揭秘:朱元璋为什么偏不把皇位传给能力更强的朱棣?-看世界

揭秘:朱元璋为什么偏不把皇位传给能力更强的朱棣?

  历史上的朝代,被地方势力造反夺权的情况不是那么常见,朱元璋加强皇权后,就更加不用担心会有大臣选择造反了。但这又出现了一个新的问题,在继承人的选择上他犯了难。按照他确立的规定,明朝的皇帝在选择继承人上,以嫡长子为优先。不过这一点在朱元璋的皇位传给下一任时就没有履行,他原来有个长子朱标,朱标本来被其选为了太子,然而后来却因病去世了。按照他制定的嫡长子继承制度,皇长孙成为了皇位的继承人。但朱元璋死后,朱棣不满朱允文继承皇位,就选择造反,自己做了皇帝。为什么朱元璋知道朱棣更有能力担任皇帝,却还是选择将皇位传给朱允文呢?

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  历史上的朝代,被地方势力造反夺权的情况不是那么常见,朱元璋加强皇权后,就更加不用担心会有大臣选择造反了。但这又出现了一个新的问题,在继承人的选择上他犯了难。按照他确立的规定,的在选择继承人上,以嫡长子为优先。不过这一点在朱元璋的皇位传给下一任时就没有履行,他原来有个长子,朱标本来被其选为了太子,然而后来却因病去世了。按照他制定的度,皇长孙成为了皇位的继承人。但朱元璋死后,不满朱允文继承皇位,就选择造反,自己做了皇帝。为什么朱元璋知道朱棣更有能力担任皇帝,却还是选择将皇位传给朱允文呢?

In the historical dynasties, it was not so common for local forces to revolt and seize power. After Zhu Yuanzhang strengthened his imperial power, there was no need to worry about the choice of ministers to revolt. But there is a new problem. He has made a lot of difficulties in choosing his successor. According to the regulations established by him, in the selection of successors, the first born son is the priority. However, this point was not fulfilled when Zhu Yuanzhang's throne was passed on to the next term. He had a eldest son, Zhu Biao, who was originally elected prince, but later died of illness. According to the degree he made, the emperor's eldest son became the heir to the throne. But after Zhu Yuanzhang died, dissatisfied with Zhu Yunwen's succession to the throne, he chose to revolt and became the Emperor himself. Why did Zhu Yuanzhang choose to pass the throne to Zhu Yunwen when he knew that Zhu Di was more capable of being emperor?

  实际上,他这么做也是为了明朝政权稳定着想。朱棣是朱元璋第四子,朱标死后,按辈分他也没理由有继承权。但他在剩下的皇子中能力较强,相比其他皇子更适合继承皇位。如果朱元璋让他做太子,显然辈分在他之上的两个皇子会心生不满,因此可能就会掀起乱战,这自然不是他想看到的。他之所以不立朱棣做太子,还有一个原因是,朱棣可能并不是他的亲生儿子。他的母亲因为私通出轨被赐死,为此朱元璋还怀疑他是否真的是自己的儿子。如果不是,将皇位传给他无疑是断了皇室血脉。

In fact, he did so for the sake of the stability of the Ming Dynasty. Zhu Di is the fourth son of Zhu Yuanzhang. After Zhu Biao's death, there is no reason for him to have the right of inheritance according to his rank. But he has a strong ability among the remaining princes, and is more suitable to inherit the throne than other princes. If Zhu Yuanzhang asked him to be the prince, it is obvious that the two princes above him will be dissatisfied, so there may be a disorderly war, which is not what he wants to see. Another reason why he didn't make Zhu Di Prince is that Zhu Di may not be his own son. His mother was killed for adultery, so Zhu also doubted whether he was really his own son. If not, passing the throne on to him would undoubtedly cut off the royal blood.

  古代的皇帝一般都十分注重血脉的一致性,纵使某个皇子能力过人,很适合做皇帝,统治者也会顾及血脉的一致性,不会将皇位传给他。结果朱元璋就陷入了两难的处境,立朱棣为太子,有血脉断了的风险,不立朱棣为太子,其他皇子又没有哪个能和朱棣相提并论。所以他只能立皇长孙做皇位继承人。看似他这样的做法还算稳妥,也没有违背嫡长子继承原则,但他还是小看了朱棣的实力。

In ancient times, emperors generally paid great attention to the consistence of blood. Even if a prince was superior in ability and was suitable for being an emperor, the ruler would also pay attention to the consistence of blood and would not pass the throne on to him. As a result, Zhu Yuanzhang was in a dilemma. There was a risk that Zhu Di would be the prince, and no other prince could be compared with Zhu Di. Therefore, he can only make his eldest grandson the heir to the throne. It seems that his practice is safe and does not violate the principle of inheriting his first son, but he underestimates Zhu Di's strength.

  朱允文即位后,虽然获得了朝中大臣的支持,但他实际掌控的权力不大。相比之下,燕王朱棣有一众支持者,想夺权也不是难事。从这可以看出,朱元璋不想看到藩王乱战,结果却因继承人没有多大实权,反而导致朱棣造反。结果这个他不想立为太子的皇子,终究还是做了皇帝。

After Zhu Yunwen ascended the throne, although he obtained the support of the ministers in the DPRK, his actual control power was not great. In contrast, Zhu Di, the king of Yan, has a large number of supporters and it is not difficult to win power. It can be seen from this that Zhu Yuanzhang didn't want to see the chaos of the vassals, but as a result, Zhu Di rebelled because his successor didn't have much real power. As a result, he didn't want to be the prince, but he became the emperor after all.

  不管怎么说,明朝这个朝代还是延续了下去,没有因为地方叛乱而导致政权颠覆。一个朝代的延续,跟继承人选取没有直接联系,只是皇帝作为权力最高的人,做了皇帝的人总是不希望政权被其他人夺走。但只要是自家人继承了皇位,皇室血脉就不至于断裂。因此朱棣做了皇帝,跟朱允文做皇帝相比,没有多大差别。

In any case, the Ming Dynasty has continued without regime subversion due to local rebellion. The continuation of a dynasty has no direct connection with the selection of successors, but the emperor, as the person with the highest power, does not want the regime to be taken away by others. But as long as the family inherited the throne, the royal blood will not be broken. Therefore, compared with Zhu Yunwen, Zhu Di did not make much difference.

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