否定。万历皇帝对海瑞的廉洁操守深信不疑,但他认为这位耿介的忠臣只在道德风化方面有榜样作用,在国计民生的事功上并不能有所建树。

Hai Rui in Ming Dynasty also attracted the criticism of scholar officials, and even more than Bao Zheng, almost to the point of not being able to live in the world. In his whole life, Hai Rui is honest and honest. He usually studies hard. He is named Gang Feng. He takes the world as his duty. However, he has a lot of difficulties in his life and can't do it. Several times when he started as an official, he was vigorous, but ended sadly. Among them, of course, it's not just because "the world is turbid and I'm only clear". Wanli's conclusion to him is: "although the government is not the director, it is useless to use it to control refined customs and encourage decadent wind." In fact, it is a kind of criticism and negation. Emperor Wanli believed in Hai Rui's integrity, but he believed that the honest loyal minister only played an exemplary role in moral weathering, and could not make achievements in the national economy and people's livelihood.

  皇帝对清官问题有其自身的认识,他在一道诏书中说:“清官多刻,刻则下属难堪,清而宽方为尽善。朱子云:居官人,清而不自以为清,乃为真清。”康熙的意思很明确,清官要把道德优越感丢掉,对人不可苛责太严,施政不能一味地依靠近乎偏执的强硬。身为一国之君,他当然不是鼓励贪污,而是不希望出现“水至清则无鱼,人至察则无徒”的局面,使国家机器无常运转。《施公案》中的主人公施仕纶,是和包拯、海瑞一样被民众称为“青天大老爷”的人物。有人荐其出任湖南按察使,说:“朕深知仕纶廉,但遇事偏执,民与诸生讼,彼必袒民;诸生与缙绅讼,彼必袒诸生。处事惟求得中,岂偏执?如世纶者,委以钱谷之事,则相宜耳。”最终改授其为湖南布政使。看来,康熙是深明清官运用之妙的。

The emperor had his own understanding of the problem of Qing officials. In an imperial edict, he said, "if the Qing officials are many, their subordinates will be embarrassed. Only when they are clear and broad can they be perfect. Zhu Ziyun: as an officer, it's true that he is pure without thinking that he is Kangxi's meaning is very clear. Honest officials should throw away the sense of moral superiority, not be too strict with people, and the administration cannot rely on almost paranoid toughness. As a king of a country, of course, he does not encourage corruption, but does not want the situation that "when the water is clear, there will be no fish, when the people are aware, there will be no disciples", which will make the state machinery run erratically. Shi Shilun, the protagonist in Shi Gong case, is a character called "the great master of Qingtian" like Bao Zheng and Hai Rui. Some people recommended him to be an inspector in Hunan, saying, "I know well that officials are honest, but I am paranoid when things happen. When people start a lawsuit with them, they will take sides with them; when people start a lawsuit with the gentry, they will take sides with them. Is it paranoid to deal with things only when you are seeking them? For example, those who are worldly minded, if they entrust money and money, it is appropriate to listen to them. " Finally, he was appointed as the political envoy of Hunan. It seems that Kangxi is the best way to use it.

  普通民众和社会精英对清官的评价出现差异是耐人寻味的。士大夫(乃至皇帝)对清官的批评集中在一个“刻”字上。这个“刻”意义很广,既包括用法严苛,也包括对属下和部民苛责,还包括在施政中偏执、强硬,不近人情。清官一般都是道德完人,有道德洁癖,对人太过苛责,如果别人不能达到他们的标准,就一概斥为泥猪、癞狗、污秽小人。这种心态导致了他们在施政中用法严苛,而这一点却恰恰是老百姓推崇清官的原因。

It is intriguing that there are differences between the evaluation of the ordinary people and the elite of the society. The scholar bureaucrats (even the emperor) concentrated their criticism on the Qing officials in one word. The meaning of this "carve" is very wide, which includes not only harsh usage, but also harsh criticism of subordinates and the people, as well as paranoid, tough and impersonal in governance. Pure officials are generally moral perfect, have a habit of moral cleanliness, and are too harsh on people. If other people can't meet their standards, they will all be condemned as mud pigs, mangas and filthy villains. This kind of mentality leads to their strict usage in the administration, which is exactly the reason why the common people praise the honest officials.

  老百姓对清官的期许不外有三:抑制欺压百姓的权豪势要;打击鱼肉乡里的泼皮无赖;惩戒贪赃枉法的贪官污吏。清官对这些人打击越严厉就越符合老百姓“吃大户”的朴素愿望,才是“爱民”。如《拍案惊奇》里的梁太守看见拐带妇女、弄出人命的泼皮无赖汪锡只被判了充军,于是大怒,“喝交皂隶重责六十板,当下绝气”。这种擅杀行为却受到了作者的肯定,称他极有正气。

There are three expectations of the common people for the honest officials: to restrain the power and power that oppress the common people; to crack down on the villains in the countryside of fish and meat; to punish the corrupt officials who are corrupt and perverted by the law. The more severe the Qing government cracked down on these people, the more in line with the simple desire of the common people to "eat big families", which is "love the people". For example, in surprise of the case, when Liang Taishou saw Wang Xi, a villain who abducted women and killed people, was only sentenced to be admitted to the army, he was furious, "drink and pay soap officials for 60 boards, and then he is absolutely angry.". This kind of killing behavior was affirmed by the author, who said he was very upright.

  士大夫阶层对清官的这种“刻”是很反感的,除了忠恕之道的价值观因素外,考虑到治国施政的现实情况是更主要的原因。正如康熙皇帝所说,“处事惟求得中”,政事不同于个人修为,它是一门妥协的艺术,是各方利益博弈的棋局;施政要想有所作为,就不能仅凭道德上的居高临下,一味的偏执强硬。据司马光《涑水纪闻》载:“包希仁知庐州,即乡里也……有从舅犯法,希仁戮之。自是亲旧皆屏息。”这段大义灭亲的“佳话”总让人产生其他的想法:若从舅有可死之罪,杀之则可;若罪不至死,包拯为了表示自己铁面无私就从严惩处,杀之以博直名,这种“杀妻求将”的行径无疑会使我们对他的崇敬大打折扣。

In addition to the value factors of the way of loyalty and forgiveness, considering the reality of governance is the main reason. As the Emperor Kangxi said, "to do things is to get things", politics is different from personal cultivation. It is an art of compromise and a chess game of the interests of all parties. If the government wants to make a difference, it can't just rely on moral superiority and blindly bigotry. According to Sima Guang's records of Wushui, Bao Xiren knew Luzhou, that is, the countryside Some of them break the law from their uncles and hope to kill them. I will hold my breath if I like the old. " This "good story" of killing relatives with justice always leads people to other ideas: if there is a crime that can be killed from an uncle, then it can be killed; if the crime is not to death, Bao Zheng will punish him severely to show his selflessness, and kill him in the name of Bo Zhiming. This "killing his wife and asking for generals" behavior will undoubtedly make our respect for him greatly reduced.

  包拯如此,海瑞更甚,他的家庭悲剧为其性情做了一个绝好的注脚:他的前两个妻子被休,第三个妻子暴死,一个妾自杀身亡,致使他不得不前后九娶。而他的女儿因吃了家仆给的一个饼,就被他逼得绝食而死。可见其性情之苛刻。

Bao Zheng is like this, and Hai Rui is even worse. His family tragedy has made a great footnote for his temperament: his first two wives were divorced, his third wife died violently, and a concubine killed himself, so he had to marry before and after. And his daughter was forced by him to starve because she had eaten a cake given by his servant. It can be seen that his temperament is harsh.

  除此之外,海瑞还是一个严刑峻法的赞赏者,他对明初“剥皮楦草”的残酷惩贪措施怀念不已,并建议恢复“毫发侵渔者加惨刑”的祖制。他的建议不但让官场震恐,连万历皇帝也认为太过了。

In addition, Hai Rui is also an admirer of the severe punishment. He is very nostalgic for the cruel measures of punishing corruption in the early Ming Dynasty, and proposes to restore the ancestral system of "no fish invaders with cruel punishment". His suggestion not only shocked the officials, but even Emperor Wanli thought it was too much.

  《海忠介公年谱》中载,海瑞被任命为应天巡抚后,“飙发雷厉,郡县官吏凛凛竟饬,贪污者望风解印绶而去。权豪势官,敛迹屏息,至移他省避之”。这种让贪官污吏、权豪势要望风而逃的杀气自然也是海瑞平日所作所为产生的效果。然而,属下挂冠求去,大户外逃也让海瑞的利民大计无法得以实施,最终黯然收场。

According to the annals of Haizhong jiegong, after Hairui was appointed as the governor of Yingtian, the officials of counties and counties were ordered by the wind, and the embezzlers were expected to remove the scarves. Powerful and powerful officials hold their breath and gather their traces to avoid others. This kind of murderous spirit, which makes corrupt officials and powerful people run away from the wind, is also the effect of Hai Rui's ordinary actions. However, his subordinates are desperate to leave, and the exodus of big families also makes Hai Rui's plan of benefiting the people unable to be implemented, which ends in a gloomy end.

  清官是整个社会大加提倡的道德楷模,在现实中却不见容于官场,这确实让清官们百思不解:贪官污吏对他们的切齿痛恨能够不以为意,名臣士林的批评对他们来说却不啻晴天霹雳。爱惜羽毛的他们最看重的就是清议对自己的褒扬,而这种批评却无疑是社会精英阶层对他们所谨守的东西表示不以为然。

Pure officials are the moral model advocated by the whole society, but they are not included in the officialdom in reality, which really puzzles them: corrupt officials can not take their hatred of their teeth, and the criticism of famous officials and scholars is a thunderbolt to them. What they value most is the praise of Qing Yi to themselves, but this criticism is undoubtedly that the social elites don't think highly of what they keep.

  难道真的是“天下皆浊我独清,天下皆贪我独廉”使然吗?非也。

Is it true that "all the world is turbid and I am pure, and all the world is greedy and I am incorruptible"? No, not too.

  清代名吏汪辉祖在其《学治臆说》中以自己为官数十年的经验提出了忠告:清不可刻。清只是治术的一端,并不足以解决现实中的所有问题。道德洁癖、偏激的个性和强硬的手腕是其不见容于当世、不能于国计民生有所裨益的病根。诚如康熙皇帝所言:“清而宽方为尽善。朱子云:居官人,清而不自以为清,乃为真清。”这并非是乡愿之言,而是对清官爱之深、责之切的期许。

Wang Huizu, a famous official in the Qing Dynasty, put forward advice based on his decades of experience in his conjecture of learning to govern: the Qing Dynasty cannot be engraved. Qing is just one end of the treatment, not enough to solve all the problems in reality. Moral purity, extreme personality and tough tactics are the root causes of the disease that can not be seen in the current world and can not be beneficial to the national economy and people's livelihood. As the Emperor Kangxi said, "the best is to be clear and broad.". Zhu Ziyun: as an officer, it's true that he is pure without thinking that he is This is not the words of the local wish, but the expectation of the love and responsibility of the honest officials.

  将清廉和贪腐寄予个人道德修养,本身就是悲剧,所以讨论清官、贪官的优劣没有现实意义。当今之世界,凡政治相对清明的国家,无不是以完善的制度和严格的执法来维护社会的公平正义,推动社会的整体进步,如此我们还需要清官吗?贪官还有市场吗?反思历史不能以误勘误,否则得出的结论将是荒谬的。

It is a tragedy to put honesty and corruption into personal moral cultivation, so it is of no practical significance to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of honest and corrupt officials. In today's world, every country with a relatively clear politics will maintain social fairness and justice with perfect system and strict law enforcement, and promote the overall progress of society. Do we need a clean official? Do corrupt officials have a market? If we reflect on history, we can't err, otherwise the conclusion will be absurd.

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