国学泰斗汤一介简介:“一介”书生的家国情怀-看世界

国学泰斗汤一介简介:“一介”书生的家国情怀

  作为当代中国哲学界代表性人物之一,从上世纪80年代创建中华文化书院推动“文化启蒙”,到90年代最早提倡“国学”,汤一介把做学问与时代赋予的使命融为一体,思索着中国哲学在不同时代的沉浮。

  北京大学未名湖畔,一位87岁的老人依旧笔耕不辍。作为《儒藏》项目的首席专家,他把这个浩大的典籍编纂计划延续到2025年。

An 87 year old man is still working at the Weiming lake of Peking University. As the chief expert of the project, he extended this vast plan of compilation of ancient books to 2025.

  作为当代中国哲学界代表性人物之一,从上世纪80年代创建中华文化书院推动“文化蒙”,到90年代最早提倡“国学”,汤一介把做学问与时代赋予的使命融为一体,思索着中国哲学在不同时代的沉浮。

As one of the representatives of contemporary Chinese philosophy, Tang Yijie, from the founding of the Chinese Culture Academy in the 1980s to the promotion of "cultural Mongolia", to the earliest promotion of "Sinology" in the 1990s, integrated learning with the mission given by the times, and pondered the ups and downs of Chinese Philosophy in different times.

  “事不避难,义不逃责”

"Do not take refuge in affairs, do not escape responsibility in righteousness"

  汤一介1927年生于天津,出身。父亲汤用彤是久负盛名的国学大师,言传身教对子女影响很大。父亲嘱咐他的两句话“事不避难,义不逃责”是家风。意思是勇于承担困难的事情,对合乎道义的事情负责。

Tang Yijie was born in Tianjin in 1927. Tang Yongtong, father, is a well-known master of Chinese culture. His words and deeds have a great influence on his children. His father told him two words, "do not take refuge, justice does not escape responsibility" is the family tradition. It means to be brave enough to take on the difficult things and be responsible for the moral things.

  青年时期,汤一介目睹旧中国积贫积弱,百姓颠沛流离,深感痛心。他曾回忆道:“我十六七岁时,抗战最困难时期,写过一篇文章《一滴汽油一滴血》批评浪费汽油。”

In his youth, Tang Yijie was deeply distressed to see the poverty and weakness of old China and the displacement of the people. "When I was 16 or 17 years old, during the most difficult period of the Anti Japanese War, I wrote an article," a drop of gasoline and a drop of blood ", criticizing the waste of gasoline," he recalled

  1946年,汤一介考上北京大学。从此一生都在读书、教书、写书、编书中度过。在北大求学时期,他结识了妻子乐黛云——这位后来在中国比较文学界举足轻重的学者。如今,他们过着平静的生活。

In 1946, Tang Yijie was admitted to Peking University. From then on, I spent my whole life in reading, teaching, writing and compiling books. During his study in Peking University, he met his wife, Le Daiyun, who later became an important scholar in Chinese comparative literature. Today, they live a peaceful life.

  因为历次的政治浩劫,他与同龄人一样,耽误过做学问的大好时光。上世纪80年代,他以“知天命”之年重新焕发学术研究的活力。从此用“只争朝夕”的精神工作,为中国哲学研究的开拓与发展付出辛劳。

Because of all the political catastrophes, he, like his peers, wasted a good time in learning. In the 1980s, he renewed the vitality of academic research in the year of "knowing destiny". Since then, we have worked hard for the development of Chinese philosophy research with the spirit of "seize the day and night".

  中西方文化“和而不同”

"Harmony but difference" between Chinese and Western cultures

  上世纪80年代起,各种学术思潮涌动,整个社会掀起文化热潮。针对当时兴起的“国学热”、“东方中心论”,汤一介开始就持冷静的态度。

Since the 1980s, various academic thoughts have been surging, and the whole society has set off a cultural upsurge. Tang Yijie took a cool attitude towards the rise of "Sinology fever" and "Oriental centrism".

  他曾撰文写道,在中国我是第一个发表文章批评“文明冲突论”的。当时,美国学者亨廷顿发表《文明的冲突》。对此,汤一介立即给予批评和回应。他用“和而不同”的思想指出,文化可以不同,但可以和谐相处。

He once wrote that in China, I was the first to publish an article criticizing the theory of "clash of Civilizations". At that time, Huntington, an American scholar, published the conflict of civilizations. In response, Tang Yijie immediately criticized and responded. He pointed out that culture can be different, but can get along harmoniously.

  怎样实现文化共处呢?汤一介认为唯一的途径就是对话。只有互相理解、相互尊重,才能取得共识。以北京大学哲学系为核心,组建了中国文化书院,汤一介任院长。书院举办了“文化系列讲习班”,还举办了有数万学员参加的“中外文化比较研究”函授班,推动了当时的文化启蒙运动。

How to achieve cultural coexistence? Tang Yijie thinks that the only way is dialogue. Only mutual understanding and mutual respect can we reach a consensus. With the Philosophy Department of Peking University as the core, a college of Chinese culture was established, with Tang Yijie as the dean. The academy held a series of "cultural workshops" and a correspondence course of "comparative study of Chinese and foreign cultures" attended by tens of thousands of students, which promoted the cultural enlightenment at that time.

  他先后出版《郭象与魏晋玄学》《中国传统文化中的儒道释》《在非有非无之间》《佛教与中国文化》一系列著作,主编了《中国文化书院文库》《20世纪西方哲学东渐史》《国学举要》等大型丛书,创办了中国文化书院等学术机构。

He has successively published a series of works, such as Guo Xiang and the metaphysics of Wei and Jin Dynasties, Confucianism and Taoism in traditional Chinese culture, between non existence and non existence, Buddhism and Chinese culture, edited a large series of books, such as the library of Chinese cultural academies, the history of western philosophy spreading to the East in the 20th century, the essentials of Chinese learning, and established academic institutions such as Chinese cultural academies.

  汤一介反对人们用“国学大师”称呼他。他认为,“大师”应该有一个思想的理论体系,而他自己只是中国哲学问题的一个思考者。

Tang Yijie objected to people calling him "master of Sinology". He thinks that "master" should have a theoretical system of thought, and he himself is only a thinker of Chinese philosophy.

  在汤一介的书架上,整齐地排列着已出版的100册《儒藏》,藏蓝色封皮,烫金的字,格外悦目。作为这部集中华儒家文化精髓的浩瀚工程的总编纂和首席专家,汤一介责任重大。

On Tang Yijie's bookshelf, there are 100 volumes of "Ru Zang" that have been published in order. The blue cover and the gilded words are particularly pleasing to the eyes. As the chief editor and chief expert of this vast project which integrates the essence of Chinese Confucian culture, Tang Yijie has a great responsibility.

  自上世纪90年代起,他就希望编纂《儒藏》典籍。2003年,教育部正式批准由北京大学主持制定、汤一介为首席专家的“《儒藏》编纂与研究”方案,作为哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目立项。在汤一介看来,这个项目自己责无旁贷。

Since the 1990s, he has hoped to compile Confucian classics. In 2003, the Ministry of Education officially approved the "compilation and research of Confucianism and Tibet" program, which was developed under the auspices of Peking University and headed by Tang Yijie, as a major research project of philosophy and social sciences. In Tang Yijie's view, the project itself is duty bound.

  十年来,《儒藏》系列已出版百册“精华编”,按照计划到2025年《儒藏》全本将全部完成编纂。整个项目将涵盖历史上儒家主要文献,包括历代学者研究著作等,还包括受儒家文化深刻影响的韩、日、越用汉文著述的主要著作,如今已吸纳四国大约500名学者。

In the past ten years, the collection of Ru Zang has published 100 volumes of essences. According to the plan, the whole book of Confucianism and Tibet will be compiled in 2025. The whole project will cover the main documents of Confucianism in history, including the research works of scholars in previous dynasties, as well as the main works written in Chinese by South Korea, Japan and Vietnam, which are deeply influenced by Confucian culture. Now it has attracted about 500 scholars from four countries.

  汤一介倡导弘扬儒家文化的宗旨是“放眼世界文化潮流,传承儒学思想精粹,阐释儒学特殊理念,寻求儒学普遍价值,创构儒学新型体系”。

Tang Yijie's aim of advocating and promoting Confucian culture is to "look at the world cultural trend, inherit the essence of Confucianism, explain the special ideas of Confucianism, seek the universal value of Confucianism, and create a new system of Confucianism".

  在他眼中,中华民族正处在伟大复兴的前夜,当一个民族处在复兴前夜之时,她必须回顾自己的历史文化,从中汲取力量。他深刻认识到,民族和国家的复兴,必须以文化的复兴为支撑。

In his eyes, the Chinese nation is on the eve of great rejuvenation. When a nation is on the eve of rejuvenation, she must review her history and culture and draw strength from it. He realized that the rejuvenation of nation and country must be supported by the rejuvenation of culture.

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 “文化大革命”开始之后,汤一介和冯友兰等北大哲学系的教员都遭受批判,但当时的汤一介并没有质疑这场史无前例的运动。“文革”十年,汤一介正值“不惑之年”,但事实上这却是他一生中最迷惑的十年,他感觉自己已经失去自我,没有了方向。尽管汤一介和乐黛云夫妇想尽量避开一个接一个的政治斗争,但似乎总也摆脱不了。“文革”结束后,汤一介还因为种种原因,必须接受清查,直到1978年他才被彻底平反,而此时的汤一介已经51岁了。

After the start of the "Cultural Revolution", teachers in the Philosophy Department of Peking University such as Tang Yijie and Feng Youlan were criticized, but Tang Yijie at that time did not question the unprecedented movement. In the ten years of the cultural revolution, Tang Yijie was in his infancy, but in fact, it was the most confusing decade in his life. He felt that he had lost himself and had no direction. Although Mr. and Mrs. Tang want to avoid one political struggle after another, they can't seem to get rid of it. After the end of the cultural revolution, Tang Yijie had to be checked for various reasons. He was not completely pacified until 1978, when he was 51 years old.

  1980年,汤一介终于恢复了在北大讲课的资格,此时的汤一介已经不愿再与任何政治有任何瓜葛。他努力将教学研究与现实政治脱钩,并力求提出一套新的观点来。他率先把中国传统哲学作为认识史来思考,并以真善美概念为基础,综合各家所言,建构出一套中国哲学理论体系。

In 1980, Tang Yijie finally regained the qualification of lecturing in Peking University. At this time, Tang Yijie was no longer interested in any politics. He tried to separate teaching research from real politics and tried to put forward a set of new ideas. He took the lead in thinking about Chinese traditional philosophy as the history of cognition, and based on the concept of truth, goodness and beauty, he constructed a set of theoretical system of Chinese philosophy by synthesizing what each school said.

  进入九十年代,汤一介提出了“和而不同”、“普遍和谐”、“内在超越”、“中国解释学”、“新轴心时代”等一系列新问题,推动文化界对传统哲学的大讨论。其中,他提出的传统哲学应“走出中西古今之争”,促进了中国传统哲学与现代相结合。

In the 1990s, Tang Yijie put forward a series of new problems, such as "harmony but difference", "universal harmony", "internal transcendence", "Chinese hermeneutics", "new axis era", which promoted the discussion of traditional philosophy in the cultural circle. Among them, he proposed that traditional philosophy should "go out of the ancient and modern dispute between China and the west", which promoted the combination of traditional Chinese philosophy and modern.

  1990年获加拿大麦克玛斯特大学(Mc Master University)荣誉博士学位。1983年曾任美国哈佛大学访问学者(Luce Fellow),曾任美国俄勒岗大学(1986)、澳大利亚墨尔本大学(1995)、香港科技大学(1992)、麦克玛斯特大学(1986、1990)等校客座教授,纽约州立大学宗教研究院研究员(1986),1996年任荷兰莱顿大学汉学院讲座主讲教授,1997年任香港中文大学钱宾四学术讲座主讲教授。2011年4月,被聘为中央文史研究馆馆员。中国文化书院院长、中国哲学史学会顾问、中华学会副会长、中国东方文化研究会副理事长、中国炎黄文化研究会副会长、国际价值与哲学研究会(Research in Value and Philosophy)理事,第十九届亚洲与北非研究会顾问委员会委员、国际儒学联合会顾问、国际道学联合会副主席;曾任国际中国哲学会主席(1992-1994),现任该会驻中国代表。国内任南京大学、山东大学、兰州大学、首都师范大学、北京理工大学等大学兼任教授。著有《郭象与魏晋玄学》《魏晋时期的道教》《中国传统文化中的儒道释》《儒道释与内在超越问题》《在非有非无之间》《汤一介学术文化随笔》《非实非虚集》《昔不至今》《郭象》《当代学者自选文库:汤一介卷》《佛教与中国文化》《生死》《Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity and Chinese Culture》《La Mort》及学术论文二百余篇。

In 1990, he received an honorary doctorate from McMaster University in Canada. In 1983, he was once a visiting scholar at Harvard University (Luce fellow), a visiting professor at Oregon University (1986), Melbourne University (1995), Hong Kong University of science and Technology (1992), McMaster University (1986, 1990), a researcher at the school of religion and research, New York State University (1986), a lecture professor at the Chinese School of Leiden University in the Netherlands in 1996, and a professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1997 Professor in charge of the academic lecture of Qian bin 4. In April 2011, he was employed as a member of the Central Research Institute of culture and history. President of the Chinese Academy of culture, consultant of the Chinese philosophy history society, vice president of the Chinese society, vice president of the Chinese Oriental Culture Research Association, vice president of the Chinese Yanhuang Culture Research Association, director of the research in value and philosophy society, member of the Advisory Committee of the 19th Asian and North African Research Association, consultant of the International Confucian Federation, and vice president of the international Taoist Union President; former president of the international Chinese Philosophy Association (1992-1994), now the representative of the association in China. He is also a professor in Nanjing University, Shandong University, Lanzhou University, Capital Normal University, Beijing University of technology and other universities. His works include Guo Xiang and the metaphysics of the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Taoism in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Confucianism and Taoism in traditional Chinese culture, Confucianism and Taoism and internal transcendence, between non existence and non existence, essays on Tang Yijie's academic culture, non reality and non emptiness, the past and the present, Guo Xiang, self selected library of contemporary scholars: Tang Yijie, Buddhism and Chinese culture, life and death, Confucianism, bu Ddhism, Taoism, Christian and Chinese culture, La mort and more than 200 academic papers.

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