谁是历史上唯一被皇帝父亲追谥为皇帝的太子?-看世界

谁是历史上唯一被皇帝父亲追谥为皇帝的太子?

  唐高宗为何追谥儿子为皇帝?

  追谥曾经当过太子的父亲为,是后辈子孙称帝后从下到上表现孝道的一种惯例。与他们相比,李治以父亲身份从上到下追谥儿子为皇帝,不能不说是其中的一个特例。

It is a practice of filial piety from the bottom to the top after Sun became emperor. Compared with them, Lizhi pursued his posthumous son as emperor from top to bottom as a father, which was a special case.

  唐高宗为何追谥儿子为皇帝?

Why did Emperor Gaozong pursue his posthumous son as emperor?

  在历史上,死后被追谥为皇帝的太子,如北魏文成帝即位后,追谥生父景穆太子为景穆皇帝;隋哀帝被拥立为皇帝后,追谥生父为孝成皇帝;建文帝即位后,追谥生父为兴宗孝康皇帝。可以说,追谥曾经当过太子的父亲为皇帝,是后辈子孙称帝后从下到上表现孝道的一种惯例。与他们相比,唐高宗李治以父亲身份从上到下追谥儿子李弘为皇帝,不能不说是其中的一个特例。

In history, the posthumous posthumous posthumous Prince is the emperor's Prince. For example, after Wen chengdi of the Northern Wei Dynasty ascended the throne, the posthumous father, Prince Jingmu, was the emperor of Jingmu. After emperor AI of the Sui Dynasty was established as the emperor, the posthumous father was filial emperor. After Emperor Jianwen ascended the throne, the posthumous father was Emperor xingzongxiaokang. It can be said that pursuing posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous son's father as emperor is a practice of filial piety from bottom to top. Compared with them, Li Zhi, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty, pursued his posthumous son Li Hong as emperor from top to bottom as his father, which was a special case.

  上元二年(675)五月,唐高宗下诏,追谥太子李弘为“孝敬皇帝”,丧葬“制度一准天子之礼”(《旧唐书》)。在中国历史上,被父亲追谥为皇帝的太子,李弘是第一个,也是唯一一个。对此,清人赵翼在《廿二史札记》中称“唐高宗以太子宏(弘)薨,而赠孝敬皇帝,则以父而追帝其子,不经之甚矣”,即批判唐高宗此举荒诞不经;蔡东藩在《唐史演义》中也称“所有丧葬制度,竟许用天子礼,谥为孝敬皇帝。太子死谥皇帝”,是“从古未有”之事。那么,唐高宗为何要置封建礼制于不顾,破例追谥亡故不久的李弘为皇帝呢?

In May 675 of the second year of the Shang Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty issued an imperial edict to pursue posthumous Prince Li Hong as "filial piety to the emperor", and to bury "the rites of the emperor according to the system" (the old book of the Tang Dynasty). In Chinese history, Li Hong was the first and only prince who was posthumously posthumous by his father. In this regard, Zhao Yi, a Qing man, said in the notes to the twenty second history that "when Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty was given a gift to the emperor, he would pursue the emperor's son with his father, which is not serious." that is to say, he criticized Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty for his absurd act. In the romance of Tang Dynasty, Cai Dongfan also said that "all the funeral systems allowed the emperor's son rites to be used, and his posthumous title was filial to the emperor. The death of the crown prince as emperor is a matter that has never existed since ancient times. Then, why did Emperor Gaozong ignore the feudal etiquette system and make an exception to pursue the posthumous Li Hong as the emperor?

  李弘(652—675),字宣慈,唐高宗第五子,也是唐高宗与的第一子。李弘的名字颇有寓意,据说隋末唐初道教中有“老君当治”、“李弘当出”的谶语,预言太上老君将转世为人主,化名李弘来拯救众生。唐高宗为其取名李弘,可见对这个儿子寄予了厚望。因系武则天所生,唐高宗,对李弘非常宠爱。4岁时,李弘被封为代王;5岁时,唐高宗废掉原先的太子,改立李弘为太子。为了培养李弘,唐高宗除了为其选聘名臣作为辅弼老师,还经常让他实习参政,如龙朔二年(662)唐高宗“幸骊山温汤,太子监国”;次年又“诏太子每五日于光顺门内视诸司奏事,其事之小者皆委太子决之”;咸亨二年(671)正月,唐高宗“幸东都,留皇太子弘于京监国”;次年十月,又命“皇太子监国”。

Li Hong (652-675), the fifth son of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty, is also the first son of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty. Li Hong's name is quite meaningful. It is said that there are prophecies in Taoism at the end of Sui Dynasty and the beginning of Tang Dynasty that "Lao Jun should be the ruler" and "Li Hong should be the leader". It is predicted that Lao Jun, the Supreme Lord, will be reincarnated as the Lord of the people, and Li Hong will come to save all living beings under his pseudonym. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty named him Li Hong, so he had high hopes for his son. Born of Wu Zetian, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty loved Li Hong very much. At the age of 4, Li Hong was appointed the acting king; at the age of 5, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty abolished the former Prince and changed him into the prince. In order to train Li Hong, Tang Gaozong not only selected famous officials as his assistant teachers, but also often asked him to practice in politics. For example, in the second year of longshuo (662), Tang Gaozong "fortunately Lishan warm soup, crown prince oversees the country"; in the following year, he "ordered crown prince to watch all the affairs in Guangshun gate every five days, and the minor ones were decided by crown prince"; in the first month of the second year of Xianheng (671), Tang Gaozong "fortunately Dongdu, left crown prince Hong in Beijing to supervise the country" ”In October of the following year, the crown prince was appointed to supervise the country.

  李弘为人宽厚仁慈,“深为帝及天后钟爱”。被立为太子后,李弘“敬礼大臣鸿儒之士,未尝有过之地”。对父母如此,对臣属如此,对普通士兵和百姓同样如此。监国期间,李弘关心将士,体恤民情,做出了很多宽仁爱民之举。当时,大唐正对高丽用兵,军中经常有士兵“逃亡限内不首及更有逃亡者”,因此会受到“身并处斩,家口没官”的严厉处罚。李弘知道后,引经据典,强调“与其杀不辜,宁失不经”,希望朝廷可以修订法律,以后再出现有士兵逃亡者,家中人不用再受连坐之罪,唐高宗“从之”;李弘“又请以同州沙苑地分借贫人”,唐高宗“许之”。一个“从之”,一个“许之”,不难看出唐高宗和武则天对李弘的欣赏。然而,李弘接下来做的一件事,却极大地触怒了武则天,武则天从此也对他有了看法。

Li Hong is generous and kind, "deeply loved by emperor and empress.". After being made Prince, Li Hong "saluted the minister, a scholar of Hongru, and never had a place.". This is true for parents, ministers, ordinary soldiers and people. During the period of supervision of the state, Li Hong cared for the soldiers and the people and made a lot of actions to show mercy and love for the people. At that time, the Tang Dynasty was using soldiers against Gaoli. There were often soldiers in the army who "didn't turn their heads within the escape limit and had more fugitives". Therefore, they would be severely punished by "being beheaded and beheaded without any official". When Li Hong knew about it, he quoted classics and emphasized that "it's better to lose than to live up to it". He hoped that the court could amend the law, and that there would be no more soldiers escaping, so the family would not have to suffer the crime of sitting together again, and Emperor Gaozong of Tang "followed it"; Li Hong "also asked to borrow the poor people from the Shayuan land of Tongzhou" and Emperor Gaozong of Tang "promised it". It is not difficult to see the appreciation of Li Hong by Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wu. However, what Li Hong did next greatly angered Wu Zetian, who also had a view on him from then on.

  原来,武则天将情敌残忍杀害后仍不解恨,又把萧淑妃所生的义阳、宣城二位公主“幽于掖庭”,致使两位被幽禁的公主年龄很大了却没办法嫁人。李弘猛地见到这两位“以母得罪”的姐姐时,先是“惊恻”,继而动了怜悯之心,于是“遽奏请令出降”,恳请唐高宗让她们过上正常女人的生活。唐高宗对萧淑妃之死本就心存愧疚,再者两位公主毕竟是自己的亲生骨肉,只是迫于武则天的淫威不敢造次。李弘的上奏道出了唐高宗的心声,于是“许之”。武则天闻讯后,既是出于对萧淑妃怨恨的延续,也是为了防止这两位公主日后兴风作浪,便随便将她们许配给了两个普通侍卫。在武则天看来,作为自己的亲生儿子,李弘不站在自己这边,反倒帮助敌人,武则天从此对李弘产生隔阂甚至怨恨,李弘“由是失爱”。

It turns out that Wu Zetian still doesn't get rid of her hatred after she brutally kills her lover. She also "secludes" the two princesses, Yiyang and Xuancheng, born by Princess Xiao Shufei, in yeting. As a result, the two imprisoned princesses are too old to marry. When Li Hong suddenly saw the two sisters who "offended by their mother", he was "shocked" first, then moved his heart of pity, so he "suddenly asked them to come out" and begged Tang Gaozong to let them live a normal woman's life. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty felt guilty for the death of concubine Xiao. After all, the two princesses were their own flesh and blood, but they were not brave to make mistakes because of Empress Wu's obscenity. Li Hong's performance shows the voice of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, so "Xu Zhi". After hearing the news, Wu Zetian, not only out of the continuation of her hatred for concubine Xiao, but also in order to prevent the two princesses from making waves in the future, betrothed them to two ordinary bodyguards. In Wu Zetian's view, as her own son, Li Hong did not stand on her side, but helped the enemy. From then on, Wu Zetian became estranged and even resented Li Hong. Li Hong "lost his love".

  咸亨四年(673)二月,唐高宗将李弘召至东都洛阳,准备纳左金吾将军裴居道之女为太子妃。为此,唐高宗还下令为李弘新建一座宫殿。裴妃“甚有妇礼”,是个相当有妇德的贤淑女子,唐高宗满意地对侍臣说:“东宫内政,吾无忧矣。”意思是说,李弘有这么个贤内助,将来即位执政,就不用朕担心了。七月,“太子新宫成,上(唐高宗)召五品以上诸亲宴太子宫,极欢而罢”。唐高宗本来身体就不好,这次畅饮后,身体便出现了故障。八月,唐高宗“以不豫,诏皇太子听诸司事”。这一安排,表明唐高宗虑及自己身体不支,有禅让太子之意,而这恰恰是早已习惯“垂帘于御座后,政事大小,皆预闻之”的武则天所不愿意看到的。从此,武则天与李弘的私人恩怨,已经上升到涉及将来掌权的政治对立面。

In February of the fourth year of Xianheng (673), Emperor Gaozong of Tang called Li Hong to Luoyang, the eastern capital, to accept the daughter of general Pei judao as the crown princess. To this end, Emperor Gaozong also ordered a new palace for Li Hong. Concubine Pei is a virtuous woman with great virtue. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty said to his attendants with satisfaction, "I have no worries about the internal affairs of the eastern palace." That is to say, Li Hong has such a good wife to help him. If he is going to be in power in the future, I won't have to worry about it. In July, when the prince's new palace was completed, the Emperor (Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty) summoned all the relatives above the fifth grade to have a feast in the womb. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty was not in good health. After drinking, his body broke down. In August, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty "ordered the emperor's crown prince to listen to the officials.". This arrangement shows that Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty had the intention of abdicating the prince because of his poor health, which was exactly what Wu Zetian, who had been used to "leaning over the throne and hearing about the size of politics, would not like to see.". Since then, Wu Zetian's personal grudges with Li Hong have risen to the political opposite of the future power.

  武则天是个权力欲望极强的女人。一步步提升自己,进而问鼎皇权,是武则天实现女皇梦的必由之路。上元元年(674)八月,在武则天的鼓动下,唐高宗下诏“皇帝称天皇,皇后称天后”,内外称为“二圣”,武则天已经与唐高宗。这么多年夫妻下来,唐高宗对武则天是了解的,为了权位,这个的女人什么事情都可以做出来,包括害死自己的亲生骨肉。作为当朝皇帝,唐高宗都无法遏制武则天在政治上的强悍势头;自己,谁又能控制得了这位身居高位的女强人?知子莫如父,李弘远远不是武则天的对手。为了保护李弘,唐高宗甚至萌生了“欲下诏令天后摄国政”的念头,也就是想把权力交给武则天。但是,迫于群臣关于“天下者,高祖、太宗二圣之天下,非陛下之天下也。陛下正合谨守宗庙,传之子孙,诚不可持国与人,有私于后族”的劝谏,唐高宗才把皇帝继续当下去。

Wu Zetian is a woman with strong desire for power. It is the only way for Empress Wu Zetian to realize her dream of empress to improve herself step by step and then win the imperial power. In August of the first year of Shangyuan (674), encouraged by Empress Wu Zetian, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty issued an imperial edict that "the emperor is called the emperor, the queen is called the queen of heaven" and "the two saints" inside and outside. Empress Wu Zetian has already joined Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty. After so many years of husband and wife, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty understood Empress Wu. For the sake of power, this woman could do anything, including killing her own flesh and blood. As the emperor of Tang Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty could not contain Wu Zetian's strong political momentum. Who can control the powerful woman in the high position? No one knows his son as his father, and Li Hong is far from Wu Zetian's opponent. In order to protect Li Hong, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty even initiated the idea of "to issue an imperial edict to empress dowager to take charge of state affairs", that is, to give power to Empress Wu. However, it was forced by the ministers that "the world belongs to the two saints of emperor Gaozu and Emperor Taizong, not to his majesty.". Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty continued to hold the emperor's position only after his majesty obeyed the advice of guarding the ancestral temple and spreading it to his descendants.

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