揭秘:历史上真实的李卫究竟是怎样做官的?-看世界

揭秘:历史上真实的李卫究竟是怎样做官的?

  李卫是江苏徐州人,生于康熙二十六年(1687年),卒于乾隆三年(1738年)。李卫当官,并非是科举正途,而家里花钱给他买了监生资格,靠捐钱捐来的。由于小时候没太读书,即使后来官做得挺大,李卫还是会闹些错别字的笑话。

  前两年的电视连续剧《李卫当官》可谓是红极一时,徐峥所扮演的那个诙谐幽默的李卫也颇受好评。但是,从各种材料看来,历史上的李卫似乎并非如此。(徐峥自己也承认自己并不知道历史上的李卫是怎么样一个人,他说导演是这样交代他的,李卫“不识字,四爷的家奴,爱骑马,爱收藏小玩意儿”)

The first two years of TV series "Li Wei in office" was a hit, and Xu Zheng's humorous Li Wei was also well received. However, from a variety of materials, it seems that Li Wei in history is not so. (Xu Zheng himself admits that he doesn't know what Li Wei is like in history. He said that the director told him this way. Li Wei "is illiterate, the fourth master's servant, loves riding and collecting gadgets.")

  李卫是江苏徐州人,生于二十六年(1687年),卒于三年(1738年)。李卫当官,并非是正途,而家里花钱给他买了监生资格,靠捐钱捐来的。由于小时候没太读书,即使后来官做得挺大,李卫还是会闹些错别字的笑话。

Li Wei, a native of Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, was born in 1687 and died in 1738. Li Wei was not on the right way to become an official, but his family spent money to buy him the qualification of supervisor and donated money to him. Because he didn't read much when he was a child, even if the official did a lot later, Li Wei would make some jokes about typos.

  李卫虽然没什么文化,但人却十分聪明,他手下的师爷起草完公文奏章读给他听后,他总能一针见血的把问题要害找出来,然后口述让师爷们修改,大家对此都十分服气。李卫升堂审案的时候,更是才思敏捷,判决如流,丝毫没有文盲的嫌疑。

Although Li Wei has no culture, he is very smart. After his master drafted the official document and read it to him, he can always find out the key point of the problem, and then orally let the master modify it. Everyone is very convinced about this. When Li Wei was promoted to the court for trial, he was more nimble in thinking and judgment, and there was no suspicion of illiteracy.

  《小仓山房文集》里的《达公卫传》中说,李卫生来身材魁梧,膀大腰圆,臂力过人,貌似于一赳赳武夫(大异于徐峥扮演的形象),走在街上也很容易辨认,因为李卫脸大如盆,鼻孔中通,不同凡人。不过,李卫虽然武人身材,却长得脸色白皙,只可惜是个麻子脸,煞是可惜。

According to the biography of DAGONGWEI in xiaocangshan house collection, Li jianlai has a big body, big waist and strong arms. He looks like a man of arms (quite different from the image played by Xu Zheng). It's easy to recognize when walking on the street, because Li Wei's face is big as a basin, his nostrils are open, and he is different from ordinary people. However, although Li Wei has a figure, he looks white. It's a pity that he has a pockmarked face. It's a pity.

  李卫长得体魄雄健,自幼喜好习武,他做官后,曾自建了一勇健营,在当地募集一些壮汉,专门练习搏杀之技。李卫每次带领勇建营外出捕盗时,自己也身披金甲,执铁如意,亲自指挥,过上一把瘾。不过,对他的武人形象颇不以为然,有一次李卫向雍正主动请缨,要上西北战场冲杀一番的时候,雍正不屑的说,我知道你不是这块料,别多事了。

Li Wei is a strong and vigorous man. He likes to practice martial arts since he was a child. After he became an official, he built a brave and healthy camp and recruited some strong men to practice fighting skills. Every time Li Wei leads Yongjian camp to go out to catch robbers, he also wears gold armor, holds iron Ruyi, directs himself and leads an addiction. However, he didn't think much of his image as a warrior. Once Li Wei asked Yongzheng to take the initiative to fight in the northwest battlefield. Yongzheng said scornfully, "I know you are not this material. Don't worry.".

  《名人轶事》里说,雍正上台不久,发现各省钱粮亏欠甚多,便下诏清查,各省官员闻讯十分恐慌。李卫当时做浙江总督,立刻召集了幕僚们来商议对策,手下那些人也想不出什么好办法,李卫便说:“不请钦差大臣来吧,皇上一定不相我们;但要是钦差大臣来了,而我们这些做督抚的无权干涉清查的话,恐怕亏欠的事情就要败露。不如我主动上奏朝廷,说”浙省钱粮废弛日久,正好趁着钦差大臣清查的机会好好整治一下。不过,钦差大臣初到地方,一时恐怕不得要领,臣身任地方官,理应协同办理,请皇上裁处。“

According to the anecdote of famous people, shortly after Yongzheng came to power, he found that there was a lot of money and food deficit in each province, so he issued an imperial edict to check it, and the officials in each province were panicked at the news. When Li Wei was governor of Zhejiang Province, he immediately called his staff to discuss the countermeasures. Those under him couldn't think of any good way. Li Wei said, "if you don't invite the imperial minister to come, the emperor will not meet us. But if the imperial minister comes, and we who are the governors have no right to do the investigation, I'm afraid the debt will be exposed. It's better for me to take the initiative to play the court and say that "the money and grain in Zhejiang Province have been in disuse for a long time, just taking advantage of the opportunity of checking by the Imperial Envoys. However, I'm afraid that when I first arrived at the place, I didn't know what to do. As a local official, I should cooperate with you and ask the emperor to make a decision. "

  随后,李卫诈称自己要过生日,让浙中七十二州县的有关官员都速来贺拜。生日筵席吃到一半的时候,李卫把这些人召到密室,说:“朝廷负责清查钱粮的钦差大臣马上就要来了,你们要是有亏欠的话千万别欺瞒我,我能救你们,你们要不听话,等查出问题被抓被杀的话,到时别怪我没给你们机会。”众人害怕,都说:“愿听大人吩咐。”随后李卫让这些人回去后,不管有无亏欠,都老老实实的造册登记后上交给他,让他心里有数。

Later, Li Wei pretended that he was going to have a birthday and asked officials from 72 prefectures and counties in central Zhejiang Province to come to celebrate his birthday. In the middle of the birthday feast, Li Wei called these people to the secret room and said, "the imperial minister in charge of checking money and grain will come soon. If you owe something, please don't deceive me. I can help you. If you don't obey me, don't blame me for not giving you a chance when you are caught and killed." When they were afraid, they all said, "listen to your excellency." After Li Wei asked these people to go back, whether there was a debt or not, they were all truthfully registered and handed over to him to let him know.

  再说雍正接到李卫的奏折后,同意了他的提议,随后便派了户部尚书彭维新前去浙江清查,并批准李卫协助清查工作。彭维新当时已在江南其他各省清查,这个人做事认真细致,加上江南各督抚都不敢干扰他的工作,结果查下来是问题多多,很多人都被他抓了辫子,彭维新还准备上报朝廷以“流、斩、监、追”的罪名惩处这些人,弄得这些地方人心惶惶,怨声载道。

After Yongzheng received Li Wei's Memorial, he agreed to his proposal. Then he sent Peng Weixin, the Minister of the Ministry of housing, to Zhejiang Province for inspection, and approved Li Wei to assist in the inspection. At that time, Peng Weixin had been checked in other provinces in the south of the Yangtze River. This man worked carefully. In addition, the governors in the south of the Yangtze River did not dare to interfere with his work. As a result, there were many problems. Many people were arrested by him. Peng Weixin was also going to report to the imperial court to punish these people for the crime of "running, beheading, supervising and chasing". All these made people panic and complain.

  查完其他省后,彭维新意犹未尽,随后便奉命雄赳赳气昂昂的来到浙江,不料李卫一见面便拿出雍正的批示给他看,说:“朝廷让我协助你的清查工作,请大人一起商量怎么办好。” 彭维新见李卫手里有雍正的批示,气焰猛的收回了不少。

After checking other provinces, Peng Weixin was still in the mood. Later, he was ordered to come to Zhejiang bravely. Unexpectedly, when Li Wei met with him, he took out Yongzheng's instructions and said, "the court asked me to help you with your checking work. Please discuss how to do it together." Peng Weixin saw that Li Wei had Yongzheng's instructions in his hand, and he took back many of them.

  随后李卫便为彭维新设宴接风,酒至中巡,李卫叹道:“凡是共事,从来就没有不争执的。我性子急,喜欢和人争辩,屡次被皇上批评。这次和大人共事,我倒是希望不要有争执,但就不知道怎样才能没有争执呢?”彭维新说:“这样吧,我们分县清查,如何?”李卫说:“好。”

Later, Li Wei set up a banquet for Peng Weixin to receive the wind. During the wine tour, Li Wei sighed: "there has never been a dispute without working together. I'm impatient, like to argue with people, and I've been criticized by the emperor many times. I hope I don't have a dispute with adults this time, but I don't know how to have no dispute. "Peng Weixin said," well, let's check by county, how about that? "Li Wei said," OK. "

  李卫当下便让随从把浙江各州县的名字写在纸上,然后把纸捏成团,放在盘子里,李卫和彭维新各拿一半。彭维新没有料到的是,这些纸团其实都让李卫作了手脚,那些亏与不亏的,都暗中做了不同的标记,李卫把那些亏欠的州县,大部分都自己拿了,那些问题不大的,全分给了彭维新。

Li Wei now asked his entourage to write the names of the counties and states in Zhejiang Province on paper, and then they squeezed the paper into a ball and put it on a plate. Li Wei and Peng Weixin each took half of the paper. What Peng Weixin didn't expect was that these paper balls were actually made by Li Wei. Those who were in deficit or not were secretly marked with different marks. Li Wei took most of the States and counties that were in deficit, and gave Peng Weixin all the ones that had no big problems.

  后来彭维新虽然认真清查,但因为李卫早就做了手脚,最后是一无所获。李卫清查的时候,则让那些亏欠的州县尽快设法弥补,把事情尽快摆平。清查完后,李卫和彭维新碰头,问:“怎么样,各地可有亏欠的吗?” 彭维新说:“没有。”李卫装作意外,但又开心的说:“恭喜恭喜,我这里也没有呢。”

Later, although Peng Weixin made a thorough investigation, he got nothing because Li Wei had done it for a long time. When Li Wei made an inventory, he asked the States and counties that owed money to make up for it as soon as possible and put things in order as soon as possible. After the inspection, Li Wei and Peng Weixin met and asked, "how is it? Are there any debts in different places?" Peng Weixin said, "No." Li Wei pretended to be an accident, but said happily, "Congratulations, I don't have any here."

  于是两人,一起奏廷说浙江没有亏欠。雍正接报后大喜,说:“别人都说清查麻烦事多,唯独李卫那里什么事情也没有,看来这小子的确有一手。”随后,雍正便给李卫加封为太子太保,大加赏赐,浙江的其他各级官员也各升一级。由此,手下的那些人对李卫也彻底服了。

So the two, together playing court, said that Zhejiang did not owe. After receiving the report, Yongzheng was very happy and said, "people say that there are many troubles in checking, but Li Wei has nothing there. It seems that this kid has a hand." Later, Yongzheng granted Li Wei the title of crown prince and a great reward, and other officials at all levels in Zhejiang Province were promoted. As a result, those under him were completely convinced of Li Wei.

  李卫这个人脾气倔,但有一次他碰到个比他还倔的手下。某日,李卫让一个叫田芳的幕僚给皇上写奏折,请皇上封他家五代。田芳不肯写,说:“人家请求封典的最多三代,从来就没有听说封五代的,这个折子我不能写。”李卫说:“你别管,照写就是”。田芳还是不肯写,惹得李卫大怒,骂道:“你这狗娘养的,我要你写你就写,没有先例,我来创先例,干你何事?”

Li Wei is a stubborn man, but once he met someone who is more stubborn than him. One day, Li Wei asked an assistant named Tian Fang to write a memorial to the emperor, asking him to seal his family for five generations. Tian Fang refused to write, saying, "I have never heard of the most three generations who have asked for the canon. I can't write this fold." Li Wei said, "don't worry, just write it.". Tian Fang still refused to write, which made Li Wei angry and scolded: "you son of a bitch, I want you to write, there is no precedent, I will set a precedent, what do you do?"

  田芳被骂,霎的站了起来,怒道:“我看是大人你自己昏了头,你仗着皇上对你一时的宠爱,把朝廷都不放在眼里了。我的劝导你,你不感谢我,居然还辱骂我?大人为人子孙,封三代还嫌不够,我也为人子孙,一代也未尝封过,你却骂我狗娘养的,这还有天理吗?我就是不服!不服!”

Tian Fang was scolded and stood up in a flash. She said angrily, "I think it's the adults who have lost their heads. Depending on the emperor's love for you for a while, you don't pay attention to the imperial court. If you don't thank me for my persuasion, you still insult me. It's not enough for adults to be their descendants. I'm also their descendants. I haven't been sealed for one generation, but you scold my son-in-law. Is there any reason? I just refuse to accept it! Refuse to accept it

  李卫从来就没有碰到手下这么给他说话的,一时间面子下不来,只好再做怒色,说:“就算是我错了,你不服,又能怎么样?”田芳说:“你是大人,我是小吏,不要说大人骂我,我不能怎么样,就算是你把我打死,我也不能怎样!只可惜的是,大人之威,能强加到小人的身上,但小吏之理,还是直于大人!”

Li Wei never met a man who spoke to him like this. For a while, he couldn't face himself, so he had to be angry again. He said, "even if I'm wrong, if you don't agree with me, what can you do?" Tian Fang said, "you're an adult and I'm a petty official. Don't say that adults scold me. I can't do anything. Even if you kill me, I can't do anything! Unfortunately, the power of adults can be imposed on me In the body of villain, but the principle of small officials is still straight to the adults! "

  田芳说完,扭头便走了。李卫被他说得一愣一愣的,半晌都没有声音。当天晚上,李卫又派人把田芳召来。田芳下午回去想想后,觉得自己当时太冲动了,听到李卫召他,以为要杀他,进去的时候双脚发抖,脸色如土,不想李卫走上前握着他的手,笑道:“你小子有点胆识,做个小吏有点可惜了,不如我借你一千二百两银子,你去买个县丞当当,以后做上了官,也要像今天那样,正直当官,好好做事。”田芳没想到李卫如此对他,不免,后来田芳做了富平县丞和凤翔县令,为官期间名声也很不错。

Tian Fang finished, turned around and left. Li Wei was stunned by what he said, and there was no voice for a long time. That night, Li Wei sent for Tian Fang again. Tian Fang thought that she was too impulsive when she went back in the afternoon. When she heard Li Wei's call, she thought she wanted to kill him. When she went in, her feet trembled and her face looked like dirt. She didn't want Li Wei to come forward and hold his hand. She said with a smile, "you have a little courage, but it's a pity to be a petty official. Unlike I borrowed 1200 Liang silver from you, you should go to buy a county magistrate and become an official in the future In that way, be upright and do good work. " Tian Fang didn't expect Li Wei to do this to him. Later, Tian Fang became a prefect of Fuping County and Fengxiang county. She had a good reputation as an official.

  李卫与、鄂尔泰是雍正朝最受宠的三个官,雍正常说他们是“模范督抚”。但是,田文镜这个人比较小人一点,他看到李卫受宠,很是妒忌,便暗地里在雍正面前说李卫的坏话,但雍正不为所动。田文镜一计不成,便转而去巴解李卫。有一次恰逢李卫的母亲去世,田文镜故作高姿态,特意派人前去吊唁,并向李卫赠以厚礼。李卫得知后,大骂道:“我老母虽死,但我也不饮小人一勺水也。”随后,李卫命手下将田文镜的使者挡于大门之外,并将田文镜送来的东西丢进了猪圈,以示不齿与此人结交。

Li Weihe and ertai were the three most favored officials in the Yongzheng Dynasty. Yong normally said that they were "model governors". However, Tian Wenjing is a little bit of a villain. Seeing that Li Wei is favored and envied, he secretly speaks ill of him in front of Yongzheng, but Yongzheng is not moved. Tian Wenjing, unable to make a plan, turned to pacify Li Wei. Once upon a time, when Li Wei's mother died, Tian Wenjing pretended to be high-profile and sent someone to mourn and give Li Wei a great gift. After learning that, Li Wei scolded: "although my mother died, I didn't drink a spoon of water from a villain." Later, Li Wei ordered his men to keep Tian Wenjing's emissary out of the gate, and threw the things Tian Wenjing sent into the pigsty to show that they didn't want to make friends with him.

  话说回来,李卫这样非科举出身的人为什么会得到重用,主要还是取决于雍正的选材标准。康熙晚年选官,最重官员的操守,才干倒是其次,结果弄得各地官员只顾清廉的虚名,遍地“清官”,却不做实事。殊不知,世上这清官贪官本就难以分辨,一味的追求清官,反弄出很多弊政。雍正上台后,常跟李卫说,这清官如同“木偶”,中看不中用,对社稷民生毫无裨益。因此,雍正用人,首先在才干,至于什么资格或者科举出身之类,倒是其次。恰如李卫的谥号“敏达”,既反映了李卫的为官之道,也反映了雍正的选官标准,正因为如此,李卫才脱颖而出,成为雍正朝的能臣。

In other words, why Li Wei, who was not born in the imperial examination, was put into use mainly depends on Yongzheng's standard of material selection. In Kangxi's later years, when he elected officials, the most important thing was their integrity and ability. As a result, officials from all over the country only paid attention to the reputation of being honest and upright, but they didn't do anything practical. However, it's hard to distinguish the corrupt officials in the world. They pursue the honest officials blindly and cause a lot of malpractices. After Yongzheng came to power, he often told Li Wei that this honest official was like a puppet, which was useless in the eyes of the people and was of no benefit to the people's livelihood. Therefore, Yongzheng's employment should be based on talent first, followed by qualification or imperial examination background. Just like Li Wei's posthumous title "Minda", it not only reflects Li Wei's way of being an official, but also reflects Yongzheng's standard of selecting an official. Because of this, Li Wei stands out and becomes an able official of Yongzheng Dynasty.

  生逢其世,恰逢贵人,也是人生一大幸事。

It's a great blessing to be born in his own life, to meet a noble person.

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