历史上日本战国武田信玄怎么死的?武田信玄简介-看世界

历史上日本战国武田信玄怎么死的?武田信玄简介

  武田信玄生平介绍

  武田玄是怎么死的?天正元年(1573年)4月12日,信玄在信浓国驹场(今长野县下伊那郡阿智村)病逝,享年53岁,御宿监物书状提及死因肺结核、甲阳军鉴指出死因是胃癌或食道癌。信玄的遗体在信浓国伊那驹场长岳寺火化。戒名法性院机山信玄。信玄的墓地在信玄墓、大泉寺、惠林寺、诹访湖长岳寺、龙云寺、高野山、福田寺、妙心寺等地。

How did Takeda Xuan die? On April 12, the first year of Tianzheng era (1573), Xinxuan died at Xinnong Guoju farm (now a Zhi village, xiayina County, Changye county). At the age of 53, the official residence document mentioned that the cause of death was tuberculosis and Jiayang military warning pointed out that the cause of death was gastric cancer or esophageal cancer. The body of Xinxuan was cremated in Changyue temple, inarju yard, Xinnong country. It's not only a Buddhist Academy, but also a Buddhist Academy. The cemetery of Xinxuan is in Xinxuan tomb, Daquan temple, Huilin temple, Suqian Lake Changyue temple, Longyun temple, gaoye mountain, Futian temple, Miaoxin temple, etc.

  武田信玄生平介绍

A brief introduction to Takeda's life

  武田信玄原名晴信,号德荣轩,信玄是法名。生于世代为甲斐守护大名的武家。其父武田信虎是甲斐国守护。十五世纪至十六世纪初,奋驻甲斐各地的武田氏同族,不断演出箕豆相残的悲剧,武田信虎作为武田氏的家督不得不把主要力量用于讨伐同族的反叛和维护家督的地位。1519年,信虎从石河迁到古府中的踯躅崎(今甲府市),在要害山建立了城堡。1521年11月3日,骏河今川氏的部将率兵一万五千人来攻,兵临古府中。武田信虎将怀孕的爱妻安置在要害山麓的积翠寺,自己却披甲上阵,狙击来敌。就在敌军保卫中,武田信玄诞生了,迎接他的是阵前的撕杀声。

Wutian Xinxuan, formerly known as Qingxin, is called de Rongxuan. Xinxuan is a legal name. Born to guard the famous martial family of Jiafei for generations. His father, Takeda, believed that the tiger was the guardian of Jiafei. From the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century, the Wutian clan who had been stationed in Jiafei constantly performed the tragedy of Jidou's mutual destruction. As the family governor of the Wutian clan, the main force had to be used to fight against the rebellion of the same clan and maintain the status of the family governor. In 1519, Xinhu moved from Shihe to Rhododendron (now Jiafu city) in the ancient mansion, and built a castle in the crucial mountain. On November 3, 1521, JUNHE's current Department of the Sichuan family led 15000 soldiers to attack the ancient mansion. Takeda Xin Hu places his pregnant wife in Jicui temple at the foot of the crucial mountain, but he goes to battle in armor and Snipes at the enemy. In the enemy's defense, Takeda Xinxuan was born. He was greeted by the sound of tearing and killing before the battle.

  武田信虎因为击败了福岛正成的入侵,声誉大振,很快统一了甲斐(今山梨县),结束了武田氏一族长期的纷争。此后,武田信虎开始向邻近地区伸展势力。

As a result of defeating the invasion of Fukushima Zhengcheng, Takeda Xinhu gained a great reputation and soon unified Jiafei (now Shanli county), ending the long-term disputes of the Takeda family. Since then, Takeda Xinhu has begun to extend its influence to neighboring areas.

  正当武田信虎专心于向外扩张的时候,在其家臣团中间,正在酝酿着扶持武田信玄为家督的计划。

At the time when Takeda Xinhu was concentrating on expanding outwards, a plan was brewing to support Takeda Xinxuan as a family supervisor among his family members.

  1541年6月,武田信虎胜利地攻占了佐久口。凯旋途中,在韭崎地方休息的时候,重臣板垣信方等人来到他的营帐,对他说:“今川殿下(指骏河国的今川义元)接你的轿子在外面等着,请上轿吧!”信虎疑惑地问:“今川殿下为何派轿来迎我?”板垣信方说:“今天晴信成了武田家的头领,您暂且到骏河的隐居所悠闲静养吧!”信虎顿时拔刀大喊:“想造反吗?你这个东西!”这时同来的甘利虎泰猛扑上去,捆住了信虎双手,然后把他押上轿子,驱逐到骏河去了。是年,武田信玄二十一岁。关于武田信玄夺取父权的原因,历来其说不一。不过,如下两个方面是不可忽视的。其一,武田信虎为人暴戾,据说曾剖孕妇腹,以取胎儿为乐。家臣中若有谏言,他便残酷处决,招致家臣们的不满。他是个,曾不顾家臣的反对,抢夺关东的上杉宪房的后室为器为妾。家臣中的美貌妻室也屡屡被其占有。平时路途上遇有艳丽女子,他也必定强娶为妾;其二,宠爱次子信繁,曾说过:“继武田氏家业者,信繁也”,而信玄聪慧,颇得家臣们赏识。或许这些都是促使武田信玄下决心放逐其父的缘由吧!

In June 1541, Takeda Xinhu captured zuojukou successfully. On the way to victory, while resting in Jiuqi, the important minister, shinfang and others, came to his tent and said to him, "Your Highness Jinchuan (referring to the kingdom of JUNHE, shiniyuan) is waiting outside to receive your sedan chair. Please get on the sedan chair!" shinhu asked doubtfully, "why did your highness Jinchuan send a sedan chair to meet me?" shinfang said, "today shinxin has become the leader of the Takeda family, so you can go to the hermit of JUNHE for a while Take a rest! "Xinhu suddenly pulls out his knife and shouts," want to rebel? You are the thing! "At this time, the same Ganli Hutai swoops up, binds Xinhu's hands, and then drives him into a sedan chair and drives him to JUNHE. This is the year of, Takeda Xinxuan is 21 years old. There have always been different opinions about the reasons why Takeda Xinxuan seized the patriarchy. However, the following two aspects cannot be ignored. First, Takeda believed that he was violent. It is said that he had cut the abdomen of pregnant women to take pleasure in taking the fetus. If there is any remonstrance among the family ministers, he will be executed cruelly, causing their dissatisfaction. He was a concubine who robbed the back room of shangshanxian's house in Guandong. The beautiful wife and family in the family are occupied by them repeatedly. When he met a gorgeous woman on the way, he was bound to marry her as a concubine. Secondly, he doted on his second son, Xinfan, who once said: "those who inherit the Tian family of Wu, Xinfan is also". But Xinxuan is intelligent and highly appreciated by his family members. Maybe these are the reasons why Takeda decided to exile his father!

  武田信玄当上甲斐守护后,摆在他面前的形势是严峻的。当时,在甲斐的东面有北条氏,南面有骏河的今川氏,西南有尾张的织田信长,西有信浓(今长野县的诹访氏,北有越前的上杉氏等群雄与其对峙。在如此局势面前,武田信玄立意突破西线,征服信浓。他首先制服了防守诹访口的诹访氏一族,接着进攻控制佐久口和信浓北部的村上义清及信浓守护小笠原长时。然而,与村上、小笠原的争夺,并非如他所预料的那样顺利。兵来将往,历时十二年,胜负才见分晓。其中最关键的一仗是在盐尻卡(今长野县中部)发生的。

When Takeda Xinxuan became a guard of Jiafei, the situation before him was grim. At that time, in the east of Jiafei, there was the northern clan, in the south, there was the present Sichuan clan of JUNHE River, in the southwest, there was the Zhitian Xinchang of Weizhang, and in the west, there was Xinnong (now the suzhan clan of Changye County, in the north, there was the Shangshan clan of yueqian, etc. in confrontation with them. In such a situation, Takeda Xinxuan intended to break through the western line and conquer Xinnong. He first subdued the Suwa family who defended Suwa, and then attacked and controlled zuojukou and Murakami, Yiqing and Xinnong in the north of Xinnong, to guard xiaoliyuan for a long time. However, the fight with Murakami and Ogasawara was not as smooth as he expected. It took 12 years for the soldiers to come and go, and the winner was determined. One of the most critical battles took place in yanjika (now the central part of Nagano county).

  1548年2月,在白雪覆盖的上田原(今长野县上田市),武田信玄惨败于村上义清。他所信赖的部将板垣信方等人战死,自己也受轻伤。看到武田信玄战败后,原先归附他的信浓地方领主,也蠢蠢欲动,要驱逐武田的势力。小笠原长时借机联合村上义清、仁科修理、藤泽赖亲等组成反武田联盟,企图一举消灭武田信玄。武田信玄则决心雪耻,在回到甲斐后,积极扩充、改编军队,准备再战。

In February 1548, in the snow covered shangtianyuan (now Shangtian City, Changye county), Takeda Xinxuan was defeated by Murakami Yiqing. His trusted ministry, Shifang and others, died in the war and suffered minor injuries. After seeing the defeat of Takeda Xinxuan, he was originally attached to his Xinnong local Lord. He was also eager to expel Takeda's forces. Xiao Liyuan has long taken the opportunity to form an anti Takeda alliance with Murakami, Renke repair, and Lai Kin Fujisawa, in an attempt to eliminate Takeda Xinxuan at one stroke. On the other hand, Takeda Xinxuan was determined to be shameless. After returning to Jiafei, he actively expanded and reorganized the army and prepared to fight again.

  同年7月,小笠原长时率六千人布阵于盐尻卡。武田信玄得到情报后,决心以骑兵二千五百人奔袭小笠原。18日夜,骑兵队出发。武天信玄命令兵士给马蹄套上草鞋,让马衔枚疾走,无声无息地赶到了盐尻卡下。接着,武田信玄命令战士束马凳山,悄悄接近小笠原的营地。小笠原的军队睡梦正酣,毫无防备。19日,东方欲晓,突然法螺声四起,武田信玄下令发动攻击。小笠原的联军猝不及防,虽竭力抵抗,但终于不支,丢下无数死尸仓惶败逃。

In July of the same year, Ogasawara deployed in yanjika with a long time rate of 6000 people. After receiving the information, Takeda Xinxuan determined to attack xiaoliyuan with 2500 cavalry. Day and night, the cavalry set out. Wu tianxinxuan ordered the soldiers to put straw sandals on the horse's hooves, let the horse carry his title and hurry to yanjika without a sound. Then, Takeda Xinxuan ordered the soldiers to tie up horses and stool the mountain, and quietly approached the camp of xiaoliyuan. The army of Ogasawara was sleeping soundly and unprepared. On the 19th, when the East wanted to know, suddenly there was a sound of conch, and Takeda Xinxuan ordered an attack. The Allied forces of Ogasawara were caught off guard. Although they tried to resist, they finally broke down and left countless dead bodies and fled in panic.

  通过盐尻卡战役,武田信玄,并打破了小笠原长时为官的联盟,继续向信浓推进。

Through the battle of yanjika, Takeda Xinxuan broke the alliance that xiaoliyuan had been an official for a long time, and continued to advance to Xinnong.

  武田信玄能够取胜,虽然与他英勇善战有关,但更重要的在于也有坚实的政治经济基础。他注意保护农民和发展生产。例如,他在流经甲府盆地的许多河流两岸,修筑了所谓的“信玄堤”,以防洪水淹没盆地。他还注意对家臣的控制,在1547年发布了有名的家法《甲州法度》,详细规定了主君和家臣的关系,对家臣的义务和日常生活也作了详细规定。

Although the victory of Takeda Xinxuan is related to his bravery and good fighting, what's more, he also has a solid political and economic foundation. He paid attention to protecting farmers and developing production. For example, he built so-called "Xinxuan dyke" on both sides of many rivers flowing through Jiafu basin to prevent flood and submerge the basin. He also paid attention to the control of his family members. In 1547, he issued the famous family law Jiazhou law, which stipulated the relationship between the Lord and his family members in detail, as well as the obligations and daily life of his family members.

  武田信玄在信浓的顺利推进,对于北部号称“雪国之虎”的上杉辉虎是极大的威胁,上杉辉虎力图阻止武田信玄控制信浓,于1553年,突然出兵包围了武田信玄刚刚由村上义清手中夺来的葛尾城。信玄不赶匆忙应战,连忙撤回甲斐,秣马历兵,准备再战。1559年,信玄从幕府将军足利义辉那里得到信浓守护的职位,他与上杉辉虎之间的斗争更趋激烈。两雄难于并存。武田信玄要竭力维护自己在信浓的既得土地和权力,而上杉辉虎则地要把武田氏从信浓驱赶出去。于是,战国时代有名的三大战役之一——川中岛会战终于爆发了。

The smooth progress of Takeda Xinxuan in Xinnong is a great threat to shangshanhuihu, the so-called "Snow Tiger" in the north. Shangshanhuihu tries to prevent Takeda Xinxuan from controlling Xinnong. In 1553, he suddenly sent troops to surround the city of Gewei, which was just captured by Murakami. Xinxuan did not rush to fight, but quickly withdrew to Jiafei, and prepared to fight again. In 1559, Xinxuan got the post of Xinnong guard from shogunate general Fu liyihui. His struggle with shangshanhuihu became more intense. It is difficult for two males to coexist. Takeda Xinxuan should try his best to protect his acquired land and power in Xinnong, while shangshanhuihu should drive Takeda family out of Xinnong. Therefore, the battle of Chuanzhong Island, one of the three famous battles in the Warring States period, finally broke out.

  川中岛决战包括多场战斗,但究竟进行过几次战斗,其说不一。一般史学家都认为进行过五场战争。分别发生在1553年8月、1555年7月、1557年8月、1561年9月和1564年8月。其中最激烈的是发生在1561年的第四次会战。

The decisive battle of Chuanzhong island includes many battles, but there are different opinions on how many battles have been carried out. Generally speaking, historians believe that there have been five wars. It happened in August 1553, July 1555, August 1557, September 1561 and August 1564 respectively. The most intense was the fourth battle in 1561.

  川中岛(今长野县长野市附近)距上杉辉虎的城堡所在地春日山(今新泻县沿海一带)仅六十公里。上杉辉虎认为这是在信浓境内防止信玄进攻越后(今新泻县)的最后防线,必须全力抵制。武田信玄则认为,如果让上杉辉虎控制川中岛一带,不仅自己对信浓的控制会发生动摇,甚至会威胁甲斐(今山梨县)的安全,自己就不能实现进入京都的宿愿,要举力攻占。于是川中岛成了两方拼死以争的地方。

Chuanzhong Island (near Changye City, Changye county) is only 60 kilometers away from chunrishan (coastal area of Xinxie county) where shangshanhuihu's castle is located. Shangshanhuihu believes that this is the last defense line in Xinnong to prevent Xinxuan from attacking Vietnam (now Xinxie county), which must be fully resisted. According to Takeda Xinxuan, if shangshanhuihu is allowed to control the area of central Sichuan Island, not only will his control over Xinnong waver, but even threaten the safety of Jiafei (now Shanli county), he will not be able to realize his dream of entering Kyoto, so he should make every effort to capture it. So the island of central Sichuan became a place where the two sides fought to death.

  1561年8月,上杉辉虎率一万三千人出兵信浓川中岛一带。他把五千人留在善光寺附近作后卫,另外八千人挺进至妻女山扎营。从妻女山(今长野松代)可俯视信玄控制的海津城。与此前后,武田信玄也率军二万从古府中(甲府)出发,进抵海津城。一向作战慎重的信玄把二万军队分为两部,八千人在正面布阵,另一万二千人隐藏于妻女山后,准备于9月10日黎明,腹背夹袭上杉辉虎。但上杉辉虎似乎识破了信玄的计策,在9日夜偷偷下山,伏兵于川中岛。10日晨,浓雾密布,当信玄率八千人在八幡原布阵准备发起进攻时,突然遭到上杉辉虎的袭击。浓雾中两军对阵,马嘶人呼,血肉横飞。武田军举青色布旗,上书金色大字:“疾如风,徐如林,侵掠如火,不动如山”。上杉军举白色绢旗,上书“毗”字。武田氏摆八阵,上杉氏则用的车轮阵。开始时,信玄两处负伤,其弟信繁战死,似乎处于不利地位。正在危急时刻,隐藏于妻女山后的一万二千人信玄军及时赶到,扭转了战局。上杉辉虎不敢恋战,急忙撤回越后,战斗中双方各死数千人。武田信玄控制了北部信浓地区。

In August 1561, the shangshanhuihu sent 13000 troops to the area of Zhongdao in xinnongchuan. He left five thousand people near the temple as guards, and eight thousand others marched to his wife and daughter's mountain to camp. From the wife and daughter mountain (today's Changye Song Dynasty), you can overlook Haijin city controlled by Xinxuan. Around this time, Takeda Xinxuan also led 20000 troops from the ancient mansion (Jiafu) to Haijin city. Xin Xuan, who has always been cautious in fighting, divides the 20000 troops into two parts. Eight thousand people are in front of him. Another 12000 are hiding behind his wife and daughter's mountain. He is going to attack shanhuihu at dawn on September 10. However, shangshanhuihu seems to have seen through Xinxuan's strategy, sneaking down the mountain on the 9th night and ambushing in Central Sichuan island. On the morning of the 10th, dense fog, when Xinxuan led 8000 people to set up an attack in bafanyuan, they were suddenly attacked by Shangshan Huihu. In the thick fog, the two armies are facing each other. The horse neighs and shouts, and the flesh and blood are flying. The Takeda army held up the blue cloth flag and wrote in gold characters: "as fast as the wind, as slow as the forest, as aggressive as the fire, as motionless as the mountain.". The Shangshan army raised a white silk flag and wrote the word "Pi". Takeda's eight array, Shangshan's wheel array. At the beginning, Xin Xuan was injured in two places, and his younger brother Xin fan died in the war, which seemed to be in a disadvantageous position. At the critical moment, 12000 Xinxuan troops hiding behind their wives and daughters arrived in time, reversing the war situation. Shangshanhuihu did not dare to love the war. After withdrawing to Vietnam, thousands of people died on both sides in the battle. Xinxuan in Takeda controls the Xinnong area in the north.

  川中岛激战后,信玄出兵关东,平定了上野西部(今群马县)。然后又把矛头指向今川氏控制的骏河。在采取这些行动之前,为对付上杉辉虎,解除后顾之忧,武田信玄曾与今川氏、北条氏结成三方同盟。但在1560年,今川氏败给尾张的织田信长后,武田信玄又想乘机攫取今川氏的骏河。在进攻骏河之前,信玄首先与织田信长和三河(今爱知县)的德川家康结盟。又通过德川家康与宿敌上杉辉虎讲和,从而缓解了腹背受敌之势,并向今川氏发动了进攻。在外交上陷于孤立的今川氏,抵挡不住武田信玄的进攻,不得不逃至小田原投靠了北条氏。

After the fierce battle in Central Sichuan Island, Xinxuan sent troops to Guandong to pacify the west of Shangye (now qunma county). Then the spearhead is pointed at JUNHE River controlled by the current Sichuan family. Before these actions, in order to deal with the shangshanhuihu and relieve his worries, Takeda Xinxuan once formed a tripartite alliance with the present CHUANSHI and Beitiao families. However, in 1560, after the defeat of the present CHUANSHI to Zhitian Xinchang of Weizhang, Wutian Xinxuan wanted to seize the JUNHE of the present CHUANSHI. Before attacking JUNHE, Xinxuan first allied with Zhitian Xinchang and Dechuan Jiakang of Sanhe (now love Zhixian). He also made peace with his old enemy, Shangshan Huihu, so as to ease the situation of being attacked from the inside and the back, and launched an attack on the current Chuan family. In terms of diplomacy, the present Sichuan family, trapped in isolation, was unable to resist the attack of Takeda Xinxuan and had to flee to xiaotianyuan to join the Beitiao family.

  就在武田信玄攻占骏河,企图西上京都的时候,尾张的织田信长势力获得迅速发展,相继控制了自由商业城市 。由于能制造火枪,力量大增,颇有统一天下之势。于是,曾是盟友的织田信长,便成为怀有同样野心的武田信玄的头号敌人。武田信玄展开频繁的外交活动,与北条氏、越前(今福井县)的朝仓氏、近江(今滋贺县)的浅以及一些大寺院结成同盟,形成了对信长的包围圈。之后,又于1572年10月,率二万军卒向远江的三方原台地进发,并于12月22日抵达目的地。这时,织田信长与德川家康的一万联军前来狙击,爆发了有名的三方原之战。织田与德川的联军敌不过武田的精锐骑兵,纷纷败退。武田信玄舍德川家康于不顾,直逼织田信长的根据地尾张。这时,浅井氏与朝仓氏的大军也向织田信长发起进攻。信长两面受敌,陷入危机,就在这一关键时刻,武田信玄忽患重疾,不得不撤兵。1573年4月12日,在返回甲斐途中,死于信浓驹场,时年五十三岁。死前,他把亲子胜赖召到面前,对他说:“胜赖好好听着,就是我死了也不要停止遣军西上。我死后要密而不宣,全力攻陷京都。我之宿愿是让武田旗在京都飘扬。”

At the time of Takeda Xinxuan's capture of JUNHE River and the enterprise's going up to Kyoto in the west, Weizhang's Zhitian Xinchang force developed rapidly and successively controlled the free commercial cities. Because of its ability to make fireguns, its strength has greatly increased, and it has the potential to unify the world. Thus, Hiroshi ODA, who was once an ally, became the No. 1 enemy of Takeda Xinxuan with the same ambition. With frequent diplomatic activities, Xinxuan Wutian formed an alliance with the Beitiao family, chaocang family of yueqian (now Fukui county), the shallow of Jinjiang (now Zihe county) and some large temples, forming a circle of encirclement for Xinchang. Later, in October 1572, 20000 soldiers headed for Yuanjiang's three original platforms and arrived at the destination on December 22. At this time, Zhitian Xinchang and the ten thousand allied forces of Tokugawa Jiakang came to snipe, and a famous tripartite battle broke out. The Allied forces of Zhitian and Dechuan were defeated by the elite cavalry of Takeda. In spite of the fact that Tokugawa's family is healthy, Takeda Xinshe forces Zhitian Xinchang's base at the end of Zhang. At this time, the army of shoai and chaocang also attacked commander ODA. At this critical moment, Takeda Xinxuan suddenly suffered from serious illness and had to withdraw his troops. On April 12, 1573, on the way back to Jiafei, he died in xinnongju farm at the age of 53. Before he died, he called his parents and son shenglai to him and said, "shenglai, listen carefully. Even if I am dead, don't stop sending troops to the West. When I die, I will fight to capture Kyoto. My wish is to let the flag of Takeda fly in Kyoto. "

  武田信玄是一名卓越的战术家。他《》的“风、林、火、山”为

Takeda Xinxuan is an outstanding tactician. "Wind, forest, fire and mountain" in his

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