历史上汉文帝是如何让南越国臣服的?南越国历史-看世界

历史上汉文帝是如何让南越国臣服的?南越国历史

  汉高祖驾崩后,赵佗因为有关官吏禁止在关市上购买铁器,居然叫嚣要攻打长沙,建立功业。并自称为南越武帝。一时间摩拳擦掌,不过总是不敢深入,只是打了几个县就仓促而走。高后曾经派人进行攻打,可因为水土不服,汉军无法越过阳山岭。一年后,吕后病逝,汉军就撤兵了。从此,赵佗更加横行无忌,为所欲为。居然动用皇帝的政令,要与大汉皇帝平起平坐。

  汉文帝一纸书降服南越王的故事:秦朝末年,有一个从北方来的龙川县令,名叫赵佗,居然趁天下大乱之际,攻占桂林象郡。秦朝灭亡,赵佗自封为南越武王,当时辖有现在两广福建连同越南北部一带,开国以来,因为中原百马劳顿,不愿征伐,因此派人立赵佗为南越王,责令他和大汉王朝政府搞好关系,不要成为汉朝南部的祸害。

In the late Qin Dynasty, Zhao Tuo, a county magistrate from the north of Longchuan, captured Xiangjun County in Guilin at the time of great chaos. When the Qin Dynasty was destroyed, Zhao Tuo became the king of South Vietnam. Since the founding of the state, he had jurisdiction over Guangdong, Guangdong, Fujian and the northern part of Vietnam. Because of the unwillingness of the Central Plains to invade, Zhao Tuo was appointed as the king of South Vietnam, and he was ordered to have a good relationship with the government of the Han Dynasty, not to be a disaster to the south of the Han Dynasty.

  驾崩后,赵佗因为有关官吏禁止在关市上购买铁器,居然叫嚣要攻打长沙,建立功业。并自称为南越武帝。一时间摩拳擦掌,不过总是不敢深入,只是打了几个县就仓促而走。高后曾经派人进行攻打,可因为,汉军无法越过阳山岭。一年后,病逝,汉军就撤兵了。从此,赵佗更加,为所欲为。居然动用的政令,要与大汉皇帝。

After his death, Zhao Tuo cried out to attack Changsha and establish his career because the officials concerned prohibited him from buying ironware in the city. He claimed to be the emperor of South Vietnam. For a while, but always dare not go deep, just hit a few counties and left in a hurry. Gao Hou once sent people to attack, but the Han army could not cross the Yangshan mountains. A year later, when he died of illness, the Han army withdrew. From then on, Zhao Tuo was more willing to do whatever he wanted. The government order that unexpectedly uses, want with big Han Emperor.

  汉文帝登基,天下陆续恢复了秩序。汉文帝让人在赵佗父母的坟墓前,设置守陵的居民,逢年过节进行祭祀。召来他的堂兄弟,进行封赏。同时派大臣陆贾前去充当信使,陆贾到了南越,南越王赵特别恐惧,这个陆贾当年赵佗曾经领教过自认的风采。当时赵佗猖獗,汉高祖派陆贾下书,赵佗梳着当地流行的一撮锥子一样的发髻,像簸箕一样地伸开两腿坐着,接见陆生。陆生就此向尉他说道:“您本是中国人,亲戚、兄弟和祖先的坟墓都在真定。而现在您却一反中国人的习俗,丢弃衣冠巾带,想用只有弹丸之地的小小南越来和天子抗衡,成为敌国,那你的大祸也就要临头了。况且秦朝,诸侯豪杰都纷纷而起,只有汉王首先入关,占据咸阳。背叛盟约,自立为,诸侯们都归属于他,可以称得上是强大无比。但是汉王从巴蜀出兵之后,征服天下,平定诸侯,杀死项羽,灭掉楚国。五年之间,中国平定。这不是人力所能办到的,而是上天辅佐的结果。现在大汉天子听说您在南越称王,不愿意帮助天下人讨平暴逆,汉朝将相都想带兵来消灭您。但是天子爱惜百姓,想到他们刚刚经历了战争的劳苦乱离,因此才暂且罢兵,派遣我授予你南越王的金印,剖符为信,互通使臣。您理应到郊外远迎,面向北方,拜倒称臣,但是您却想以刚刚建立,还没有把人众收拢起来的小小南越,在此傲不驯。倘若让朝廷知道了此事,挖掘烧毁您祖先的坟墓,诛灭您的宗族,再派一名偏将带领十万人马来到越地,那么南越人杀死您投降汉朝,就如同翻一下手背那么容易。”

When Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty ascended the throne, order was restored in succession. Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty asked people to set up residents to guard the tomb in front of Zhao Tuo's parents' tombs and offer sacrifices during the Spring Festival. Call in his cousin for a reward. At the same time, Lu Jia, the minister, was sent to serve as a messenger. When Lu Jia arrived in South Vietnam, Zhao Tuo, the king of South Vietnam, was very scared. Zhao Tuo, the former Lu Jia, once learned the self-identity. At that time, Zhao Tuo was rampant, and Lu Jia was sent by the emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty to write. Zhao Tuo was dressed in a bun like a local popular awl, and sat with his legs extended like a dustpan to meet Lu Sheng. Lu Sheng then said to Wei, "you are Chinese. The tombs of relatives, brothers and ancestors are all settled. But now you are against the custom of the Chinese people, throwing away your clothes, scarves and belts. If you want to compete with the son of heaven and become an enemy country with only a small area of South Vietnam, then your disaster will come. Besides, in the Qin Dynasty, all the princes and heroes rose one after another. Only the Han King entered the pass first and occupied Xianyang. Betraying the covenant and acting on their own, all the princes belong to him, which can be called powerful. However, after the Han king sent troops from Bashu, he conquered the world, pacified the princes, killed Xiang Yu and destroyed the state of Chu. In five years, China was peaceful. This is not what human can do, but the result of God's assistance. Now the emperor of the Han Dynasty heard that you were king in South Vietnam, and he was unwilling to help the people in the world to deal with the violence. The generals of the Han Dynasty wanted to lead their troops to eliminate you. But the emperor cherished the people and thought that they had just gone through the hardships of the war, so he stopped fighting for the time being and sent me to give you the gold seal of the king of South Vietnam, which was written as a letter and communicated with envoys. You should go to the outskirts to meet you, face the north, and worship your officials. But you want to be proud and unruly of the little South Vietnam, which has just been established and has not yet gathered people together. If you let the court know about this, dig and burn the graves of your ancestors, kill your clans, and send a certain general to lead 100000 people to YueDi, then it's as easy as turning the back of your hand to kill you and surrender to the Han Dynasty. "

  此时一见天子使者到来,赵佗自然很诚恳地写信道歉说:“蛮夷大长老夫臣佗,从前高后隔离歧视南越,我私下疑心长沙王是个善进谗言的臣子,又在这遥远之地听说高后杀尽了赵佗的宗族,挖掘并烧毁祖先的坟墓,因此自暴自弃,侵犯长沙的边境地区。而且南方低湿之地,在蛮夷中间,东边的闽越只有上千民众,却称其君长为王;西面的西瓯和骆越这样的蛮夷之国也得称王。所以我狂妄地窃取皇帝的尊号,聊以自我安慰,怎敢把这事禀告天子呢!”赵佗深深叩头谢罪,表示要长久做汉朝的藩属臣子,遵守向天子纳贡的职责。于是赵佗就向全国发布命令,说:“我听说两个英雄豪杰是不能并存的,两个贤哲之人也不能共同生活在同一世界。,是贤明的天子,从今以后,我去掉帝制,不再乘坐黄屋左纛的车子。”陆贾回京报告此事,汉文帝非常高兴。沿续到时代,赵佗向汉朝称臣,春秋两季派人到长安朝见天子。

At this time, when the emperor's emissary arrived, Zhao Tuo naturally wrote a letter to apologize and said, "Tuo, the elder uncle of the barbarians, was isolated and discriminated against South Vietnam. I secretly suspected that the king of Changsha was a good slanderer. In this remote place, I heard that Gao Hou killed Zhao Tuo's clan, dug and burned the graves of his ancestors, so he abandoned himself and invaded the border area of Changsha. Moreover, in the south of China, in the middle of barbarians, there are only thousands of people in Minyue in the East, but they call their monarchs king; in the west, such barbarians as Xi'ou and Luoyue are also called king. So I stole the emperor's title and talked to myself to comfort myself. How dare I report this to the emperor? "Zhao Tuo bowed deeply and thanked him, saying that he would be a vassal of the Han Dynasty for a long time and abide by the duty of paying tribute to the emperor. So Zhao Tuo issued an order to the whole country, saying, "I heard that two heroes can't coexist, and two sages can't live in the same world together. It's a wise son of heaven. From now on, I will take away the imperial system and no longer ride the yellow house left standard car. " When Lu Jia returned to Beijing to report this, Emperor Wen was very happy. In the spring and Autumn period, Zhao Tuo sent people to Chang'an to meet the emperor.

  那么汉文帝是如何使南越王臣服的;

Then how did Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty subdue the king of South Vietnam;

  其一,厚待南越王赵佗的祖宗的坟地。汉文帝让人在赵佗父母的坟墓前,设置守陵的居民,逢年过节进行祭祀。让赵佗感觉到大汉王朝的光辉普照。

First, treat the ancestral Tomb of Zhao Tuo, the king of South Vietnam kindly. Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty asked people to set up residents to guard the tomb in front of Zhao Tuo's parents' tombs and offer sacrifices during the Spring Festival. Let Zhao Tuo feel the brilliance of the Han Dynasty.

  其二,汉文帝时期,天下安居落业,生活太平,一派歌舞升平的景象。不用宣传大家都知道汉王朝,敢于天朝为敌绝对是死路一条。

Secondly, during the period of Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty, the world lived and worked in peace and peaceful life, which was a scene of singing and dancing. No need to publicize that we all know the Han Dynasty. It is a dead end to dare to be the enemy of China.

  其三,派遣钦差大臣,乃是天下一流的雄辩家,有理有力有利有节。尤其是昔日赵佗深知此人功力深厚,不可。

Third, he is a first-class orator in the world. He is reasonable, powerful and efficient. Especially in the past, Zhao Tuo knew that this man had profound skills.

  其四,汉文帝的书信。汉文帝给赵佗写了一封信,其中有这样几句:前日闻王发兵于边,为寇灾不止。当其时,长沙苦之,南郡尤甚。虽王之国,庸独利乎?必多杀士卒,伤良将吏。寡人之妻,孤人之子,独人之父母,得一亡十,朕不忍为也。意思是你发兵于边,为寇灾不止,南方边界上长沙一带的人,被你扰得痛苦极了,就是在东南一带,你的心腹之地如广东、广西等地的百姓,可不也因你发动战争而痛苦极了吗?战争对你又有什么好处呢?结果只是“多杀土卒,伤良将吏”,一个战役下来,损失许多你自己多方培养而成的优良军事干部,兵员的死亡,更不计其数。于是许多人,丈夫死了,太太守寡;父亲死了,孩子成孤儿;儿子死了,父母无依成独夫。最后可能你的国土也完了,像这样悲惨残酷的事,在我则是不忍心去做的。这一番话意思深长,足以让人动容,可见赵佗的归降也与此有关。

Fourth, the letter of Emperor Wen of Han Dynasty. Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty wrote a letter to Zhao Tuo, including the following words: the day before yesterday, he heard that Wang had sent troops to the border, causing more disasters for the bandits. At that time, Changsha was suffering, especially in Nanjun. Although the kingdom of the king is unique and beneficial, it will kill more soldiers and hurt good generals. I can't bear to lose my wife, son of an orphan, and parents of an orphan. It means that you sent troops to the border and suffered more for the invaders. People in the area of Changsha on the southern border were extremely disturbed by you. That is to say, in the southeast, people in your intimate places such as Guangdong, Guangxi and other places were also extremely distressed because you started the war. What's the benefit of the war for you? As a result, they just "killed more soldiers and wounded good generals". After a battle, they lost a lot There are countless deaths among the excellent military cadres you have trained in many ways. So many people died, their husbands were widows, their fathers were dead, their children were orphans, their sons were dead, and their parents had no dependence on them. In the end, your land may be over. I can't bear to do such a miserable and cruel thing. The meaning of these words is deep enough to make people moved. It can be seen that Zhao Tuo's surrender is also related to this.

  知识链接:南越国历史

Knowledge link: the history of South Vietnam

  南越国,又称为南越或南粤,在越南又称为赵朝,是约前203年至前111年存在于岭南地区的一个国家,国都位于番禺(今广东省广州市),全盛时疆域包括今天中国广东、广西的大部分地区,福建的一小部分地区,海南、香港、澳门和越南北部、中部的大部分地区。

Nanyue state, also known as Nanyue or Nanyue, also known as Zhao Dynasty in Vietnam, is a country that existed in Lingnan region from about 203 to 111 years ago. The country is located in Panyu (now Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province). At its heyday, the territory includes most of Guangdong and Guangxi in China today, a small part of Fujian construction, Hainan, Hong Kong, Macao and most of northern and central Vietnam.

  秦朝将灭亡时,由南海郡尉赵佗起兵兼并桂林郡和象郡,后于约前203年建立南越国。

When the Qin Dynasty was about to perish, Zhao Tuo, the captain of Nanhai Prefecture, set up an army to annex Guilin county and Xiangjun County, and then established the state of South Vietnam in about 203 BC.

  前196年,赵佗向刘邦称臣,南越国成为西汉的一个“外臣”。约前183年,南越国与西汉交恶,赵佗开始称帝,其后,闽越、夜郎、同师等国皆臣属于南越国,南越国的势力影响范围扩张至顶峰。前179年,南越国与西汉修好,赵佗再次向西汉皇帝汉文帝称臣。前113年,南越国第四代君主赵兴因向西汉请求“内属”,而和丞相吕嘉发生争议。吕嘉杀死赵兴,立其兄赵建德为新君主,并与西汉对峙。

In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo became a minister to Liu Bang, and the Southern Yue State became a "foreign minister" of the Western Han Dynasty. In 183 BC, when the Southern Yue State and the Western Han Dynasty exchanged evil, Zhao Tuo became emperor. Later, Minyue, Yelang, Tongshi and other countries all belonged to the Southern Yue State, and the influence of the Southern Yue State expanded to the peak. In 179 BC, after the South Yue State and the Western Han Dynasty were repaired, Zhao Tuo again became a minister to the emperor of the Western Han Dynasty. In 113 years ago, Zhao Xing, the fourth monarch of Nanyue, had a dispute with Lv Jia, the prime minister, because he asked the Western Han Dynasty for "internal ownership". Lu Jia killed Zhao Xing, made his brother Zhao Jiande the new monarch, and confronted the Western Han Dynasty.

  前112年,西汉君主出兵10万发动对南越国的战争,并在前111年灭亡南越国。南越国共存在93年,历经五代君主。

In 112 years ago, the Western Han monarch sent 100000 troops to launch a war against the state of South Vietnam, and in 111 years ago, he destroyed the state of South Vietnam. South Vietnam has existed for 93 years and experienced five dynasties of monarchs.

  南越国的建立保证了秦末乱世时岭南地区社会秩序的稳定,使岭南免遭战乱之苦。南越国君主推行“和辑百越”的政策,促进了中原人和南越国内越人之间的文化交融。

The establishment of the Nanyue state ensured the stability of social order in Lingnan area during the period of chaos at the end of Qin Dynasty, and made Lingnan free from war. The monarch of South Vietnam carried out the policy of "He Ji Bai Yue", which promoted the cultural integration between the Central Plains people and the Vietnamese in South Vietnam.

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