光绪帝的惨痛经历:变法图强遇上慈禧太后皆成空-看世界

光绪帝的惨痛经历:变法图强遇上慈禧太后皆成空

  第一次是在光绪二十四年八月初六日,政变当天。史料记载,前一天,光绪帝还在宫内接见日本首相伊藤博文,可这时慈禧就在幕后监视,光绪帝已经失去了自由。萧一山《清代通史》记载:“因是日有召见伊藤博文事,后在幕后监视,故未即发作。”随后,光绪帝便被控制起来。慈禧太后召集奕劻等顽固守旧的王公大臣,对光绪帝开始了第一次审讯。据苏继祖《清廷戊戌朝变记》记载,当时,慈禧俨然太上皇一样,高坐于朝堂,光绪帝则跪在地上,并设置了竹杖。然后,慈禧大发雷霆,历数光绪帝的“罪状”。光绪帝能怎么办呢?萧一山《清代通史》记载:“帝战栗俯伏,惟有涕泣。”第一次审讯结束。

  戊戌政变后,太后为代表的“后党”立即聚集起来,开始对帝的变法政策进行清算。期间,发生了三次审讯的闹剧。

After the 1898 coup, the "post party", represented by the empress dowager, immediately gathered and began to liquidate the emperor's reform policy. During this period, there were three farce trials.

  第一次是在光绪二十四年八月初六日,政变当天。史料记载,前一天,光绪帝还在宫内接见日本首相,可这时慈禧就在幕后监视,光绪帝已经失去了自由。萧一山《清代通史》记载:“因是日有召见伊藤博文事,后在幕后监视,故未即发作。”随后,光绪帝便被控制起来。慈禧太后召集奕劻等顽固守旧的王公大臣,对光绪帝开始了第一次审讯。据苏继祖《清廷戊戌朝变记》记载,当时,慈禧俨然太上皇一样,高坐于朝堂,光绪帝则跪在地上,并设置了竹杖。然后,慈禧大发雷霆,历数光绪帝的“罪状”。光绪帝能怎么办呢?萧一山《清代通史》记载:“帝战栗俯伏,惟有涕泣。”第一次审讯结束。

The first was on August 6th, the day of the coup. According to historical records, the day before yesterday, Emperor Guangxu received the Japanese Prime Minister in the palace, but Cixi was watching behind the scenes. Emperor Guangxu had lost his freedom. According to Xiao Yishan's general history of the Qing Dynasty, "due to the fact that ITO was summoned in Japan and then monitored behind the scenes, it didn't happen immediately." Later, Emperor Guangxu was under control. Empress Dowager Cixi summoned the stubborn and conservative princes and ministers such as Yizhe to begin the first trial of Emperor Guangxu. According to Su Jizu's record of the change of the 1898 Dynasty in the Qing Dynasty, Cixi was like the emperor, sitting high in the court, while Emperor Guangxu knelt on the ground and set up a bamboo stick. Then Cixi was furious and counted Emperor Guangxu's "crimes". What can Emperor Guangxu do? According to Xiao Yishan's general history of the Qing Dynasty, "emperor shuddered and fell down, only tears were shed." The first trial ended.

  第二次是八月初七日,政变第二天。对光绪帝的审讯紧锣密鼓。这次审讯是逼迫光绪帝表态,承认等为,并下旨捉拿。这真的是如刀割心,康有为等是自己一手提拔起来的维新志士,让自己否定他们,再亲自下旨捉拿,光绪帝如何能做到!但是,面对强大的慈禧集团,光绪帝没有别的选择。资料《驿舍探幽录》记载:“呈与皇上,皇上转呈太后阅毕,仍递交皇上。皇上持此旨目视军机诸臣子,踌躇久之,始发下。”从这段描述中,我们看到慈禧的霸道,光绪的无奈。

The second was August 7th, the second day of the coup. The interrogation of Emperor Guangxu is in full swing. This trial is to force Emperor Guangxu to make a statement, admit and so on, and make an order to arrest. It's really like cutting the heart with a knife. Kang Youwei and other reformers are promoted by himself. Let him deny them and then make an order to catch them. How can Guangxu emperor do it? However, in the face of the powerful Cixi group, Guangxu emperor has no other choice. According to the records of Posthouse exploration: "it was submitted to the emperor, who turned it to the Empress Dowager and read it, and still submitted it to the emperor. With this purpose, the emperor looked at all the subjects of the military aircraft, hesitated for a long time, and began to issue. " From this description, we can see Cixi's hegemony and Guangxu's helplessness.

  第三次是八月初八日,政变第三天。这一次是慈禧太后要求光绪帝认罪。她找了很多证据,包括从光绪帝住处搜查到的资料。慈禧太后要让光绪帝心服口服,逐条指认。光绪帝仍然是以沉默对抗,他能说什么呢?总之是欲加之罪。自己变法图强,为的是国家和民族的复兴,为的是大清国的强大,!但是,他也只有沉默,一切话都是多余的。

The third was August 8th, the third day of the coup. This time, Empress Dowager Cixi asked Emperor Guangxu to plead guilty. She found a lot of evidence, including information from Guangxu's residence. Empress Dowager Cixi wants Emperor Guangxu to be convinced and identify one by one. Emperor Guangxu is still fighting with silence. What can he say? In a word, he wants to add sin. He changed his ways and tried to be strong, for the rejuvenation of the country and the nation, and for the strength of the Qing Dynasty! However, he was only silent, and all words were superfluous.

  慈禧太后认为,光绪帝不说,就是认罪了。既然犯了这么大的罪行,也只有自己出山了,这才是她的真正目的。于是,慈禧做出了最终 “裁判”:

Empress Dowager Cixi believed that if Emperor Guangxu didn't say it, he would confess his guilt. Since she has committed such a big crime, she has to go out on her own, which is her real purpose. So Cixi made the final "referee":

  1. 太后重新垂帘训政。慈禧太后朝臣,以光绪帝的名义,下发太后训政谕旨:“慈禧端佑康颐昭豫庄诚寿恭钦献崇熙皇太后两次垂帘听政,办理朝政,宏济时艰,无不。因念宗社为重,再三吁恳,慈恩训政。仰蒙俯如所请,此乃天下臣民之福。由今日始,在便殿办事。本月初八日,朕率王大臣在勤政殿行礼,一切应行礼节,著各该衙门敬谨预备。”慈禧就这样,粉墨登场,重新把持了朝政。

1. The Empress Dowager began to train the government. Empress Dowager Cixi's courtiers, in the name of Emperor Guangxu, issued the Empress Dowager's political training edict: "Empress Dowager Cixi Duanyou Kang Yi Zhao Yu Zhuang Chengshou respectfully offered the Empress Dowager Chongxi two times to listen to the government from the curtain, to deal with the government, and to help in times of difficulties, all of which are inevitable. Because of the importance of the patriarchal clan, he repeatedly called for sincerity and showed kindness to the government. It is the blessing of all the people in the world to look up and look down as requested. From now on, I will work in the Ben temple. On the eighth day of this month, I will lead Minister Wang to salute in the diligent government hall. All the courtesies should be performed. Each yamen is ready. " In this way, Cixi came to the stage and regained control of the government.

  2. 囚禁光绪帝。慈禧接着对光绪帝采取了措施。她命人大造舆论:“以帝疾作,宣示中外。”就是说,对外宣称光绪帝得了很严重的疾病,不能再处理政务了。于是,光绪帝被押往瀛台,完全与世隔绝,真正是“欲飞五羽翼,欲渡无舟楫”。直到光绪三十四年去世,光绪帝在这里度过了长达10年的囚帝生涯。

2. Imprison Emperor Guangxu. Cixi then took measures against Emperor Guangxu. She ordered people to create public opinion: "with the emperor's disease to make a declaration at home and abroad." In other words, it was declared that Emperor Guangxu had a serious disease and could no longer deal with government affairs. Thus, Emperor Guangxu was escorted to Yingtai, completely isolated from the rest of the world. He really wanted to fly five wings and cross no boats. Until the death of Guangxu in 34 years, Guangxu emperor spent 10 years in prison here.

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