清官信仰是中国古代法律的一大特色，千百年来老百姓对清官乐此不疲的期盼和传颂，使得这种信仰甚至形成了一种 。、等著名清官的名字即使三尺之童也耳熟能详。作为反映社会普通民众心理的一面镜子，宋元时期，清官文学（包括公案 、话本、杂剧等）开始大量涌现和流行；到了现代社会，电视剧中还有大量的清官戏来延续这种传统。老百姓为他们的“青天大老爷”立庙塑身，四时享祀，香火千年不绝。这既是因为清官自身所具有的可贵品质—清正廉洁、刚正不阿、铁面无私、体恤民情等等，也从反面说明这样一个可悲的问题：那就是贪官污吏层出不穷，“滔滔者天下皆是”，老百姓处在被侮辱与被损害的境地，孤立无援，迫切希望有人能为民父母，为他们做主。清官的事迹正是百姓这种心理需求的集中反映，悲观一点说，是一种画饼充饥式的心理补偿。
The belief of Qing officials is a major feature of ancient Chinese legal culture. For thousands of years, people's endless expectation and praise of Qing officials have even formed a kind of culture. The names of famous Qing officials, such as,, are familiar to even the children of three feet. As a mirror reflecting the psychology of ordinary people, Qing official literature (including public case novels, storybooks, zaju, etc.) began to emerge and become popular in song and Yuan Dynasties; in modern society, there are a large number of Qing official plays in TV plays to continue this tradition. The common people built temples and statues for their "great masters of Qingtian". They were worshipped for four times, and the fragrance and fire lasted for thousands of years. This is not only because of the valuable qualities of the honest officials themselves, such as honesty, uprightness, selflessness, compassion for the people, etc., but also from the opposite side, it shows such a sad problem: that is, the corrupt officials emerge in endlessly, the surging people are all over the world, the common people are in the situation of being insulted and damaged, helpless, eager to have someone to be their parents and make decisions for them 。 The deeds of the Qing officials are the concentrated reflection of the people's psychological needs. To be pessimistic, they are psychological compensations in the form of painting cake to satisfy hunger.
In the hearts of ordinary people, a pure official can be said to be a perfect person, the incarnation of God. There is only a dazzling aura on his body, and there can be no even a black man with white flaws. However, we can find an intriguing "group consciousness fracture" when we look at the ink left by the ancients, that is, the evaluation of the scholar bureaucrats on the Qing officials can not satisfy the ordinary people, sometimes even quite different.
Liu e, a novelist in the late Qing Dynasty, has a direct exposition of this issue. He said in the travels of the old disabled: "honest people are the most admirable, only one has a bad temper. He always thinks that the world is a villain, only he is a gentleman. This idea is the most harmful thing. I don't know how many things have been harmed Stolen officials are hateful, and everyone knows it; pure officials are hateful, and many people don't know it. The official who covers the stolen goods knows that he is ill, and dare not commit a crime openly; the official who is honest thinks that I don't want money, but I don't want money. If I am headstrong, if I am small, I will kill, if I am big, I will lose my country. " In order to support this conclusion, he portrays two despicable officials, Yuxian and gangbi, who are honest and upright but headstrong, abusing severe punishment and cursing people's lives, and lets them handle many unjust, false and wrong cases.
Liu e thinks that the fault of the honest officials is that they have an absolute sense of superiority in morality, which makes them feel that they have a clear conscience for what they have done, so that they are easy to fall into the position of being self righteous or even headstrong. Blind self-confidence in their own behavior, do things on the basis of only moral supremacy, the reality, secular human feelings are rejected as the local wish, just a little, less than the rest. This kind of mentality is extremely harmful. On the small side, for example, when listening to the prison, it is easy to abuse the penalty and neglect human life; on the big side, it will do no good to the national economy and people's livelihood, but it will be a mistake.
The ancient scholar bureaucrats criticized the Qing officials far earlier than Liu E. they criticized the blind confidence of the Qing officials at the same time as Bao Zheng. In his last book on Bao Zheng's removal of the third secretary envoy, he denied Bao Zheng's practice of impeachment and replacement of two ministers by Feng Xian official. He believed that this practice would lead to "officials who talk about things, who cast people to covet them and become accustomed to them". Bao Zheng explained that he didn't have this idea. Ouyang Xiu said: "the man with a heart hides in the middle, but the man can't see it; the man with a trace shows in the outside, and the world looks forward to it. Today's desire for salvation is to be confident in his unseen heart, but to cover up the world's traces is to search for things with your hands, but not with your mouth. Who believes. This minister's so-called suspicion cannot be avoided. " He also criticized Bao Zheng's sense of moral superiority in a very targeted way: "if you don't take something, you will be honest; if you don't do something, you will be ashamed.". The behavior of close officials is what people like. To save at this time and not to take, you can wind the world to the festival of shame. "
Ou Yangxiu 's view represents the attitude of quite a number of scholar officials in the Song Dynasty: they undoubtedly appreciate Bao Zheng' s moral integrity, but the political affairs have their own characteristics and cannot be equated with personal cultivation. Bao Zheng only paid attention to the moral indisputable, but ignored the influence of his behavior on the political atmosphere. In this way, only by virtue of moral self-confidence, "the court may not think about things or not", "do not think well, and be obedient.".
Hai Rui in Ming Dynasty also attracted the criticism of scholar officials, and even more than Bao Zheng, almost to the point of not being able to live in the world. In his whole life, Hai Rui is honest and honest. He usually studies hard. He is named Gang Feng. He takes the world as his duty. However, he has a lot of difficulties in his life and can't do it. Several times when he started as an official, he was vigorous, but ended sadly. Among them, of course, it's not just because "the world is turbid and I'm only clear". Wanli's conclusion to him is: "although the government is not the director, it is useless to use it to control refined customs and encourage decadent wind." In fact, it is a kind of criticism and negation. Emperor Wanli believed in Hai Rui's integrity, but he believed that the honest loyal minister only played an exemplary role in moral weathering, and could not make achievements in the national economy and people's livelihood.
The emperor had his own understanding of the problem of Qing officials. In an imperial edict, he said, "if the Qing officials are many, their subordinates will be embarrassed. Only when they are clear and broad can they be perfect. Zhu Ziyun: as an officer, it's true that he is pure without thinking that he is Kangxi's meaning is very clear. Honest officials should throw away the sense of moral superiority, not be too strict with people, and the administration cannot rely on almost paranoid toughness. As a king of a country, of course, he does not encourage corruption, but does not want the situation that "when the water is clear, there will be no fish, when the people are aware, there will be no disciples", which will make the state machinery run erratically. Shi Shilun, the protagonist in Shi Gong case, is a character called "the great master of Qingtian" like Bao Zheng and Hai Rui. Some people recommended him to be an inspector in Hunan, saying, "I know well that officials are honest, but I am paranoid when things happen. When people start a lawsuit with them, they will take sides with them; when people start a lawsuit with the gentry, they will take sides with them. Is it paranoid to deal with things only when you are seeking them? For example, those who are worldly minded, if they entrust money and money, it is appropriate to listen to them. " Finally, he was appointed as the political envoy of Hunan. It seems that Kangxi is the best way to use it.
It is intriguing that there are differences between the evaluation of the ordinary people and the elite of the society. The scholar bureaucrats (even the emperor) concentrated their criticism on the Qing officials in one word. The meaning of this "carve" is very wide, which includes not only harsh usage, but also harsh criticism of subordinates and the people, as well as paranoid, tough and impersonal in governance. Pure officials are generally moral perfect, have a habit of moral cleanliness, and are too harsh on people. If other people can't meet their standards, they will all be condemned as mud pigs, mangas and filthy villains. This kind of mentality leads to their strict usage in the administration, which is exactly the reason why the common people praise the honest officials.
There are three expectations of the common people for the honest officials: to restrain the power and power that oppress the common people; to crack down on the villains in the countryside of fish and meat; to punish the corrupt officials who are corrupt and perverted by the law. The more severe the Qing government cracked down on these people, the more in line with the simple desire of the common people to "eat big families", which is "love the people". For example, in surprise of the case, when Liang Taishou saw Wang Xi, a villain who abducted women and killed people, was only sentenced to be admitted to the army, he was furious, "drink and pay soap officials for 60 boards, and then he is absolutely angry.". This kind of killing behavior was affirmed by the author, who said he was very upright.
In addition to the value factors of the way of loyalty and forgiveness, considering the reality of governance is the main reason. As the Emperor Kangxi said, "to do things is to get things", politics is different from personal cultivation. It is an art of compromise and a chess game of the interests of all parties. If the government wants to make a difference, it can't just rely on moral superiority and blindly bigotry. According to Sima Guang's records of Wushui, Bao Xiren knew Luzhou, that is, the countryside Some of them break the law from their uncles and hope to kill them. I will hold my breath if I like the old. " This "good story" of killing relatives with justice always leads people to other ideas: if there is a crime that can be killed from an uncle, then it can be killed; if the crime is not to death, Bao Zheng will punish him severely to show his selflessness, and kill him in the name of Bo Zhiming. This "killing his wife and asking for generals" behavior will undoubtedly make our respect for him greatly reduced.
Bao Zheng is like this, and Hai Rui is even worse. His family tragedy has made a great footnote for his temperament: his first two wives were divorced, his third wife died violently, and a concubine killed himself, so he had to marry before and after. And his daughter was forced by him to starve because she had eaten a cake given by his servant. It can be seen that his temperament is harsh.
In addition, Hai Rui is also an admirer of the severe punishment. He is very nostalgic for the cruel measures of punishing corruption in the early Ming Dynasty, and proposes to restore the ancestral system of "no fish invaders with cruel punishment". His suggestion not only shocked the officials, but even Emperor Wanli thought it was too much.
According to the annals of Haizhong jiegong, after Hairui was appointed as the governor of Yingtian, the officials of counties and counties were ordered by the wind, and the embezzlers were expected to remove the scarves. Powerful and powerful officials hold their breath and gather their traces to avoid others. This kind of murderous spirit, which makes corrupt officials and powerful people run away from the wind, is also the effect of Hai Rui's ordinary actions. However, his subordinates are desperate to leave, and the exodus of big families also makes Hai Rui's plan of benefiting the people unable to be implemented, which ends in a gloomy end.
Pure officials are the moral model advocated by the whole society, but they are not included in the officialdom in reality, which really puzzles them: corrupt officials can not take their hatred of their teeth, and the criticism of famous officials and scholars is a thunderbolt to them. What they value most is the praise of Qing Yi to themselves, but this criticism is undoubtedly that the social elites don't think highly of what they keep.
Is it true that "all the world is turbid and I am pure, and all the world is greedy and I am incorruptible"? No, not too.
Wang Huizu, a famous official in the Qing Dynasty, put forward advice based on his decades of experience in his conjecture of learning to govern: the Qing Dynasty cannot be engraved. Qing is just one end of the treatment, not enough to solve all the problems in reality. Moral purity, extreme personality and tough tactics are the root causes of the disease that can not be seen in the current world and can not be beneficial to the national economy and people's livelihood. As the Emperor Kangxi said, "the best is to be clear and broad.". Zhu Ziyun: as an officer, it's true that he is pure without thinking that he is This is not the words of the local wish, but the expectation of the love and responsibility of the honest officials.
It is a tragedy to put honesty and corruption into personal moral cultivation, so it is of no practical significance to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of honest and corrupt officials. In today's world, every country with a relatively clear politics will maintain social fairness and justice with perfect system and strict law enforcement, and promote the overall progress of society. Do we need a clean official? Do corrupt officials have a market? If we reflect on history, we can't err, otherwise the conclusion will be absurd.
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