周瑜:《三国志》里真君子还是《演义》里伪君子-看世界

周瑜:《三国志》里真君子还是《演义》里伪君子

  周瑜(公元175—210)字公瑾,庐江舒县(今安徽庐江西南)人。东汉末年东吴集团将领,杰出的军事家。美姿容,精音律,长壮有姿貌,多谋善断,胸襟广阔。后与诸葛亮、庞统、司马懿并称卧龙凤雏幼麟冢虎。

  史书《》里,陈寿对于的评价很高,多次以“英隽异才”、“王佐之才”、“年少有美才”、“文武韬略万人之英”盛赞之,并评价其:政治上高瞻远瞩,;军事上“胆略兼人”,智勇双全;人格修养上,“性度恢廊”,情趣高雅。

In the historical book, Chen Shou's evaluation is very high. He praised it for many times with "outstanding talents", "Wang zuozhi's talents", "young talents with beauty" and "great talents with military and cultural strategies". He also evaluated it as follows: political foresight, military "courage and strategy", intelligence and courage, personality cultivation, "sexual tolerance", and elegant taste.

  周瑜(公元175—210)字公瑾,庐江舒县(今安徽庐江西南)人。末年东吴集团将领,杰出的军事家。美姿容,精音律,长壮有姿貌,,胸襟广阔。后与、、并称幼麟冢虎。

Zhou Yu (175-210 A.D.) was born in Shuxian County, Lujiang, Anhui Province. At the end of the year, the general of the eastern Wu group was an outstanding strategist. Beautiful appearance, fine tone, long, strong, beautiful, broad-minded. Later, he and,, were also called the young Linzhong tiger.

  周瑜出身士族,堂祖父周景、堂叔周忠,皆为东汉太尉。其父亲周异,曾任洛阳令。周瑜自幼与交好,孙策初崛起时周瑜随之扫荡江东,并送钱粮物资助孙策成就大事。仰慕周瑜的才干,欲聘周瑜为将,但是周瑜以袁术难成大事而拒绝,其后设式投奔孙策,与孙策一起南征北战,为打江东基业立下,深受孙策任。孙策遇刺身亡后,周瑜与张昭一起共同辅佐,执掌军政大事。消灭后,威逼孙权送儿子为人质,周瑜志向高远,劝阻孙权送质。赤壁大战之时,力主抗曹,并慧眼预见到曹军的劣势和己方的优势,指挥全军在赤壁、乌林大败曹军,是以少胜多的的头号功臣。其后又成功地攻克了荆州战略要地南郡,败走。赤壁之战后,周瑜向孙权建议出兵攻取蜀地,消灭张鲁,吞并,与曹操二分天下,体现了一个军事战略家的远见卓识。周瑜在江陵进行军事准备时死于巴陵,时年三十六岁。

Zhou Yu was born into a scholar family. His grandfather, Zhou Jing, and uncle, Zhou Zhong, were all Taiwei of the Eastern Han Dynasty. His father, Zhou Yi, once served as Luoyang order. Since Zhou Yu was a child and made good friends, when sun Qichu rose, Zhou Yu swept Jiangdong and sent money, food and materials to help sun CE achieve great things. He admired Zhou Yu's ability and wanted to hire him as his general, but he refused because Yuan Shu was difficult to achieve great things. Later, he set up a style to join sun CE and fought with sun CE to fight north and south. He was deeply appointed by sun CE. After sun CE was assassinated, Zhou Yu and Zhang Zhao worked together to help him in charge of military and political affairs. After the elimination, Sun Quan was forced to send his son as a hostage. Zhou Yu was ambitious and dissuaded Sun Quan from giving him a pledge. At the time of the battle of Chibi, he took the lead in fighting against Cao, foreseeing the disadvantages of Cao's army and the advantages of his own side, and commanding the whole army to defeat Cao's army in Chibi and Wulin. He was the number one meritorious official who defeated Cao's army with less. After that, he successfully conquered Nanjun, a strategic area of Jingzhou, and lost. After the battle of Chibi, Zhou Yu suggested to Sun Quan that he should send troops to capture Shu, wipe out Zhang Lu and annex Cao Cao, which reflected the vision of a military strategist. Zhou Yu was thirty-six years old when he died in Baling during military preparations in Jiangling.

  周瑜去世,孙权,说:“公瑾有王佐之才,如今短命而死,叫我以后依赖谁呢?”他称帝后,仍念念不忘周瑜,曾对公卿们说:“没有瑾,我哪能称尊称帝呢?”“东吴的王图霸业,随周瑜猝死化为泡影,自此从欲染指天下转为偏安一方。”可见周瑜在东吴所起的作用是无人可替代的。

When Zhou Yu died, Sun Quan said, "Gongjin has the talent of Wang zuozhi, but now she died in a short time. Who should I depend on later?" after he became emperor, he still remembered Zhou Yu. He once said to Gongqing, "without Jin, how can I be called emperor?" "Wang Tu's hegemony in the eastern Wu Dynasty disappeared with Zhou Yu's sudden death. Since then, she has turned to be a partial security party from wanting to dominate the world." It can be seen that Zhou Yu played an irreplaceable role in the eastern Wu.

  《三国志》记载,周瑜举贤荐能可比鲍叔;折节为国可比;谦礼忠君无人能比。,气度恢弘。孙策初亡,孙权“是时权位为将军,诸将宾客为礼尚简,而瑜独先尽敬,便执臣节。性度恢廓,大率为得人,惟与不睦。”诸将礼简时,周瑜对比自己年幼的孙权极为恭敬,因此有性度恢廓评语,仅与程普不和,但他折节下交,终令程普叹服。史载,“普颇以年长,数陵侮瑜。瑜折节容下,终不与校。普后自敬服而亲重之,乃告人曰:‘与交,若饮醇醪,不觉自醉。’时人以其谦让服人如此”。

According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Zhou Yu's recommendation of talents can be compared with Uncle Bao's; his compromise can be compared with his country; no one can be compared with his humility and loyalty. It's magnificent. In the early days of his death, Sun Quan "was a general in power and position, and all the guests were polite and simple, while Yu, who was the first to respect, was the official. The sex degree is magnanimous, the big rate is the person, but is not good with When Zhu Jiangli was brief, Zhou Yu was extremely respectful to his young Sun Quan, so he had the nature to make a grand comment, only disagreed with Cheng Pu, but he finally fell in love with Cheng PU. According to history, "ordinary people are old, and several mausoleums insult Yu.". With the allowance of Yu's compromises, I will never go to school. The general empress respected himself and paid close attention to him. He said, "if you drink alcohol and mash, you will not feel drunk." When people with their humility to serve people so.

  与人相交时如饮醇酒,典故就出自程普与周瑜交往的感受。而陈寿提到的“曲有误,周郎顾”,则成为后来的文学作品中一个常用的典故。陈寿在《三国志·吴书·周瑜传》中记载:瑜少精意于音乐。虽三爵之后,其有阙误。瑜必知之,知之必顾,故时人谣曰:“曲有误,周郎顾。”

When you meet people like drinking alcohol, the allusion comes from the experience of Cheng Pu's communication with Zhou Yu. Chen Shou's "song is wrong, Zhou Lang Gu" has become a common allusion in later literary works. Chen Shou recorded in the biography of Wu Shu and Zhou Yu in the annals of the three kingdoms that Yu is less refined than music. Although after the three barons, there are some mistakes. Yu must know it, and know it must be considered. Therefore, it is said in the ballad of that time: "if there is a mistake in the song, Zhou Lang will consider it."

  如此一个刚柔相济的人物又有无可挑剔的优秀品格和令人赞叹的文武宏才,加之上天又特别偏爱给了他俊美的外貌,内外皆秀又风度翩翩,周瑜称得上是十分完美,像他的名字一般如瑾似瑜。

Such a tough and soft person has impeccable excellent character and admirable martial arts talents. In addition, God has given him a special preference for beautiful appearance. Both inside and outside are beautiful and elegant. Zhou Yu is very perfect, like his name is like Jin Yu.

  然而到了后世,周瑜的形象却开始不断地变异,甚至最后在民间变得了。

However, in the later ages, Zhou Yu's image began to change constantly, even in the folk.

  到了东晋,周瑜的厄运就来了。这个偏安江左、只拥有半壁江山的封建王朝,为了维护自己的统治地位,开始在正统论上大做文章。他们巧妙地选择了同样割据一方的蜀汉作为正统,开始认定,周瑜为“小人”。这其中最具代表性的就是习凿齿的《汉晋春秋》。

In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Zhou Yu's misfortune came. In order to maintain its dominant position, the feudal dynasty, which was on the left of Jiang'an and only had half of the country, began to make a great deal of contributions to orthodoxy. They cleverly chose Shu Han as the orthodox, and began to identify Zhou Yu as a "villain". One of the most representative is Xi chisel's "Han Jin spring and Autumn".

  此后数百年,蜀魏正统之争纷纷扬扬。到了,正统之争开始出现在唐诗中。首先是,对蜀汉的诸葛亮极为推崇,对于这位忧国忧民的表现出了深深的同情。再就是,这位诗人在诗中不加掩饰地调侃周瑜,历史在文学中开始出现偏差,“东风不予周郎便,铜雀春深锁二乔。”

After that, for hundreds of years, the orthodox disputes between the Shu and Wei dynasties became more and more popular. By then, the struggle of orthodoxy began to appear in Tang poetry. First of all, he highly praised Zhugeliang of the Shu Han Dynasty, and showed deep sympathy for him. Moreover, the poet ridiculed Zhou Yu without any disguise in his poems. History began to deviate in literature. "If the east wind doesn't help Zhou Lang, the bronze sparrow will lock two Qiao deep in spring."

  到了,宋人治史之风颇盛,常常明是治史实为思想政治观的较量,文人政客间的朋党之争更是惊心触目,三国正统之争也在争斗之列,宋文坛多位大家被卷入。最终朱熹的理学占据了历史的上风,帝蜀寇魏、尊刘贬曹渐成定局。随后的元明清三代,史家多承朱熹的“帝蜀寇魏”论。人物的善恶褒贬也随之潮起潮落,数度浮沉,最尴尬的当属身处其中的东吴。为了尊刘,自然就得贬曹贬孙,作为孙权集团的周瑜,其形象自然也难逃打压。

In the Song Dynasty, the trend of governing history was quite prosperous. It was often a contest of Ideological and political views to govern history. The struggle between the literati and politicians was even more shocking. The struggle between the orthodoxy of the Three Kingdoms was also in the fight. Many people in the literary circle of the song Dynasty were involved. In the end, Zhu Xi's Neo Confucianism occupied the top position in history, and Wei, Liu and Cao became the final decisions. In the following three dynasties of yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, historians mostly inherited Zhu Xi's theory of "emperor Shu conquered Wei". With the rise and fall of the praise and criticism of the good and evil of the characters, the most embarrassing one is the eastern Wu. In order to respect Liu, Zhou Yu, a member of Sun Quan Group, has to be demoted from Cao to sun.

  然而,在民间的话语权里,周瑜的身后命运更惨。

However, in the civil discourse, Zhou Yu's fate behind him is even worse.

  三国故事在三国时代结束之后不久便在民间有所流传。到了宋代,周瑜的形象已经彻底地扭曲了。如今所能找到的年代最为久远的资料,就是宋元之际出现的话本《三分事略》。在这部为适应市民娱乐需求而产生的话本中,周瑜的形象已经是一落千丈了:在政治上,他,为一己私利而置国家安危于不顾;在军事上,他看似颇有才华,却又似乎人皆可败;在人格修养上,他,心胸狭隘。史传文学中那个雅量高致、出众人之表的周公瑾已经荡然无存,取而代之的是一位才智碌碌、妒贤嫉能的平庸之辈。

The stories of the Three Kingdoms spread among the people soon after the end of the Three Kingdoms period. By the Song Dynasty, Zhou Yu's image had been completely distorted. The most ancient material that can be found now is the story book "three parts of the story" which appeared in the song and Yuan Dynasties. In this book, Zhou Yu's image has fallen dramatically to meet the needs of citizens' Entertainment: in politics, he ignores the country's security for his own personal interests; in military affairs, he seems to be quite talented, but seems to be defeated by everyone; in personality cultivation, he is narrow-minded. Zhou Gongjin, the elegant and outstanding man in the historical literature, has disappeared. Instead, he is a mediocre person with mediocre intelligence and envy.

  市井间“尊刘贬曹”的观念早已有之。在的小品《东坡志林》中,就曾对民间三国有过这样的描述,“至说三国事,闻德败,频感眉,有出涕者;闻曹操败,即喜唱快。”民间对人物的褒贬品评是有着自己的立足点和出发点。他们“尊刘”,拥“帝蜀”,而对于站在对立面的周瑜,自然不会有好感。

The concept of "respecting Liu and demoting Cao" has existed in the market for a long time. In the essay "Dongpo Zhilin", there is such a description of folk Three Kingdoms, "to say the Three Kingdoms, to hear the defeat of Germany, to feel the eyebrows frequently, there are people who shed tears; to hear the defeat of Cao Cao, that is to say, to sing fast." People's evaluation of characters has its own foothold and starting point. They "respect Liu" and embrace "emperor Shu", but they will not have a good feeling for Zhou Yu, who stands on the opposite side.

  之后,罗贯中着的《》的出现,彻底把周瑜的形象钉在了自相的演义标准上。

After that, the appearance of Luo Guanzhong's novel completely nailed the image of Zhou Yu to the standard of self phase.

  一方面,它肯定周瑜结交孙策,开拓江东,定建霸业;举荐,纳降,举贤任能;最后火攻破敌,建立不朽功勋。

On the one hand, it affirms Zhou Yu's friendship with sun CE, the development of Jiangdong, the establishment of hegemony; recommendation, acceptance, the promotion of talents and abilities; the final fire attack to break the enemy, the establishment of immortal merit.

  而另一面,当遇到集团的中心人物,周瑜又不得不退。对于那些中心人物,周瑜只能是陪衬。

On the other hand, when he met the central figure of the group, Zhou Yu had to quit. For those central figures, Zhou Yu can only be a foil.

  这一切,在那句“既生瑜、何生亮”的感叹中仿佛达到了极点。

All of this seems to have reached the extreme in the exclamation of "Yu and he Shengliang".

  《三国演义》对周瑜的形象做了大量的扭曲贬低,在此将演义与正史不同之处进行对比,以正视听。

In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, Zhou Yu's image has been distorted and belittled a lot. Here, the differences between the romance and the official history are compared, so as to correct the audio-visual.

  关于诸葛亮三气周瑜:正载,连刘备都评价周瑜“器量广大”,周瑜气量宽宏根本不会被气死。从赤壁之战结束到周瑜病逝的两年间,诸葛亮正在零陵一带搞后勤工作,根本没有和周瑜见过面。至于周瑜病逝后,送丧吊唁的是周瑜旧下属庞统,而不是诸葛亮。

About Zhuge Liang's three Qi Zhou Yu: in Zhengzai, even Liu Bei commented that Zhou Yu had "a large number of instruments", and Zhou Yu's magnanimity would not be infuriated at all. In the two years from the end of the battle of Chibi to Zhou Yu's death, Zhuge Liang was engaged in logistics work in Lingling area, and he did not meet Zhou Yu at all. As for Zhou Yu's death, it was Pang Tong, an old subordinate of Zhou Yu, not Zhuge Liang who mourned.

  关于:草船借箭的人正史上是孙权,演义描写周瑜嫉妒诸葛亮是彻头彻尾的捏造,三国演义之祖《三国志平话》中巧计借箭的正是周瑜本人。

About: Sun Quan is the one who borrowed arrows from the boat. Zhou Yu is completely fabricated to describe Zhou Yu's jealousy of Zhugeliang. Zhou Yu himself is the one who skillfully borrowed arrows in the Pinghua of the annals of the Three Kingdoms, the ancestor of the romance of the Three Kingdoms.

  关于:历史上是孙权自己要把妹妹嫁给刘备,单纯的政治婚姻,和周瑜的计谋根本没关系。

About: Historically, Sun Quan wanted to marry his sister to Liu Bei. A simple political marriage had nothing to do with Zhou Yu's plot.

  关于智激周瑜:纯粹子虚乌有。周瑜是东吴最有力的主战派人士,正是孙权听了他的劝说才有了赤壁之战。

Zhou Yu: pure and void. Zhou Yu is the most powerful leader of the eastern Wu Dynasty. It was Sun Quan who persuaded him to fight in Chibi.

  关于借东风:虚构,诸葛亮并未参与赤壁之战,赤壁乃周瑜等东吴将领之功。

About borrowing the east wind: it is fictitious that Zhuge Liang did not participate in the battle of Chibi, which was the contribution of Zhou Yu and other generals of the eastern Wu Dynasty.

  关于荆州问题:实乃周瑜死后,鲁肃为了“联刘抗曹”把周瑜打下的荆州南郡地区借给刘备。周瑜生前掌握江陵彝陵等入川水道,东吴攻打西蜀不存在和刘备借道的问题。周瑜死后,在鲁肃的主张下把南郡地区借了刘备,此后东吴派出孙瑜伐蜀被刘备挡道,演义中可能故意把孙瑜和周瑜搞混了。

About Jingzhou: after Zhou Yu's death, Lu Su lent Liu Bei the southern county area of Jingzhou that Zhou Yu had defeated in order to "unite Liu against Cao". Before Zhou Yu's death, he was in charge of the waterways into Sichuan, such as Jiangling, Yiling and so on. There was no problem in the attack of Western Shu by the eastern Wu and Liu Bei. After Zhou Yu's death, he borrowed Liu Bei from Nanjun district at Lu Su's suggestion. After that, the eastern Wu sent Sun Yu to attack Shu and was blocked by Liu Bei. In the romance, Sun Yu and Zhou Yu may have been deliberately confused.

  正史的影响力,远远不及永远的畅销书、拥有亿万读者的文学作品《三国演义》,之后,人们对周瑜的了解主要来自于《三国演义》,周瑜的“既生瑜、何生亮”的叹息回荡在几百年来的民间话语中。刘继兴认为,假如周瑜真地下有知,估计他会仰天长叹:“既生瑜,何生《三国演义》?”

The influence of the official history is far less than the best-selling book forever and the literary work romance of the Three Kingdoms with hundreds of millions of readers. After that, people's understanding of Zhou Yu mainly comes from the romance of the Three Kingdoms. Zhou Yu's sigh of "jishengyu, he Shengliang" echoes in the folk discourse for hundreds of years. Liu Jixing thinks that if Zhou Yu really knew something, he would look up to the sky and sigh: "if he had given birth to Yu, how could he have given birth to the romance of the Three Kingdoms?"

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