盘点:国民党军四名一级上将在台湾的最后结局!-看世界

盘点:国民党军四名一级上将在台湾的最后结局!

  陈诚,字辞修,浙江青田人,1947年2月晋升陆军一级上将。抗战胜利后,陈诚从1947年8月起兼任东北行辕主任。1948年5月被免去东北行辕主任,10月就被派到台湾。在蒋介石心目中,他是民国第一能臣。1949年1月,解放战争三大战役结束后,国民党的败局已定,蒋介石在宣布自己下野前,任命早已到台的陈诚为台湾省政府主席兼台湾警备总司令,取代已经得罪了台湾。民众的陈仪,为国民党溃退到台湾做好了准备。

  陈诚:最忙碌的“副总统”

Chen Cheng: the busiest "vice president"

  陈诚,字辞修,浙江青田人,1947年2月晋升陆军一级上将。抗战胜利后,陈诚从1947年8月起兼任东北行辕主任。1948年5月被免去东北行辕主任,10月就被派到台湾。在心目中,他是第一能臣。1949年1月,解放战争三大战役结束后,国民党的败局已定,蒋介石在宣布自己下野前,任命早已到台的陈诚为台湾省政府主席兼台湾警备总司令,取代已经得罪了台湾。民众的陈仪,为国民党溃退到台湾做好了准备。

Chen Cheng, a native of Qingtian, Zhejiang Province, was promoted to the first rank General of the army in February 1947. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, Chen Cheng has been the director of the Northeast Branch since August 1947. In May 1948, he was removed as the director of northeast Xingyuan and sent to Taiwan in October. In my mind, he is the first capable minister. In January 1949, after the end of the three major battles of the war of liberation, the defeat of the Kuomintang was decided. Before Chiang Kai Shek announced that he would go out of power, he appointed Chen Cheng, who had already arrived in Taiwan, as the chairman of the Taiwan Provincial Government and the commander in chief of the Taiwan police, instead of offending Taiwan. Chen Yi of the people prepared for the Kuomintang's rout to Taiwan.

  陈诚一边镇压“反宪法、反政府、反美国”的学运,一边以40万两黄金作为储备,进行台湾的“币制改革”。与此同时,他还得收拾残局,安顿败兵。无论在基隆港,还是高雄港,港口布满荷枪实弹的宪兵,从大陆退到台湾的老兵必须先缴械,他们心里很不舒服,可也奈何不得。陈诚对这些老兵实行集中管训,一共撤销了十几个兵团司令部,三十余个军部,并裁了七个军事单位。这在一定程度上避免了国民党200余万军政溃败人员退到台湾可能引起的社会动荡。

While suppressing the movement of "anti constitution, anti government and anti America", Chen Cheng used 400000 liang of gold as reserve to carry out "currency system reform" in Taiwan. At the same time, he had to clean up the mess and settle down the defeated soldiers. Whether in Keelung port or Kaohsiung port, the port is full of armed gendarmes. Veterans who retreat from the mainland to Taiwan must disarm first. They are very uncomfortable, but they have no choice. Chen Cheng carried out centralized management and training for these veterans. In total, he cancelled more than ten corps headquarters, more than thirty military departments, and laid off seven military units. To some extent, this has avoided the social unrest that may be caused by the retreat of more than 2 million military and political routs of the Kuomintang to Taiwan.

  从1949年4月起,陈诚就开始在台湾实行一系列土改实验,但“三七减租”、“耕者有其田”的和平土改政策,直到1953年才大规模贯彻。

Since April 1949, Chen Cheng has carried out a series of land reform experiments in Taiwan. However, the peaceful land reform policy of "rent reduction on March 7th" and "land for the tiller" was not implemented on a large scale until 1953.

  1954年,陈诚被蒋介石提名“副总统”后,春风得意,满面笑容。在记者会上,他在自己的桌前放了一张白纸,上面写道:“追随总统,善尽职守”,算是他的“竞选口号”,以此回报蒋的恩宠,因为蒋介石曾经说过“中正不可一日无辞修”。

In 1954, after Chen Cheng was nominated by Chiang Kai Shek as "vice president", he became complacent and smiling. At the press conference, he put a piece of white paper in front of his desk, on which he wrote: "follow the president, do your duty well", which is his "campaign slogan", in return for Chiang's favor, because Chiang Kai Shek once said that "China can't be repaired without a day".

  1961年底,陈诚代蒋访美,与美国总统、副总统詹森会面,可谓风光无限,达到他个人事业的顶峰。由于陈诚在台声望日隆,已成为太子继承大统的最大障碍,父子对他深感棘手。然而,老天作了选择,1965年,陈诚积劳成疾,因肝病在台北荣军医院去世,享年68岁。台北市殡仪馆内花圈、挽联无数,最突出是蒋介石的挽联:

At the end of 1961, Chen Cheng visited the United States on behalf of Jiang, and met with the president and vice president of the United States Jason. It can be said that the scenery is boundless, reaching the peak of his personal career. Chen Cheng's popularity in Taiwan has become the biggest obstacle for the crown prince to inherit the great unification, and his father and son are deeply troubled by him. However, God made a choice. In 1965, Chen Cheng died of liver disease at Taipei Rongjun hospital. He was 68 years old. There are countless wreaths and couplets in Taipei funeral parlor, the most prominent of which is Chiang Kai Shek's couplet:

  “辞修同志千古。光复志节已至最后奋斗关头,哪堪吊此国殇,果有数耶;革命事业尚在共同完成阶段,竟忍夺我元辅,岂无天乎?”

"Ci Xiu has a long history. At the last moment of struggle, how can we hang this war? There are several results. The revolutionary cause is still in the stage of joint completion, and we are willing to seize our yuan as a supplement. Is there no heaven? "

  蒋介石的挽联可谓具实而写,有感而发。不过“光复”大陆之举却素为陈诚反对。他是做实际工作的,他非常清楚,只有3,6万平方公里的台湾,无论财力物力还是人力,都根本无力担当起这一“重任”。所谓“最后奋斗关头”,其实根本没有一点可能。

Chiang Kai-shek's couplet can be described as a practical one. However, Chen Cheng was always opposed to the "restoration" of the mainland. He does practical work. He is very clear that Taiwan, with only 36000 square kilometers, is unable to shoulder this "heavy task" in terms of financial resources and human resources. In fact, the so-called "final struggle" is not possible at all.

  太平洋那边的冷战盟主美国惊闻陈诚去世,派出副总统到台湾出席丧礼。历史总是给人意外,这位陈诚的老朋友尼克松,担任美国副总统期间曾两度访台,几年后却成为打破中美坚冰,踏上中国大陆的首位美国总统。

The United States, the cold war ally on the other side of the Pacific Ocean, was shocked by the death of Chen Cheng and sent its vice president to Taiwan to attend the funeral. History is always surprising. Nixon, Chen Cheng's old friend, visited Taiwan twice when he was vice president of the United States. A few years later, he became the first American president to break the ice between China and the United States and set foot on the mainland of China.

  白祟禧:台湾回敬的“大家长”

Bai XuXi: Taiwan's revered "big parent"

  ,字健生,出生于广西桂林的一个回族家庭。与桂系头号人物同乡,关系极为密切。白崇禧在保定军校毕业后,加入桂军,渐渐显露出过人的军事才干。1927年,桂军编为国民革命军第七军,在北伐战争中,白崇禧指挥了著名的汀泗桥战役,成为北伐。

Born in a Hui family in Guilin, Guangxi. It is closely related to the number one person of Guangxi Department. After graduating from Baoding military academy, Bai Chongxi joined the GUI army and gradually showed his outstanding military ability. In 1927, the GUI army was organized as the seventh army of the national revolutionary army. During the northern expedition, Bai Chongxi directed the famous battle of tingsiqiao, which became the northern expedition.

  抗战时,白崇禧参与指挥了武汉保卫战。据李宗仁之秘书程思远回忆,毛泽东《沦持久战》刚发表,周恩来就把它的基本精神向白崇禧作了介绍,白崇禧深为赞赏,认为这是抗战克敌制胜的最高战略方针。后来,白崇禧又向蒋介石转述,蒋介石也十分赞成。在蒋介石的支持下,白崇禧把《论持久战》的精神归纳成两句话:“积小胜为大胜,以空间换时间。”并取得周恩来的同意,由国民政府军事委员会通令全国,作为的战略指导思想。

During the Anti Japanese War, Bai Chongxi participated in and directed the Wuhan defense war. According to the memory of Cheng Siyuan, Secretary of Li Zongren, Zhou Enlai introduced its basic spirit to Bai Chongxi just after the publication of Mao Zedong's "falling into a protracted war". Bai Chongxi deeply appreciated it and thought it was the highest strategic policy to defeat the enemy in the Anti Japanese war. Later, Bai Chongxi reported to Chiang Kai-shek, who was also very supportive. With the support of Chiang Kai-shek, Bai Chongxi summed up the spirit of "on protracted war" into two sentences: "accumulate small victories for big victories, and trade space for time." With Zhou Enlai's consent, the Military Commission of the national government issued a general order to the whole country as the strategic guiding ideology.

  白崇禧非黄埔系将领,处处与蒋介石离心离德。他数次支持李宗仁反蒋,最露骨的一次是李宗仁出任代总统前夕,国共两军打得之时,白崇禧正驻防华中,坐镇武汉,掌控着三四十万能战之兵,却不肯在战争的天平上朝国民党军一方增加砝码。

Bai Chongxi was not a general of the Whampoa department. He was divorced from Chiang Kai Shek everywhere. He supported Li Zongren against Jiang several times. The most obvious one was the eve of Li Zongren's appointment as acting president. When the Kuomintang and the Communist Party were fighting, Bai Chongxi was garrisoning central China, taking charge of Wuhan, controlling the thirty or forty universal War soldiers, but he refused to increase the weight of the Kuomintang army on the scale of war.

  去台湾之后,白崇禧这位戎马一生的军人大权旁落,行动处处受到监视。他只能以“中国回教协会理事长”的身份,一心一意从事回教文化交流活动,成为台湾回族教民的大家长,把大陆的回民文化带到了台湾。

After going to Taiwan, Bai Chongxi, a soldier in military life, lost his power and his actions were monitored everywhere. In his capacity of "director general of China Muslim Association", he can only devote himself to the activities of Muslim cultural exchange, become the chief parent of the Muslim people in Taiwan, and bring the Muslim culture of the mainland to Taiwan.

  1950年1月16日,白崇禧受蒋介石的委托给在美国的李宗仁发电报,转告蒋介石对他进退的建议:要么马上返台任代总统,要么辞去代总统由蒋介石复职。结果,李宗仁既不辞职,又不返台,让蒋介石很是尴尬。1950年3月1日,蒋介石宣布“复行视事”。消息传到美国,李宗仁马上在纽约召开记者招待会,指责蒋介石“违宪”。弄得蒋介石很不舒服,便迁怒于白崇禧,白崇禧在台湾的日子更不好过了。

On January 16, 1950, entrusted by Jiang Jieshi, Bai Chongxi sent a telegram to Li Zongren in the United States, informing Jiang Jieshi of his suggestions for his advancement and retirement: either return to Taiwan immediately to be the acting president, or resign from the acting president and be reinstated by Jiang Jieshi. As a result, Li did not resign or return to Taiwan, which embarrassed Chiang. On March 1, 1950, Jiang Jieshi announced that he would "resume his service.". When the news reached the United States, Li immediately held a press conference in New York, accusing Chiang of "unconstitutional". Making Chiang Kai-shek very uncomfortable, he was angry at Bai Chongxi, who had a worse life in Taiwan.

  躲脱不是祸,是祸躲不过。1966年12月2日,身体一向强健的白崇禧突然死在卧室地板上,尸体周身发紫,睡衣和床单被撕得稀烂,床头还有半杯没有喝完的酒。是死于急病,还是被人暗害,至今仍是一个谜。

Escape is not a disaster, but a disaster. On December 2, 1966, Bai Chongxi, who had always been a strong man, died suddenly on the floor of his bedroom. His body was purple, his pajamas and sheets were torn to pieces, and there was half a glass of unfinished wine at the head of the bed. It is still a mystery whether he died of an emergency or was secretly injured.

  何应钦:活得悠然的“证婚人”

He Yingqin: a leisurely "marriage witness"

  何应钦,字敬之,生于1890年,贵州兴义人。1910年加人中国同盟会。留学日本陆军士官学校。1924年任战术总教官。自此,跟随蒋介石,成为国民党军界元老。

He Yingqin was born in 1890 in Xingyi, Guizhou Province. In 1910, the Canadian Chinese Federation. Study in Japanese army sergeant school. In 1924, he served as the general instructor of tactics. Since then, he has followed Chiang Kai Shek to become the head of the Kuomintang army.

  1949年何应钦到台后,虽说老蒋没有对他采用杯酒释兵权方式,却只给了“总统府战略顾问”等空衔,让其退出了权力圈。不过,何应钦也乐得其闲,借一些在日本的老关系,从事点台湾对日交流活动,日子过得悠闲自在。

After he Yingqin came to Taiwan in 1949, although Chiang did not use a cup of wine to release his military power, he only gave him the title of "strategic adviser of the presidential palace" and other vacant titles, which made him withdraw from the power circle. However, he Yingqin also enjoyed his leisure. He took advantage of his old relations in Japan to engage in some exchanges between Taiwan and Japan, and lived a leisurely life.

  1924年黄埔军校成立,第一期毕业生编为两个教导团,何应钦为第一团团长,陈诚、、、、黄维等后来的国军高级将领,当时都是他的下级,有的甚至是普通士兵。1925年黄埔军东征,在棉湖战役中,何应钦率部击溃数倍于己的部队,黄埔学生军一战成名,何应钦立下。后来,黄埔教导团也成为国民党中央军的前身。

In 1924, Huangpu Military Academy was founded. The first batch of graduates were organized into two teaching groups. He Yingqin was the head of the first group. Later senior generals of the national army, such as Chen Cheng,,, Huang Wei, were all his subordinates, some even ordinary soldiers. In 1925, during the Huangpu army's eastward expedition, he Yingqin defeated several times his own troops in the battle of Mianhu. He Yingqin became famous in the first World War of the Huangpu student army. Later, the Huangpu teaching group became the predecessor of the central army of the Kuomintang.

  何应钦一生中最荣耀的时刻,是作为中国陆军总司令在南京主持日本中国派遣军的投降仪式。他与侵华日军总司令有师生之缘。不过作为战败者,冈村宁次只得面色羞愧双手颤抖地在自己学生面前签署了投降书。

The most glorious moment in his life was when he Yingqin, as commander in chief of the Chinese army, presided over the surrender ceremony of the Japanese Chinese troops in Nanjing. He was close to the commander-in-chief of the Japanese invasion of China. However, as the defeated, Okamura Ningci had to face shame, hands trembling in front of his students signed a letter of surrender.

  晚年的何应钦特别喜欢打猎、摄影,不时也栽花养草。由于他名气大,说话幽默,风度儒雅,又经常被请去为新人证婚,着正装结领花出席人家婚宴,打打桥牌。

In his later years, he Yingqin was very fond of hunting and photography, and sometimes he planted flowers and grass. Because he is famous, humorous and elegant, he is often invited to testify the marriage of the new couple, to attend the wedding banquet and play bridge in formal dress and tie.

  1984年,何应钦95岁生日,虽说夫人早走了一步,但还是有众多旧日门生帮他暖寿。何应钦在儿媳妇的搀扶下,别出心裁地举起军用指挥刀切开蛋糕让大家分享。台湾当局还成立了“何应钦上将九五寿诞丛书编辑委员会”,拨出专款为他出丛书12册。台湾军方也为他冠上“黄埔老师”的尊荣。算是风光一生,晚年安度了。

In 1984, he Yingqin's 95th birthday, although his wife had gone a step earlier, there were still many old students to help him warm his life. With the help of his daughter-in-law, he Yingqin ingeniously raised the military command knife to cut the cake for everyone to share. The Taiwan authorities also set up the "editorial committee of admiral he Yingqin's Ninth Five-Year birthday series" and allocated special funds to produce 12 books for him. Taiwan's military also honored him as "teacher Huangpu". It's a beautiful life. I'll have a good time in my old age.

  胡宗南:最小的“司令官”

Hu Zongnan: the smallest "commander"

  胡宗南,字寿山,浙江孝丰人,黄埔一期生。曾是手握重兵的“西北王”,到台后先任“大陈防卫司令”,后任“澎湖防卫司令”,是弹丸之地的司令官。

Hu zongnan, born in Xiaofeng, Zhejiang Province in the first phase of Huangpu. He was once the "Northwest king" with a heavy army. When he arrived at Taiwan, he was the "defense commander of Dachen" and "defense commander of Penghu". He was the commander of a small area.

  去台之前,痛失三军的胡宗南对他的校长蒋介石多有埋怨。1949年8月11日,时任国民党川湘鄂边区绥靖公署主任的秘密飞往汉中与胡宗南会晤。两人从军事的角度制定了作战计划。8月中旬,蒋介石率陈立夫、蒋经国、黄少谷、俞济时等党国大员从台湾飞到重庆,进行军事部署,力图挽救西南这半壁江山。胡宗南和宋希濂一同驱车到官邸去看望蒋介石,同时面呈两人商定的计划。不料,蒋介石一听此计划就断然拒绝。后来,胡宗南逐渐退入四川,此时他手中还有包括国民党的精锐之师第一军在内约30万人马。他再次向蒋介石提出退守西昌、云南,还是被他的校长拒绝了。

Before going to Taiwan, Hu zongnan, who lost three armies, complained a lot about his principal, Chiang Kai Shek. On August 11, 1949, the then director of the Kuomintang's pacification office in the Sichuan Hunan Hubei border area flew secretly to Hanzhong to meet with Hu zongnan. The two men made a plan of operations from a military point of view. In the middle of August, Chiang led Chen Lifu, Jiang Jingguo, Huang shaogu, Yu Jishi and other party and state leaders from Taiwan to Chongqing for military deployment in an effort to save the southwest half of the country. Hu zongnan and song Xilian drove to the official residence to see Chiang Kai Shek and presented their agreed plans. Unexpectedly, as soon as Chiang Kai Shek heard of the plan, he flatly refused. Later, Hu zongnan gradually retreated into Sichuan. At this time, he had about 300000 people in his hands, including the first army, the elite division of the Kuomintang. He once again proposed to Chiang Kai Shek that he should retreat to Xichang and Yunnan, but he was rejected by his headmaster.

  1949年12月20日,解放军一野已解放绵阳,挥戈南下;解放军二野的先头部队沿成渝公路已逼近简阳、仁寿附近,岷江两岸的先头部队已到达新津河对岸,与胡宗南的第五兵团隔河炮战。胡宗南感到成都危在旦夕,决定将长官部撤到西昌。12月21日,胡宗南在新津召开军以上高级军官会议,布置罗广文的第十五兵团和陈克非的第二十兵团掩护胡宗南集团主力向西康的突围行动。会后约定次日中午电话联系,胡宗南却将指挥权交给第五兵团的李文,于23日早上10时同参谋长罗列等人由成都凤凰山机场乘飞机去西昌。他在西昌苟延到1950年3月26日,人民解放军突然逼近西昌机场。胡宗南以送秘书长赵文龙去台北汇报军情为名,在机场悄悄将西昌的6万残兵败将交给参谋长罗列指挥,自己乘飞机逃到台湾。

On December 20, 1949, Mianyang was liberated by the first field of the PLA, and the troops of the second field of the PLA moved southward. Along the Chengdu Chongqing highway, the vanguard troops of the second field of the PLA had approached the vicinity of Jianyang and Renshou. The vanguard troops on both sides of the Minjiang river had reached the other side of the Xinjin River, and fought with the Fifth Corps of Hu zongnan across the river. Hu zongnan felt that Chengdu was in danger and decided to withdraw the headquarters to Xichang. On December 21, Hu zongnan held a meeting of senior officers above the army level in Xinjin to arrange the 15th corps of Luo Guangwen and the 20th corps of Chen Kefei to cover the breakthrough of Hu zongnan group's main force to Xikang. After the meeting, it was agreed to make a phone call the next day at noon, but Hu zongnan gave the command to Li Wen of the Fifth Corps. At 10 a.m. on the 23rd, he flew to Xichang from Chengdu Fenghuangshan airport with the chief of staff, Luo lie and others. He stayed in Xichang until March 26, 1950, when the people's liberation army suddenly approached Xichang airport. In the name of sending Secretary General Zhao Wenlong to Taipei to report on the military situation, Hu zongnan quietly handed over the 60000 disabled soldiers in Xichang to the chief of staff, Luo lie, for command, and escaped to Taiwan by plane.

  1951年3月,胡宗南被台湾当局任命为“江浙人民反共游击总指挥”兼“浙江省政府主席”。1955年8月,蒋介石忽然召见已近60岁的胡宗南,要他去澎湖列岛任防卫司令。

In March 1951, Hu zongnan was appointed as "anti Communist guerrilla commander in chief of Jiangsu and Zhejiang people" and "President of Zhejiang provincial government" by Taiwan authorities. In August 1955, Chiang suddenly summoned Hu zongnan, who was nearly 60 years old, to serve as a defense commander in the Penghu Islands.

  1956年后,胡宗南退休,成天以写毛笔字和读报打发日子。1962年,66岁的胡宗南因心脏不太正常被送进荣民医院。蒋介石亲临医院探视,病危中的胡宗南。1962年3月13日,胡宗南心脏停止跳动,病故后被追授为陆军一级上将。

After 1956, Hu zongnan retired and spent his days writing and reading newspapers. In 1962, Hu zongnan, 66, was taken to the Rongmin hospital because of his abnormal heart. Chiang Kai Shek visited Hu zongnan in the hospital. On March 13, 1962, Hu zongnan's heart stopped beating. After his death, he was posthumously awarded the first rank General of the army.

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