唐武宗和佛教有着什么样的深仇大恨 唐武宗为什么摧毁上千所佛教寺庙-看世界

唐武宗和佛教有着什么样的深仇大恨 唐武宗为什么摧毁上千所佛教寺庙

  历史上有一位皇帝一心想着灭佛。想着称霸世界。这到底是怎么回事呢?这位皇帝就是当时的唐武宗,唐武宗是当时唐朝的一位皇帝,唐武宗大肆的推行道教,却对佛家进行打压,据相关文献记载,当时唐武宗在位期间,是摧毁了大大小小的佛教寺庙达到了上千所,为什么唐武宗会这么记恨佛教呢?到底唐武宗对佛教有着怎样的深处大恨?具体的一起来看看吧!

  今天小编给大家带来灭佛,感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

Today, Xiaobian brings you Buddha extermination. Readers who are interested in it can have a look with Xiaobian.

  历史上有一位一心想着灭佛。想着称霸世界。这到底是怎么回事呢?这位皇帝就是当时的唐武宗,唐武宗是当时的一位皇帝,唐武宗大肆的推行,却对佛家进行打压,据相关文献记载,当时唐武宗在位期间,是摧毁了大大小小的寺庙达到了上千所,为什么唐武宗会这么记恨佛教呢?到底唐武宗对佛教有着怎样的深处大恨?具体的一起来看看吧!

In history, there was a man who thought of exterminating Buddhism. Want to dominate the world. What's the matter? This emperor was the Tang Wuzong at that time. Tang Wuzong was one of the emperors at that time. Tang Wuzong vigorously promoted it, but he suppressed Buddhism. According to relevant documents, during his reign, Tang Wuzong destroyed thousands of temples, big and small. Why does Tang Wuzong hate Buddhism so much? What does Tang Wuzong have about Buddhism Deep hate? Let's have a look!

  佛教自东汉传入中土后,一直是蓬蓬勃勃发展着。不过也曾经出现过四次较大的灭佛事件,这就是北魏太武帝灭佛,武帝灭佛,,后灭佛。这四次灭佛事件中,以唐武宗的灭佛影响最大,受到了后人的广泛关注。唐武宗灭佛原因何在?

Buddhism has been developing vigorously since it was introduced into China in the Eastern Han Dynasty. However, there have been four major Buddha extermination events, namely, Emperor Taiwu of the Northern Wei Dynasty exterminated Buddha, Emperor Wudi exterminated Buddha, and then exterminated Buddha. Among the four events, Wuzong of Tang Dynasty had the greatest impact on the extinction of Buddhism, which was widely concerned by later generations. What are the reasons for the extinction of Buddhism by Emperor Wuzong of Tang Dynasty?

  会昌五年(845年)七月,唐武宗下令灭佛,筛汰寺院僧尼。先是拆毁在山野中的寺院,随后下诏长安、洛阳的两街各留二寺,每寺留僧30人。全国节度使、观察使下的镇地和同、华、商、汝各州留一寺,上等寺留僧20人,中等寺留10人,下等寺留僧5人,勒令其余被沙汰寺院的僧人全部还俗。在沙汰之列的寺院,派御史前去督令限期拆毁,寺产收归官府所有,拆下的木材用来建造官署,铜像钟磐都用来铸钱。至这年八月,武宗宣布全国共拆毁寺院4600所,还俗僧尼26万人,山野中的小寺庙拆去4万余所,收得良田数千顷,寺院奴婢15万人。

In July of 845, Emperor Wuzong of Tang Dynasty ordered the extermination of Buddhism and the sifting of monks and nuns. First, the temples in the mountains were demolished, and then the two streets of Chang'an and Luoyang were ordered to keep two temples, each with 30 monks. There are one temple in Tonghua, Shangzhou, Ruzhou, Tonghua, Shangzhou and other towns under the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state of the state. In the temple of Shati, the imperial prehistory was sent to order the temple to be demolished within a time limit. The temple products were owned by the government. The demolished wood was used to build the government office, and the bronze statue zhongpan was used to cast money. In August of that year, Emperor Wuzong announced that 4600 monasteries and 260000 monks and nuns had been demolished, more than 40000 small temples in the mountains had been demolished, thousands of hectares of good farmland had been collected, and 150000 slaves and maids had been employed in the temples.

  唐武宗原本也是喜欢佛教的,但即位数年后就对佛教怀有刻骨仇恨,这到底是为什么?

Wuzong of Tang Dynasty originally liked Buddhism, but he had a deep hatred for Buddhism several years after his accession to the throne. Why?

  有人认为武宗之所以下令灭佛,主要是与当时的宗教斗争有关。《》说:“武宗想学神仙方术,拜道士赵归真为师。归真得宠后,每次与武宗谈话,就一直讲佛教的坏话,说佛教不是中国的宗教,只会蠹耗生灵,应该全部铲除。武宗听后觉得很有道理。”佛教传入中国后,一方面和常有冲突,另一方面又和的道教也矛盾重重。为争取最高统治者的青睐,佛道两家常常进行激烈的辩论,两教的地位也常发生变化。根据这种说法,道教和佛教之间的严重矛盾,道士在武宗面前攻击佛教,促成了武宗灭佛。

Some people think that the reason why Wuzong ordered the extermination of Buddhism was mainly related to the religious struggle at that time. "Said:" Wuzong wants to learn the magic skills of immortals. He is a teacher of Zhao Guizhen, a Taoist. After returning to the real world and being favored, every time I talk with Wuzong, I always speak ill of Buddhism, saying that Buddhism is not a religion in China, but only consumes living creatures, and should be completely eradicated. After hearing this, Wuzong thought it was very reasonable. " After Buddhism was introduced into China, on the one hand, it often had conflicts with Taoism on the other hand. In order to win the favor of the supreme ruler, the Buddhism and Taoism often have a heated debate, and the status of the two religions often changes. According to this statement, there is a serious contradiction between Taoism and Buddhism. Taoists attack Buddhism in front of Wuzong, which leads to the extinction of Wuzong.

  从一些材料看,这种说法的确是有一定道理的。由于佛教的教义在理论深度上远远超过道教,因果报应、轮回转世等内容很能够取得人们的信任,因此道教在教义上无法与佛教相争,于是道教就利用政治上的优势排斥佛教。武宗宠幸赵归真后,朝官屡屡进谏,武宗说:“我在宫中没有什么事情,常常与他谈玄说道来解除胸中烦闷。”看来赵归真的话对武宗的影响越来越大,武宗灭佛是重用赵归真等道士开始的。他刚做皇帝时就召赵归真等81人入禁中,同时进行崇道活动。赵归真一方面挑起了武宗要求长生的愿望,另一方面又不断地排斥佛教,使武宗的崇道思想不断增强。武宗还任命赵归真为右街道门教授先生,使赵老道一下子成了风云人物,连宰相也看不下去了,对武宗说:“听说近来赵归真的家门,车马毕集,希望陛下好好警诫他。”因此,持这种观点者认为道教利用政治上的优势排斥佛教,是武宗灭佛的直接原因。

Judging from some materials, this statement is indeed reasonable. Because the doctrines of Buddhism are far deeper than Taoism in theory, karma, reincarnation and other contents can gain people's trust, so Taoism can't compete with Buddhism in doctrines, so Taoism uses its political advantages to exclude Buddhism. After Zhao's return to the real world, the emperor's officials repeatedly admonished him. The emperor said, "I have nothing to do in the palace. I often talk with him about Xuanhua to relieve the boredom in my heart." It seems that Zhao Guizhen's words have more and more influence on Wuzong. It's because Zhao Guizhen and other Taoists began to be used in Wuzong's extermination of Buddhism. When he was the emperor, he called 81 people including Zhao Guizhen into the ban, and at the same time, he carried out the activities of worshiping Taoism. On the one hand, Zhao Guizhen provoked Wuzong's desire for longevity, on the other hand, he constantly rejected Buddhism, which made Wuzong's thought of upholding Taoism constantly strengthened. Wu Zong also appointed Zhao Guizhen as a professor at the daomen of the right street, which made Zhao Laodao become a man of the moment. Even the prime minister couldn't look down on him. He said to Wu Zong, "I heard that recently Zhao Guizhen's house has been built up. I hope your majesty will give him a good warning." Therefore, those who hold this view believe that Taoism's political advantage in rejecting Buddhism is the direct reason for the extinction of Buddhism by Wuzong.

  另一种说法认为灭佛事件的发生是朝廷与佛教的经济矛盾所导致的。武宗对全国发布的《拆寺制》中,列举了佛教的一系列罪状,其中最主要的是“蠢耗国风,诱惑人意”,“劳人力于土木之功,夺人利于金宝之饰”。他认为“寺字招提,莫知纪极,皆云构藻饰,僭拟宫居”,使得“物力凋瘵,风俗浇诈”。自己灭佛的主要目的是“惩千古之蠢源”,以“济人利众”。早在即位前,武宗就曾说过:“穷吾天下,佛也。”灭佛的结果,确有比较明显的经济效用,大批僧尼还俗,寺院奴婢编入税户,把寺院钱物收归官府,铜铁佛像铸为钱币与农具等。

Another view is that the occurrence of the event is caused by the economic contradiction between the court and Buddhism. Wuzong listed a series of crimes of Buddhism in the "system of demolishing temples" released by the whole country, among which the most important ones were "stupid consumption of the country's wind, tempting people", "hard work in civil engineering, seizing people for the jewelry". He thought that "when the words of the temple are mentioned, no one knows the Ji Ji Ji, all of them are decorated with clouds, arrogating to the palace", which makes "the material resources wither, and the custom pours fraud". The main purpose of destroying Buddhism is to "punish the stupid source of the ages" and "benefit people and the public". As early as before he ascended the throne, Emperor Wuzong once said, "poor world, Buddha also." As a result of the extermination of Buddhism, there was a relatively obvious economic effect. A large number of monks and nuns returned to the common customs. The slaves and maidservants of the temple were incorporated into the tax households, and the money and things of the temple were returned to the government. The bronze and iron Buddha statues were made into coins and agricultural implements.

  灭佛的主要参与者是宰相李德裕,早在敬宗时他在浙西观察使任内,就提出要限制佛教的发展。徐州节度使兴泗州置僧坛,很多江南人北渡落发为僧,李德裕就提出要禁止这种做法。他提出如果不禁止,江南就会损失60万丁壮的租赋。当时连敬宗这样昏庸的皇帝也看到了佛教在经济上对政府造成的损失,“即日诏徐州罢之”。武宗灭佛后,李德裕对武宗的做法大加称赞,认为武宗“独发英断,破逃亡之数,皆列齐人;收高壤之田,尽归王税。正群生之在惑,返六合之浇风。出前圣之谟,为后王之法。巍巍功德,焕炳图书。”佛教势力的发展,必然影响政府的财政来源,武宗灭佛是佛教势力日益膨胀的必然结果。武宗之前的皇帝之所以没有灭佛,主要是矛盾的发展还不到最尖锐的程度。

Li Deyu, the prime minister, was the main participant in the extermination of Buddhism. As early as when he was observing the envoy in Western Zhejiang, he proposed to restrict the development of Buddhism. Many people in the south of the Yangtze river went north and became monks. Li Deyu proposed to ban this practice. He proposed that if not prohibited, Jiangnan would lose 600000 Dingzhuang's rent. At that time, even the fatuous emperor, Jingzong, saw the economic losses caused by Buddhism to the government. "Today, he ordered Xuzhou to stop.". After Wuzong exterminated Buddhism, Li Deyu praised the practice of Wuzong and thought that "Wuzong" made a decisive decision alone, and the number of people who broke through and fled were all listed in the same group; the land with high soil was collected and all was subject to the king's tax. It is the confusion of the group of students, and the wind of six harmonies. It is the law of the later King to be a sage. It's magnificent, it's brilliant. " The development of Buddhist forces will inevitably affect the financial source of the government. The extinction of Buddhism by Wuzong is the inevitable result of the growing Buddhist forces. The reason why the emperor before Wuzong didn't destroy Buddhism was that the development of contradiction was not to the most acute degree.

  不过也有人对这种说法提出不同的看法,他们认为佛教与朝廷的矛盾有唐一代始终存在,历代反佛的很多,他们对佛教耗财蠹国的攻击十分猛烈却从未受到帝王的重视,除武宗外,再也没有一个皇帝废佛,相反崇佛的君主却是一个接着一个。唐武宗灭佛后,对道教极度崇信,曾举行长达一百多天的道场,连续五个月修建宏伟壮丽的仙台,厚赐道士,从经济角度看,唐武宗对佛教有清醒的态度,那么他为什么又马上会沉溺于道教?

However, some people have put forward different views on this view. They think that the contradiction between Buddhism and the court always exists in the Tang Dynasty, and there are many anti Buddhists in the past dynasties. Their attacks on Buddhism are very fierce, but they have never been taken seriously by the emperor. Apart from Wuzong, there is no emperor to abolish Buddhism. On the contrary, the monarchs who worship Buddhism are one after another. After Tang Wuzong exterminated Buddhism, he had a great faith in Taoism. He held a Taoism field for more than one hundred days, built a magnificent Sendai for five consecutive months, and bestowed great gifts to Taoists. From an economic point of view, Tang Wuzong had a clear attitude towards Buddhism, so why did he immediately indulge in Taoism?

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