Chen Cheng: the busiest "vice president"
Chen Cheng, a native of Qingtian, Zhejiang Province, was promoted to the first rank General of the army in February 1947. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, Chen Cheng has been the director of the Northeast Branch since August 1947. In May 1948, he was removed as the director of northeast Xingyuan and sent to Taiwan in October. In my mind, he is the first capable minister. In January 1949, after the end of the three major battles of the war of liberation, the defeat of the Kuomintang was decided. Before Chiang Kai Shek announced that he would go out of power, he appointed Chen Cheng, who had already arrived in Taiwan, as the chairman of the Taiwan Provincial Government and the commander in chief of the Taiwan police, instead of offending Taiwan. Chen Yi of the people prepared for the Kuomintang's rout to Taiwan.
While suppressing the movement of "anti constitution, anti government and anti America", Chen Cheng used 400000 liang of gold as reserve to carry out "currency system reform" in Taiwan. At the same time, he had to clean up the mess and settle down the defeated soldiers. Whether in Keelung port or Kaohsiung port, the port is full of armed gendarmes. Veterans who retreat from the mainland to Taiwan must disarm first. They are very uncomfortable, but they have no choice. Chen Cheng carried out centralized management and training for these veterans. In total, he cancelled more than ten corps headquarters, more than thirty military departments, and laid off seven military units. To some extent, this has avoided the social unrest that may be caused by the retreat of more than 2 million military and political routs of the Kuomintang to Taiwan.
Since April 1949, Chen Cheng has carried out a series of land reform experiments in Taiwan. However, the peaceful land reform policy of "rent reduction on March 7th" and "land for the tiller" was not implemented on a large scale until 1953.
In 1954, after Chen Cheng was nominated by Chiang Kai Shek as "vice president", he became complacent and smiling. At the press conference, he put a piece of white paper in front of his desk, on which he wrote: "follow the president, do your duty well", which is his "campaign slogan", in return for Chiang's favor, because Chiang Kai Shek once said that "China can't be repaired without a day".
At the end of 1961, Chen Cheng visited the United States on behalf of Jiang, and met with the president and vice president of the United States Jason. It can be said that the scenery is boundless, reaching the peak of his personal career. Chen Cheng's popularity in Taiwan has become the biggest obstacle for the crown prince to inherit the great unification, and his father and son are deeply troubled by him. However, God made a choice. In 1965, Chen Cheng died of liver disease at Taipei Rongjun hospital. He was 68 years old. There are countless wreaths and couplets in Taipei funeral parlor, the most prominent of which is Chiang Kai Shek's couplet:
"Ci Xiu has a long history. At the last moment of struggle, how can we hang this war? There are several results. The revolutionary cause is still in the stage of joint completion, and we are willing to seize our yuan as a supplement. Is there no heaven? "
Chiang Kai-shek's couplet can be described as a practical one. However, Chen Cheng was always opposed to the "restoration" of the mainland. He does practical work. He is very clear that Taiwan, with only 36000 square kilometers, is unable to shoulder this "heavy task" in terms of financial resources and human resources. In fact, the so-called "final struggle" is not possible at all.
The United States, the cold war ally on the other side of the Pacific Ocean, was shocked by the death of Chen Cheng and sent its vice president to Taiwan to attend the funeral. History is always surprising. Nixon, Chen Cheng's old friend, visited Taiwan twice when he was vice president of the United States. A few years later, he became the first American president to break the ice between China and the United States and set foot on the mainland of China.
Bai XuXi: Taiwan's revered "big parent"
Born in a Hui family in Guilin, Guangxi. It is closely related to the number one person of Guangxi Department. After graduating from Baoding military academy, Bai Chongxi joined the GUI army and gradually showed his outstanding military ability. In 1927, the GUI army was organized as the seventh army of the national revolutionary army. During the northern expedition, Bai Chongxi directed the famous battle of tingsiqiao, which became the northern expedition.
During the Anti Japanese War, Bai Chongxi participated in and directed the Wuhan defense war. According to the memory of Cheng Siyuan, Secretary of Li Zongren, Zhou Enlai introduced its basic spirit to Bai Chongxi just after the publication of Mao Zedong's "falling into a protracted war". Bai Chongxi deeply appreciated it and thought it was the highest strategic policy to defeat the enemy in the Anti Japanese war. Later, Bai Chongxi reported to Chiang Kai-shek, who was also very supportive. With the support of Chiang Kai-shek, Bai Chongxi summed up the spirit of "on protracted war" into two sentences: "accumulate small victories for big victories, and trade space for time." With Zhou Enlai's consent, the Military Commission of the national government issued a general order to the whole country as the strategic guiding ideology.
Bai Chongxi was not a general of the Whampoa department. He was divorced from Chiang Kai Shek everywhere. He supported Li Zongren against Jiang several times. The most obvious one was the eve of Li Zongren's appointment as acting president. When the Kuomintang and the Communist Party were fighting, Bai Chongxi was garrisoning central China, taking charge of Wuhan, controlling the thirty or forty universal War soldiers, but he refused to increase the weight of the Kuomintang army on the scale of war.
After going to Taiwan, Bai Chongxi, a soldier in military life, lost his power and his actions were monitored everywhere. In his capacity of "director general of China Muslim Association", he can only devote himself to the activities of Muslim cultural exchange, become the chief parent of the Muslim people in Taiwan, and bring the Muslim culture of the mainland to Taiwan.
On January 16, 1950, entrusted by Jiang Jieshi, Bai Chongxi sent a telegram to Li Zongren in the United States, informing Jiang Jieshi of his suggestions for his advancement and retirement: either return to Taiwan immediately to be the acting president, or resign from the acting president and be reinstated by Jiang Jieshi. As a result, Li did not resign or return to Taiwan, which embarrassed Chiang. On March 1, 1950, Jiang Jieshi announced that he would "resume his service.". When the news reached the United States, Li immediately held a press conference in New York, accusing Chiang of "unconstitutional". Making Chiang Kai-shek very uncomfortable, he was angry at Bai Chongxi, who had a worse life in Taiwan.
Escape is not a disaster, but a disaster. On December 2, 1966, Bai Chongxi, who had always been a strong man, died suddenly on the floor of his bedroom. His body was purple, his pajamas and sheets were torn to pieces, and there was half a glass of unfinished wine at the head of the bed. It is still a mystery whether he died of an emergency or was secretly injured.
He Yingqin: a leisurely "marriage witness"
He Yingqin was born in 1890 in Xingyi, Guizhou Province. In 1910, the Canadian Chinese Federation. Study in Japanese army sergeant school. In 1924, he served as the general instructor of tactics. Since then, he has followed Chiang Kai Shek to become the head of the Kuomintang army.
After he Yingqin came to Taiwan in 1949, although Chiang did not use a cup of wine to release his military power, he only gave him the title of "strategic adviser of the presidential palace" and other vacant titles, which made him withdraw from the power circle. However, he Yingqin also enjoyed his leisure. He took advantage of his old relations in Japan to engage in some exchanges between Taiwan and Japan, and lived a leisurely life.
In 1924, Huangpu Military Academy was founded. The first batch of graduates were organized into two teaching groups. He Yingqin was the head of the first group. Later senior generals of the national army, such as Chen Cheng,,, Huang Wei, were all his subordinates, some even ordinary soldiers. In 1925, during the Huangpu army's eastward expedition, he Yingqin defeated several times his own troops in the battle of Mianhu. He Yingqin became famous in the first World War of the Huangpu student army. Later, the Huangpu teaching group became the predecessor of the central army of the Kuomintang.
The most glorious moment in his life was when he Yingqin, as commander in chief of the Chinese army, presided over the surrender ceremony of the Japanese Chinese troops in Nanjing. He was close to the commander-in-chief of the Japanese invasion of China. However, as the defeated, Okamura Ningci had to face shame, hands trembling in front of his students signed a letter of surrender.
In his later years, he Yingqin was very fond of hunting and photography, and sometimes he planted flowers and grass. Because he is famous, humorous and elegant, he is often invited to testify the marriage of the new couple, to attend the wedding banquet and play bridge in formal dress and tie.
In 1984, he Yingqin's 95th birthday, although his wife had gone a step earlier, there were still many old students to help him warm his life. With the help of his daughter-in-law, he Yingqin ingeniously raised the military command knife to cut the cake for everyone to share. The Taiwan authorities also set up the "editorial committee of admiral he Yingqin's Ninth Five-Year birthday series" and allocated special funds to produce 12 books for him. Taiwan's military also honored him as "teacher Huangpu". It's a beautiful life. I'll have a good time in my old age.
Hu Zongnan: the smallest "commander"
Hu zongnan, born in Xiaofeng, Zhejiang Province in the first phase of Huangpu. He was once the "Northwest king" with a heavy army. When he arrived at Taiwan, he was the "defense commander of Dachen" and "defense commander of Penghu". He was the commander of a small area.
Before going to Taiwan, Hu zongnan, who lost three armies, complained a lot about his principal, Chiang Kai Shek. On August 11, 1949, the then director of the Kuomintang's pacification office in the Sichuan Hunan Hubei border area flew secretly to Hanzhong to meet with Hu zongnan. The two men made a plan of operations from a military point of view. In the middle of August, Chiang led Chen Lifu, Jiang Jingguo, Huang shaogu, Yu Jishi and other party and state leaders from Taiwan to Chongqing for military deployment in an effort to save the southwest half of the country. Hu zongnan and song Xilian drove to the official residence to see Chiang Kai Shek and presented their agreed plans. Unexpectedly, as soon as Chiang Kai Shek heard of the plan, he flatly refused. Later, Hu zongnan gradually retreated into Sichuan. At this time, he had about 300000 people in his hands, including the first army, the elite division of the Kuomintang. He once again proposed to Chiang Kai Shek that he should retreat to Xichang and Yunnan, but he was rejected by his headmaster.
On December 20, 1949, Mianyang was liberated by the first field of the PLA, and the troops of the second field of the PLA moved southward. Along the Chengdu Chongqing highway, the vanguard troops of the second field of the PLA had approached the vicinity of Jianyang and Renshou. The vanguard troops on both sides of the Minjiang river had reached the other side of the Xinjin River, and fought with the Fifth Corps of Hu zongnan across the river. Hu zongnan felt that Chengdu was in danger and decided to withdraw the headquarters to Xichang. On December 21, Hu zongnan held a meeting of senior officers above the army level in Xinjin to arrange the 15th corps of Luo Guangwen and the 20th corps of Chen Kefei to cover the breakthrough of Hu zongnan group's main force to Xikang. After the meeting, it was agreed to make a phone call the next day at noon, but Hu zongnan gave the command to Li Wen of the Fifth Corps. At 10 a.m. on the 23rd, he flew to Xichang from Chengdu Fenghuangshan airport with the chief of staff, Luo lie and others. He stayed in Xichang until March 26, 1950, when the people's liberation army suddenly approached Xichang airport. In the name of sending Secretary General Zhao Wenlong to Taipei to report on the military situation, Hu zongnan quietly handed over the 60000 disabled soldiers in Xichang to the chief of staff, Luo lie, for command, and escaped to Taiwan by plane.
In March 1951, Hu zongnan was appointed as "anti Communist guerrilla commander in chief of Jiangsu and Zhejiang people" and "President of Zhejiang provincial government" by Taiwan authorities. In August 1955, Chiang suddenly summoned Hu zongnan, who was nearly 60 years old, to serve as a defense commander in the Penghu Islands.
After 1956, Hu zongnan retired and spent his days writing and reading newspapers. In 1962, Hu zongnan, 66, was taken to the Rongmin hospital because of his abnormal heart. Chiang Kai Shek visited Hu zongnan in the hospital. On March 13, 1962, Hu zongnan's heart stopped beating. After his death, he was posthumously awarded the first rank General of the army.
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