明太祖朱元璋究竟有没有入葬明孝陵?朱元璋墓在哪-看世界

明太祖朱元璋究竟有没有入葬明孝陵?朱元璋墓在哪

  现在史学界大多认为,朱允炆确实是速葬了朱元璋。那朱允炆为什么敢冒天下之大不韪?有史书上称,这是朱元璋自己选择的时间,“故即位而葬,同日并举,皆高皇遗命,正以速葬消诸。”而秘史更称,朱允炆实际上在即位的前一天,即闰五月十五日把朱元璋给下葬了。这里说明朱元璋担心自己死后出乱子,留下遗言要朱允炆从速办自己丧事的。

  关于的死亡时间,有各种说法,一是洪武31年(1398年)闰五月初九,一说是闰五月初五,一说是闰五月十七日等。为什么会有这么多种说法,表面的原因是史书上记载多模糊。按说这是很清楚的事情,为什么史书上要写得模糊?这与给朱元璋选择下葬时间不当,“嫌其太速,事理有不尽然者”,为掩人耳目,故意混淆是非。确实,如果根据《明皇大政记》等史书的记载,堂堂一位开国之君,死后几天即下葬了,这正常么?所以,在听说侄儿把他匆匆埋了后,十分恼火。这为以后找到了第一理由。

As for the time of death, there are various opinions. First, in Hongwu's 31st year (1398), leap May 9th, leap May 5th, leap May 17th, etc. The superficial reason why there are so many kinds of statements is that there are so many vague records in historical books. Generally speaking, this is a very clear thing. Why should the historical books be vague? This is due to the improper choice of burial time for Zhu Yuanzhang, "if you think it is too fast, there are different reasons for it". In order to hide people's ears and eyes, you deliberately confuse right and wrong. Indeed, according to the records of the emperor's great political records and other historical books, is it normal for a founding monarch to be buried a few days after his death? Therefore, he was very angry when he heard that his nephew had buried him in a hurry. This is the first reason for the future.

  现在史学界大多认为,朱允炆确实是速葬了朱元璋。那朱允炆为什么敢冒天下之大不韪?有史书上称,这是朱元璋自己选择的时间,“故即位而葬,同日并举,皆高皇遗命,正以速葬消诸。”而秘史更称,朱允炆实际上在即位的前一天,即闰五月十五日把朱元璋给下葬了。这里说明朱元璋担心自己死后出乱子,留下遗言要朱允炆从速办自己丧事的。

Now most of the historians think that Zhu Yunwen is indeed the quick burial of Zhu Yuanzhang. Why did Zhu Yunwen dare to take the lead in the world? According to some historical records, this was the time Zhu Yuanzhang chose for himself. "So he was buried on the throne, and he did the same thing on the same day. All the emperor's orders were given by him, and they were being buried quickly." The secret history also said that Zhu Yunwen actually buried Zhu Yuanzhang the day before he ascended the throne, that is, on May 15 of leap. This shows that Zhu Yuanzhang was worried about the trouble after his death and left his last words to ask Zhu Yunwen to speed up his funeral.

  那决定下葬又发生了什么?这同样是一个谜团。在南京民间,连小孩子都知道这样的传说,朱元璋下葬那天出现了“”,就是南京的十三个城门同时出殡。此说法史书有记载,为什么要这样?

So what happened to the decision to bury? It's also a mystery. In Nanjing folk, even children know such a legend. On the day of Zhu Yuanzhang's burial, there appeared "" that is, thirteen gates in Nanjing were funeral at the same time. It's recorded in the historical books. Why is it so?

  原来,在葬后不久即传出,朱元璋不是葬在明孝陵,而独葬朝天宫(就是今天南京王府大街向南千米的朝天宫,具体地点是“世传三清殿下为明祖真葬处”。)

It turns out that shortly after the burial, Zhu Yuanzhang was not buried in the Xiaoling Tomb of the Ming Dynasty, but in the Chaotian Palace alone (today's Chaotian Palace, which is thousands of meters south of the Wangfu street in Nanjing, the specific location is "it is said that the three Qing emperors are the true burial places of the Ming ancestors". )

  朝天宫,宋代时为天庆观、永寿宫。朱元璋定都南京后,改为朝天宫,那时”百僚朝贺习仪于此”。葬在朝天宫这种说法,倒是给朱允炆速葬朱元璋、大摆迷魂阵、十三个城门同时出殡找到了合理的解释和可能性,但后世好多学者都不。清代文人甘熙就不认可,其所著的额《白下琐言》称,朱元璋花了几百万两的银子,造了十几年,总不应该为一个人造的吧。而且,朱允炆是很讲孝道的一个仁义,也不忍心把朱元璋葬在陵外的地方啊。后来又传出,朱元璋不是葬在明孝陵,也非朝天宫,离开了南京城,选葬在北京的万岁山。后经考证,这是以讹传讹,不可信。甘熙即说,“万岁山在燕京,其时方以会葬不从,兴师靖难,焉有奉移梓宫不远数千里而往之事?”笔者也这样认为,如果真是这样,朱棣造反第一理由又从哪来?

Chaotian Palace was the temple of heavenly celebration and Yongshou palace in Song Dynasty. After Zhu Yuanzhang established his capital in Nanjing, he changed it to Chaotian Palace, which was the place where Bai Liao paid homage to Xi Yi. The idea of burying in the Chaotian Palace gives Zhu Yunwen a reasonable explanation and possibility of burying Zhu Yuanzhang quickly, setting up a bewitching array and 13 gates at the same time, but many scholars in the future do not. Gan Xi, a scholar in the Qing Dynasty, didn't approve of it. According to his volume of "white under the trivial words", Zhu Yuanzhang spent millions of liang of silver and made it for more than ten years. He shouldn't have made it for one person. What's more, Zhu Yunwen is a kind and righteous person who speaks filial piety very much. He can't bear to bury Zhu Yuanzhang outside the tomb. Later, it came out that Zhu Yuanzhang was not buried in Xiaoling of Ming dynasty or Chaotian Palace. He left Nanjing city and chose to be buried in the longevity mountain of Beijing. After textual research, it is untrustworthy. Ganxi said, "the longevity mountain is in Yanjing. It's just because it can't be buried. How could it be moved thousands of miles away from Zigong?" the author also thought that if so, where would the first reason for Zhu Di's rebellion come from?

  朱元璋到底是否真的葬在明孝陵内,现在并没有学者能说“一定”二字。孝陵博物馆工作的中山陵园管理局文物处副处长廖锦汉先生称,在明孝陵“申遗”之前,中山陵园管理局曾专门请南京大学等相关的技术、史学专家,经数年科学探测、,证明明孝陵地宫未曾被盗,完好无损。后来相关专家表示,1998年开始,江苏省地震局工程研究院的专家在宝城内,采用无损磁测法,已经明确发现在宝顶地下深处有一个面积达数千平方米的建筑空间,而且还找到了进入这个空间长达百米的通道(墓道)走向和入口,无疑宝顶下存在的这个巨大建筑空间可能是明孝陵的地宫,而地宫的入口就在明楼东侧十几米处呈下沉错位、有裂口的宝城城墙下面。但这并不能证明朱元璋的尸骨就在地宫中,真相恐怕只有等到挖开明孝陵的那一天才能最终揭开!

Whether Zhu Yuanzhang was buried in Xiaoling Tomb of the Ming dynasty or not, no scholar can say "certain". Liao Jinhan, deputy director of the cultural relics department of Zhongshan Cemetery Administration Bureau working in Xiaoling Museum, said that before the "application for the world heritage" of Xiaoling in Ming Dynasty, Zhongshan Cemetery Administration had specially invited Nanjing University and other relevant technical and historical experts to prove that the underground palace of Xiaoling in Ming Dynasty had not been stolen and was intact after several years of scientific exploration. Later, relevant experts said that since 1998, experts from the Engineering Research Institute of Jiangsu Seismological Bureau have clearly found a building space with an area of thousands of square meters in the deep underground of Baoding by using non-destructive magnetic survey method, and also found the direction and entrance of the passage (tomb path) with a length of up to 100 meters into the space. There is no doubt that the huge building space under the Baoding can It can be the underground palace of Xiaoling in the Ming Dynasty, and the entrance of the underground palace is just below the wall of the treasure city, which is more than ten meters away from the east of the Ming Dynasty building. But this doesn't prove that Zhu Yuanzhang's bones are in the underground palace. I'm afraid that the truth can't be revealed until the day when Xiaoling is excavated!

  朱元璋“七十二疑冢”之谜:朱元璋墓穴在哪里?

Where is Zhu Yuanzhang's tomb?

  在风水学上,阴宅风水也和阳宅风水一样,不但直接关系到死者本人入土后的安适不安适,还会影响到子孙后代的吉凶和荣枯。朱元璋一直认为,他的发迹在一定程度上要感谢祖父对墓地的选择,而当他考虑自己的身后事时,自然不会忽略这一点。

In geomancy, the geomancy of yinzhai is the same as that of Yangzhai, which is not only directly related to the comfort and discomfort of the deceased when he enters the earth, but also affects the good and bad luck and prosperity of future generations. Zhu Yuanzhang always believed that his success was due to his grandfather's choice of cemetery to a certain extent, which he would not ignore when he considered his own affairs behind him.

  朱元璋陵墓的地址是他自己选择的。紫金山南麓的独龙阜是一处不可多得的风水宝地,北依钟山主峰,阜高150米,泉壑幽深,紫气蒸腾,云雾山色,朝夕多变,自古就有“此地多奇岭,千云非一状”的美誉。而且林木苍苍,浓荫蔽日,溪涧蜿蜒,流水潺潺,古代许多著名的寺观和重要的墓穴多建于此。

The address of Zhu Yuanzhang's mausoleum is his own choice. Dulongfu at the south foot of Zijin Mountain is a rare treasure land of geomancy. In the north, it is close to the main peak of Zhongshan Mountain. It is 150 meters high, with deep springs and gullies, steaming purple air, cloud and mountain colors, and changeable day and night. Since ancient times, it has the reputation of "there are many strange mountains here, and thousands of clouds are not one shape". Moreover, there are many famous temples and important tombs built here, such as the forest, the shade, the winding stream and the gurgling water.

  陵园的修建从洪武十四年(1381年)动工,于洪武十六年完成了陵墓的享殿等主体工程,先后调用军工10万,至永乐三年(1405年)才完全建成,历时25年。洪武十五年八月,先入葬了皇后,因皇后谥号“孝慈”,所以将陵墓定名为“孝陵”,也有“以孝治天下”之意。洪武二十五年(1392年),又葬皇太子于孝陵之东,称东陵。洪武三十一年(1398年)闰五月初十日,朱元璋崩于西宫,与马皇后合葬此陵,殉葬的嫔妃46人。

The construction of the cemetery started from Hongwu fourteen years (1381). In the sixteen year, Hongwu completed the main works such as the hall of the mausoleum and so on. It has called the military industry 100 thousand, and it has been completed for three years (1405) in Yongle, which lasted for 25 years. In August of the 15th year of Hongwu, the empress was first buried. Because of her posthumous title "filial piety", she named the tomb "Xiaoling", which also means "governing the world with filial piety". In the 25th year of Hongwu (1392), the emperor's crown prince was buried in the east of Xiaoling, which is called Dongling. In the thirty first year of Hongwu (1398), on the 10th day of may in leap, Zhu Yuanzhang died in the Western Palace, where he buried 46 concubines with empress ma.

  当时的孝陵围墙内,享殿巍峨,楼阁壮丽。陵内植松10万株,养鹿千头,每只鹿颈间都挂有“盗宰者抵死”的银牌,号称“长生鹿”。为保卫孝陵,专设神宫监,外设孝陵卫,有军士5600人。若有樵夫误入山陵,即被“正法”斩首。清、帝南巡时,都曾亲往谒陵,还特设守陵监2员,40陵户,拨给司香田若干。三年(公元1853年),孝陵地区成了太平军和清军对峙的重要战场,地面木结构建筑几乎全毁。现存神烈山碑、禁约碑、下马坊、大金门、四方城及神功圣德碑、石像翁仲、大石桥、宝城、墓冢及清末所建碑亭、享殿等,仍然气势恢宏,蔚为壮观,凝聚着不散的帝王之气。

At that time, within the walls of Xiaoling, the hall was lofty and the pavilions were magnificent. There are 100000 pine plants and thousands of deer in the mausoleum. Each deer has a silver medal of "the thief resists death" hanging between its neck, which is known as "the immortal deer". In order to protect Xiaoling, there are 5600 soldiers in the imperial palace. If a woodcutter enters the mausoleum by mistake, he will be beheaded by "Zhengfa". During the southern tour of the Qing Dynasty and the emperor, they all went to pay homage to the mausoleum in person. In addition, two guards were specially assigned to guard the mausoleum, and 40 families were assigned to sikangtian. In 1853, Xiaoling area became an important battlefield for the Taiping Army and the Qing army to confront each other, and almost all the wooden structures on the ground were destroyed. The existing shenlie mountain steles, forbidden steles, Xiamafang, dajinmen, Sifang city and Shengong Shengde steles, stone statues wengzhong, Dashiqiao, Baocheng, tombs, and stele pavilions and halls built at the end of the Qing Dynasty are still magnificent and magnificent, gathering the imperial spirit.

  据记载,孝陵的红墙周长22.5千米,相当于当时京城城墙长度的三分之二,可见规模之庞大。明孝陵的神道石刻是中国帝王陵中唯一不呈直线,而是环绕建有时代墓的梅花山形成一个弯曲的形状,形似北斗七星。沿神道依次有下马坊、禁约碑、大金门、神功圣德碑碑亭、御桥、石像路、石望柱、武将、文臣、棂星门等建筑,过了棂星门折向东北就进入了陵园的主体部分。陵园主体建筑排列在南北中轴线上,规模宏大,雄伟壮观。

According to records, the perimeter of the red wall of Xiaoling is 22.5km, which is equivalent to two-thirds of the length of the city wall at that time. It can be seen that the scale is huge. The Shinto stone carving in Xiaoling Tomb of Ming Dynasty is the only one of the imperial tombs in China, which is not in a straight line, but forms a curved shape around the plum blossom mountain with the age tomb, which looks like the Big Dipper seven stars. Along the Shendao, there are Xiamafang, forbidden stele, dajinmen, Shengong Shengde stele Pavilion, Yuqiao, stone road, shiwangzhu, military general, Wenchen, lingxingmen and other buildings. After lingxingmen turns to the northeast, it enters the main part of the cemetery. The main buildings of the cemetery are arranged on the North-South central axis, with a large scale and magnificent appearance.

  清代康熙等皇帝都曾到明孝陵拜谒,但是后来随着国力下降,无力修复,明孝陵渐渐荒芜,尤其是在咸丰年间成为和清廷战争的主战场,几乎使明孝陵地表建筑毁于一旦,康熙手书的御碑甚至倒地破碎。到现在,陵内所有木质结构的殿堂早已焚毁,但从遗存的石质基础仍能看出当年的布局规模。它与北京十三陵的布局和建筑形式相同,但要比十三陵中的帝陵大得多,可见明代诸皇陵都是以此为蓝本的。

Emperor Kangxi and other emperors in Qing Dynasty paid a visit to Ming Xiaoling, but later, with the decline of national strength and inability to repair, Ming Xiaoling gradually became desolate, especially in Xianfeng years, it became the main battlefield of war with the Qing Dynasty, which almost destroyed the surface buildings of Ming Xiaoling, and the Royal steles of Kangxi calligraphy even fell to pieces. Up to now, all the wooden structures in the mausoleum have been burnt down, but the layout scale can be seen from the stone foundation of the remains. It has the same layout and architectural form as the Ming Tombs in Beijing, but it is much larger than the Ming Tombs. It can be seen that the Ming Tombs are based on this.

  有传说朱元璋未必真的葬在这里面,而是怕有人在他死后报复他,像那样设了七十二疑冢。不过这些传说并没有充分的根据,因为孝陵在朱元璋去世以前已经建成,到了朱元璋死的时候,陵墓的一切设施都已就绪。而且,朱元璋是洪武三十一年(1398年)闰五月死的,南京地区当时已经进入夏季,停灵七天以后,就立即葬入了孝陵。如果在别处另造新陵,在时间上也是来不及的。再者,孝陵的位置紧靠宫城,北倚钟山,南有皇墙,内有神宫监,外有孝陵卫的官兵日夜巡逻,其安全的程度远较别处为高。此地汇聚了南京的龙气,朱元璋既然选择了此地作为陵寝,他是不会遗命舍此而他葬的。

It's said that Zhu Yuanzhang may not be buried here, but that someone might revenge him after his death, and set up 72 suspect graves like that. However, these legends are not fully based on the fact that Xiaoling was built before the death of Zhu Yuanzhang. By the time of Zhu Yuanzhang's death, all the facilities of the tomb were ready. Moreover, Zhu Yuanzhang died in May of leap in the thirty first year of Hongwu (1398). At that time, Nanjing had already entered the summer, and was buried in Xiaoling immediately seven days after he ceased to work. If a new mausoleum is built elsewhere, it is too late. Moreover, the location of Xiaoling is close to the palace city, Zhongshan in the north, huangqiang in the south, Shengong supervisor in the interior and Xiaoling Wei's officers and men patrolling day and night in the exterior. Its security level is far higher than that of other places. This place gathers the dragon spirit of Nanjing. Since Zhu Yuanzhang chose this place as his mausoleum, he would not give up his life and bury him here.

  祖上选定的龙脉给了朱元璋发迹的机会,而他一生之中屡遇贵人,也为其创下基业带来所必须的际遇。登基之后,朱元璋定都南京,此地虽有之势,但选此为都的王朝都很短命。曾由于此地有王者之气,下令掘断连冈,以压偏霸之气,故名秣陵。这样以后,在金陵建都的朝代的寿命果然都是短短几十年。朱元璋离世之后,南京果然成了短命的国都,但所幸的是大明王朝迁都北京,将龙脉南北打通,这一变通,也让的福祉延长到了近三百年之久。

The dragon vein chosen by his ancestors gave Zhu Yuanzhang a chance to make his fortune, and he met many dignitaries in his life, which also brought him the necessary fortune to create the foundation industry. After his accession to the throne, Zhu Yuanzhang established the capital of Nanjing. Although there was potential here, the dynasties that chose it as the capital were short-lived. Once, because of the king's spirit here, he ordered to dig and break the LIANGANG to suppress the power of partial hegemony, so it was named moling. After that, the life span of the dynasties that built the capital in Jinling was indeed only a few decades. After Zhu Yuanzhang's death, Nanjing became a short-lived national capital, but fortunately, the Daming Dynasty moved its capital to Beijing and opened up the north and south of the dragon, which also extended its well-being to nearly 300 years.

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