历史上真有徐福这个人吗?他最后真的到了日本吗-看世界

历史上真有徐福这个人吗?他最后真的到了日本吗

     徐福,即徐巿,字君房,齐地琅琊(今江苏赣榆)人,秦朝著名方士。他博学多才,通晓医学、天文、航海等知识,且同情百姓,乐于助人,故在沿海一带民众中名望颇高。徐福是鬼谷子先生的关门弟子。学辟谷、气功、修仙,兼通武术。他出山的时候,是秦始皇登基前后,李斯的时代。后来被秦始皇派遣,出海采仙药,一去不返。乡亲们为纪念这位好心的名医,把他出生的村庄改为“徐福村”,并在村北建了一座“徐福庙”。后来,有徐福在日本的平原、广泽为王之说。

  历史上有这个人。

There was this man in history.

     徐福,即徐巿,字君房,齐地琅琊(今江苏赣榆)人,著名方士。他,通晓医学、天文、航海等知识,且同情百姓,乐于助人,故在沿海一带民众中名望颇高。徐福是先生的关门弟子。学辟谷、气功、修仙,兼通武术。他出山的时候,是登基前后,的时代。后来被秦始皇派遣,出海采仙药,一去不返。乡亲们为纪念这位好心的名医,把他出生的村庄改为“徐福村”,并在村北建了一座“徐福庙”。后来,有徐福在日本的平原、广泽为王之说。

Xufu, that is, Xushi, zijunfang, was born in Langya (today's Ganyu, Jiangsu Province), a famous founder. He is familiar with medicine, astronomy, navigation and other knowledge, sympathizes with the people and is willing to help others, so he has a high reputation among the people along the coast. Xu Fu is Mr. Guan's disciple. Learn to open the valley, qigong, cultivate immortals, and master martial arts. When he came out of the mountain, it was the time before and after he ascended the throne. Later, he was sent by the first emperor of Qin Dynasty to go to sea to collect the elixir, and he will never return. To commemorate the good doctor, villagers changed the village where he was born into Xufu village and built a Xufu temple in the north of the village. Later, it was said that Xu Fu was king in plain and Guangze of Japan.

  俗语道:“做了想成仙”。秦始皇正是这样的人物。清人丘琼山《纲鉴合编》曾云:“始皇既平六国,凡平生志欲无不遂,唯不可必得志者,寿耳。”一些方士,编织神仙之说,声称海上有仙人仙药,吃了仙药便可。齐人徐福就是这种情况下航行入海的。

As the saying goes, "if you do, you want to be an immortal.". Qin Shihuang is such a figure. Qiu Qiongshan, a Qing man, once said in the compendium of the principles and lessons: "the first emperor, who was in peace with the six kingdoms, would not fail in his life, but would not be able to achieve it, Shou er." Some alchemists, weaving immortals, claim that there are immortals on the sea, and they can take them. Xu Fu, a Qi man, sailed into the sea under such circumstances.

  公元前219年(秦始皇二十八年),秦始皇第二次出巡,大队人马在泰山封禅刻石,又浩浩荡荡前往渤海。抵达海边,秦始皇登上芝罘岛,纵情浓览。只见云海之间,山川人物时隐时现,蔚为壮观,尤令秦始皇心驰神往。这种景象,本来是,但方士为迎合秦始皇企望长生的心理,将其说成传说中的海上仙境。徐福乘机给秦始皇上书,说海中有蓬莱、方丈、赢洲三座仙山,有仙人居住,可以得到长生仙药。秦始皇大为高兴,随后根据徐福的要求,派重男、童女数千人随他出海求取仙药。他本人也在此留连忘返,等候徐福佳音。然而,等来的只是徐福空手而归。徐福自称见到海神,海神以礼物太薄,拒绝给予仙药。对此,秦始皇深不疑,增派童要童女3000人及工匠、技师、谷物种子,令徐福再度出海。秦始皇则不肯离开,一直等候3个月,不见徐福消息,才怅然而回。

In 219 BC (the 28th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty), the first emperor of Qin made his second tour. A large group of people and horses sealed the Buddhist inscriptions in Mount Tai, and then went to the Bohai Sea. Arriving at the seaside, the first emperor of Qin boarded Zhifu Island and enjoyed it. Between the clouds and the sea, the figures of the mountains and rivers appear now and then. They are magnificent, which makes the first emperor of Qin fascinated. This kind of scene was originally, but in order to cater to Qin Shihuang's psychology of looking forward to long life, the alchemists described it as the legendary fairyland on the sea. Xu Fu took the opportunity to write to the first emperor of Qin, saying that there were three fairy mountains in the sea, Penglai, abbot and Yingzhou, and that immortals could live in them and get immortal elixir. Qin Shihuang was very happy. Then, according to Xu Fu's request, he sent thousands of men and girls to go to sea with him to seek the elixir. He also lingers here, waiting for Xu fujiayin. However, Xu Fu came back empty handed. Xu Fu claimed to see the sea god, who refused to give the elixir because his gift was too thin. To this end, the first emperor of Qin had no doubt that he would send 3000 more girls, craftsmen, technicians and grain seeds to make Xu Fu go to sea again. The first emperor of Qin refused to leave. He waited for three months. He didn't see Xu Fu's news before returning.

  其后几年中,秦始皇又派燕人卢生等入海寻求仙药,当然也是一无所获。公元前210年(秦始皇三十七年),秦始皇第五次出巡,再次来琅琊。当年徐福入海寻找仙药,已经九年过去,一直未来归报。当即派人传召徐福,徐福连年航海,耗费很大,担心遭到重谴,奏告秦始皇:“蓬莱仙山确实有仙药,出海时常遇大蛟鱼阻拦,所以不能到达。请派弓箭手一周前往,见到大蛟鱼用连弩射击。”秦始皇下令入海时带足渔具,自己也准备了连弩。海船由琅琊起程,航行数十里,经过荣成山,再前行到芝罘时,果然见到大蛟鱼,当即连弩齐射,大蛟鱼中箭而死,沉入海底。秦始皇认为此后当可无虞,又命徐福入海求仙药。这次,秦始皇再也等不到徐福音讯了。当年秦始皇病死于沙丘(今河北世鹿东南),而徐福“得平原广译,止王不来,”一去再也不回了。

In the next few years, the first emperor of Qin sent Lu Sheng, a Yanren, and other people to the sea to look for the elixir, which was of course nothing. In 210 B.C. (the 37th year of the first emperor of Qin), the first emperor of Qin made his fifth tour and came to Langya again. When Xu Fu went to the sea to look for the elixir, nine years have passed, and it has been reported in the future. At that time, Xu Fu was summoned. Xu Fu sailed for many years, which cost a lot of money. He was afraid of being reprimanded. He told the first emperor of Qin: "Penglai Xianshan is indeed a fairy medicine. When going out to sea, it is often blocked by big Jiaoyu, so it can't be reached. Please send archers a week to see the big Jiaoyu shooting with a crossbow. " Qin Shihuang ordered to bring enough fishing gear when entering the sea, and he also prepared a crossbow. The sea boat started from Langya, sailed for tens of miles, passed Rongcheng mountain, and then went to Zhifu. As expected, it saw the big Jiaoyu, which shot at each other in unison. The big Jiaoyu died of arrows and sank to the bottom of the sea. The first emperor of Qin thought that there would be no danger after that, and he ordered Xu Fu to go to the sea to seek the elixir. This time, the first emperor of Qin could not wait for the news of Xu. At that time, the first emperor of Qin died in the sand dunes (now the southeast of the deer in Hebei), while Xu Fu "won the translation of the plain, but he couldn't come back." he never went back.

  徐福,又作徐市,徐福故里据考证在江苏省赣榆县金山乡徐阜村,根据当地地方志,徐阜村在明清两代均称徐福村,至今这里还流传着徐福率童男童女浮海东渡之事。但又有一种说法,认为徐福故里为今山东省龙口市。

Xufu, also known as Xushi, is located in Xufu village, Jinshan Township, Ganyu County, Jiangsu Province. According to the local chronicles, Xufu village was called Xufu village in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Up to now, Xufu has spread the story of boy and girl floating to the East. But there is another saying that Xu Fu's hometown is now Longkou City, Shandong Province.

      徐福最后真的到了日本吗?

Did Xu Fu finally arrive in Japan?

  史籍中最早记载徐福史事的是,可是没有讲明徐福浮海到了何处。后人以为是台湾或琉球,也有说是美洲,但大多数认为是日本。最初提出徐福东渡日本的是五代后周和尚义楚。称:“日本国亦名倭国,在东海中。秦时,徐福将五百童男、五百童女止此国,今人物一如长安。……又东北干余里,有山名‘富士’亦名‘蓬莱’……徐福至此,谓蓬莱,至今子孙皆曰。”义楚称这一说法来自日本和尚弘顺。宋代文学家、史学家也认为徐福东渡到日本,明初,日本和尚空海到南京,向献诗,提到“熊野蜂前徐福祠”。清末驻日公使黎庶昌、黄遒宪等人,都参观了徐福墓,并诗文题记。

In the historical records, the earliest record of Xu Fu's history is that he didn't explain where Xu Fuhai had arrived. Later generations thought it was Taiwan or Ryukyu, or America, but most thought it was Japan. At first, Xu Fu was proposed to travel to Japan in the Later Zhou and Shangyi Chu dynasties. "Japan is also known as Japan, in the East China Sea. In Qin Dynasty, Xu Fu stopped the country with five hundred virgins and five hundred virgins. Today, he is just like Chang'an In addition, there are mountains named "Fuji" and "Penglai" in the northeast So far, Xu Fu is called Penglai, which has been said by his descendants. " Yichu said the statement came from Japanese monk Hongshun. In the Song Dynasty, writers and historians also believed that Xu Fu traveled to Japan eastward. In the early Ming Dynasty, Japanese monk Kong Hai went to Nanjing to offer poems and mentioned "Xu Fu Temple in front of xiongye bee". At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Li Shuchang, Huang Qiuxian and other ministers stationed in Japan visited Xu Fu's tomb and wrote poems and inscriptions.

  本世纪以来,中日学者对徐福浮海东渡之事进行了大量研究。马非百在《秦集史》认为徐福是有目的赴日本的,“其意初不在求仙,而实欲利用始皇求仙之私心,而借其力以自殖民于海外。”而徐松石在《日本民族的渊源》中说,战国先秦时期,中国东南沿海民众大量往日本移民,徐福率领的童男童女是其中一队,“徐福入海东行,必定真有其事。”香港卫挺生著《徐福入日本建国考》,认为徐福就是日本的开国者神武天皇仲田玄,并认为他是之后徐驹王29世孙。台湾学者彭双松著《徐福即是神武天皇》一书,进一步充实卫挺生的观点。至今日本保存着不少徐福活动的遗迹,如和歌山县徐福和他的传员七人墓、徐福宫,九州岛佐贺县“徐福上陆地”纪念碑、徐福的石家、徐福祠,另外又有奉祀徐福的金立神社等等。

Since the beginning of this century, Chinese and Japanese scholars have done a lot of research on Xu fufu's eastward voyage. Ma feibai thought that Xu Fu had a purpose to go to Japan in Qin Ji history. "His intention was not to seek immortals at the beginning, but to make use of the first emperor's selfishness to seek immortals, and to use his power to colonize overseas." In the origin of the Japanese nation, Xu Songshi said that during the Warring States period and the pre Qin period, a large number of people from the southeast coast of China immigrated to Japan. The boy and girl led by Xu Fu was one of the teams, "Xu Fu's journey to the sea and the East must have something really happened." Wei tingsheng, Hong Kong, wrote an examination of Xu Fu's entry into the founding of Japan. He believed that Xu Fu was the founder of Japan, Emperor Zhongtian Xuan, and that he was the grandson of Xu Ju King 29. "Xu Fu is emperor Shenwu", written by Peng shuangsong, a Taiwanese scholar, further enriches Wei's view. So far, many relics of Xu Fu's activities have been preserved in Japan, such as the tomb of Xu Fu and his seven members, Xu Fu Palace, the monument of "Xu Fu on land" in zuohe County, Kyushu Island, the Shijia and Xu Fu Temple of Xu Fu, and the Jinli shrine for Xu Fu.

日本新宫市徐福公园内的徐福雕像

The statue of Xu Fu in Xufu Park, shinmiya, Japan

  有些学者认为,徐福东渡日本只是传说,找不到可靠的历史文献来证明。更有人认为,徐福东渡日本的传说,是日本10世纪左右的产物,并非最先由中国人提出来的。徐福当时到的只是渤海湾里的岛屿,他在日本的事迹、遗迹、墓地,均属后人虚设。

Some scholars believe that Xu Fu's eastward journey to Japan is just a legend and cannot be proved by reliable historical documents. Some people believe that the legend of Xu Fu's eastward journey to Japan is a product of Japan in the 10th century or so, not first proposed by the Chinese. At that time, Xu Fu only arrived at the islands in the Bohai Bay. His deeds, ruins and cemeteries in Japan were all fictitious.

  另外,又有学者认为,徐福东渡是历史事实,但不是去了日本,而是去的美洲,回为徐福东渡的时间与美洲玛雅文明的兴起相吻合,而日本与中国大陆相距甚近,根本不需要耗费巨资,数年才能抵达。

In addition, some scholars believe that Xu Fu's eastward journey is a historical fact, but not to Japan, but to America. The time to return to Xu Fu's eastward journey coincides with the rise of the Mayan civilization in America. However, Japan is so close to the mainland of China that it doesn't need to spend a lot of money to arrive for several years.

  人海茫茫,徐福东渡究竟去了何方,呈今尚未有令人信服的答案。

There is no convincing answer as to where Xu Fu's eastward journey has gone.

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