追谥曾经当过太子的为，是后辈子孙称帝后从下到上表现孝道的一种惯例。与他们相比，李治以 身份从上到下追谥儿子为 ，不能不说是其中的一个特例。
It is a practice of filial piety from the bottom to the top after Sun became emperor. Compared with them, Lizhi pursued his posthumous son as emperor from top to bottom as a father, which was a special case.
Why did Emperor Gaozong pursue his posthumous son as emperor?
In history, the posthumous posthumous posthumous Prince is the emperor's Prince. For example, after Wen chengdi of the Northern Wei Dynasty ascended the throne, the posthumous father, Prince Jingmu, was the emperor of Jingmu. After emperor AI of the Sui Dynasty was established as the emperor, the posthumous father was filial emperor. After Emperor Jianwen ascended the throne, the posthumous father was Emperor xingzongxiaokang. It can be said that pursuing posthumous posthumous posthumous posthumous son's father as emperor is a practice of filial piety from bottom to top. Compared with them, Li Zhi, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty, pursued his posthumous son Li Hong as emperor from top to bottom as his father, which was a special case.
In May 675 of the second year of the Shang Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty issued an imperial edict to pursue posthumous Prince Li Hong as "filial piety to the emperor", and to bury "the rites of the emperor according to the system" (the old book of the Tang Dynasty). In Chinese history, Li Hong was the first and only prince who was posthumously posthumous by his father. In this regard, Zhao Yi, a Qing man, said in the notes to the twenty second history that "when Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty was given a gift to the emperor, he would pursue the emperor's son with his father, which is not serious." that is to say, he criticized Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty for his absurd act. In the romance of Tang Dynasty, Cai Dongfan also said that "all the funeral systems allowed the emperor's son rites to be used, and his posthumous title was filial to the emperor. The death of the crown prince as emperor is a matter that has never existed since ancient times. Then, why did Emperor Gaozong ignore the feudal etiquette system and make an exception to pursue the posthumous Li Hong as the emperor?
Li Hong (652-675), the fifth son of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty, is also the first son of Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty. Li Hong's name is quite meaningful. It is said that there are prophecies in Taoism at the end of Sui Dynasty and the beginning of Tang Dynasty that "Lao Jun should be the ruler" and "Li Hong should be the leader". It is predicted that Lao Jun, the Supreme Lord, will be reincarnated as the Lord of the people, and Li Hong will come to save all living beings under his pseudonym. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty named him Li Hong, so he had high hopes for his son. Born of Wu Zetian, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty loved Li Hong very much. At the age of 4, Li Hong was appointed the acting king; at the age of 5, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty abolished the former Prince and changed him into the prince. In order to train Li Hong, Tang Gaozong not only selected famous officials as his assistant teachers, but also often asked him to practice in politics. For example, in the second year of longshuo (662), Tang Gaozong "fortunately Lishan warm soup, crown prince oversees the country"; in the following year, he "ordered crown prince to watch all the affairs in Guangshun gate every five days, and the minor ones were decided by crown prince"; in the first month of the second year of Xianheng (671), Tang Gaozong "fortunately Dongdu, left crown prince Hong in Beijing to supervise the country" ”In October of the following year, the crown prince was appointed to supervise the country.
Li Hong is generous and kind, "deeply loved by emperor and empress.". After being made Prince, Li Hong "saluted the minister, a scholar of Hongru, and never had a place.". This is true for parents, ministers, ordinary soldiers and people. During the period of supervision of the state, Li Hong cared for the soldiers and the people and made a lot of actions to show mercy and love for the people. At that time, the Tang Dynasty was using soldiers against Gaoli. There were often soldiers in the army who "didn't turn their heads within the escape limit and had more fugitives". Therefore, they would be severely punished by "being beheaded and beheaded without any official". When Li Hong knew about it, he quoted classics and emphasized that "it's better to lose than to live up to it". He hoped that the court could amend the law, and that there would be no more soldiers escaping, so the family would not have to suffer the crime of sitting together again, and Emperor Gaozong of Tang "followed it"; Li Hong "also asked to borrow the poor people from the Shayuan land of Tongzhou" and Emperor Gaozong of Tang "promised it". It is not difficult to see the appreciation of Li Hong by Emperor Gaozong and Empress Wu. However, what Li Hong did next greatly angered Wu Zetian, who also had a view on him from then on.
It turns out that Wu Zetian still doesn't get rid of her hatred after she brutally kills her lover. She also "secludes" the two princesses, Yiyang and Xuancheng, born by Princess Xiao Shufei, in yeting. As a result, the two imprisoned princesses are too old to marry. When Li Hong suddenly saw the two sisters who "offended by their mother", he was "shocked" first, then moved his heart of pity, so he "suddenly asked them to come out" and begged Tang Gaozong to let them live a normal woman's life. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty felt guilty for the death of concubine Xiao. After all, the two princesses were their own flesh and blood, but they were not brave to make mistakes because of Empress Wu's obscenity. Li Hong's performance shows the voice of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, so "Xu Zhi". After hearing the news, Wu Zetian, not only out of the continuation of her hatred for concubine Xiao, but also in order to prevent the two princesses from making waves in the future, betrothed them to two ordinary bodyguards. In Wu Zetian's view, as her own son, Li Hong did not stand on her side, but helped the enemy. From then on, Wu Zetian became estranged and even resented Li Hong. Li Hong "lost his love".
In February of the fourth year of Xianheng (673), Emperor Gaozong of Tang called Li Hong to Luoyang, the eastern capital, to accept the daughter of general Pei judao as the crown princess. To this end, Emperor Gaozong also ordered a new palace for Li Hong. Concubine Pei is a virtuous woman with great virtue. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty said to his attendants with satisfaction, "I have no worries about the internal affairs of the eastern palace." That is to say, Li Hong has such a good wife to help him. If he is going to be in power in the future, I won't have to worry about it. In July, when the prince's new palace was completed, the Emperor (Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty) summoned all the relatives above the fifth grade to have a feast in the womb. Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty was not in good health. After drinking, his body broke down. In August, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty "ordered the emperor's crown prince to listen to the officials.". This arrangement shows that Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty had the intention of abdicating the prince because of his poor health, which was exactly what Wu Zetian, who had been used to "leaning over the throne and hearing about the size of politics, would not like to see.". Since then, Wu Zetian's personal grudges with Li Hong have risen to the political opposite of the future power.
Wu Zetian is a woman with strong desire for power. It is the only way for Empress Wu Zetian to realize her dream of empress to improve herself step by step and then win the imperial power. In August of the first year of Shangyuan (674), encouraged by Empress Wu Zetian, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty issued an imperial edict that "the emperor is called the emperor, the queen is called the queen of heaven" and "the two saints" inside and outside. Empress Wu Zetian has already joined Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty. After so many years of husband and wife, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty understood Empress Wu. For the sake of power, this woman could do anything, including killing her own flesh and blood. As the emperor of Tang Dynasty, Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty could not contain Wu Zetian's strong political momentum. Who can control the powerful woman in the high position? No one knows his son as his father, and Li Hong is far from Wu Zetian's opponent. In order to protect Li Hong, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty even initiated the idea of "to issue an imperial edict to empress dowager to take charge of state affairs", that is, to give power to Empress Wu. However, it was forced by the ministers that "the world belongs to the two saints of emperor Gaozu and Emperor Taizong, not to his majesty.". Emperor Gaozong of Tang Dynasty continued to hold the emperor's position only after his majesty obeyed the advice of guarding the ancestral temple and spreading it to his descendants.
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