揭秘:“世界首富”宋子文留下了多少遗产-看世界

揭秘:“世界首富”宋子文留下了多少遗产

  1933年秋,因为在军费问题上与蒋介石产生了严重的分歧,宋子文辞去财政部长、中央银行总裁、行政院院长等政府要职。政治上的失意,反而刺激了宋子文从商的兴趣。他先是筹划成立了中国建设银公司,又在1935年中国银行改组后担任董事长一职。至此,宋凭借着自己掌控的经济委员会、中国建设银公司、中国银行等三大工具,不断实施对民族工商业、金融业的渗透、控制及兼并活动,并以惊人的速度,营造出一个以宋氏家族为核心的官僚买办集团与托拉斯王国,这也奠定了宋氏迅速发家的基础。

  导读:尽管拥有“两朝国舅”的身份,并长期担任财长的要职,但直到20世纪30年代,关于宋子文的私人财产还是一个鲜有人理会的问题。30年代中期以后,人们对此的兴趣,似乎一夜间迸发了,各类与其财富相关的传说。

Introduction: Although he had the status of "uncle of the two dynasties" and had been a treasurer for a long time, until the 1930s, there was still a little attention paid to the private property of Song Ziwen. After the mid-1930s, people's interest in it seemed to burst out overnight, all kinds of legends related to their wealth.

  1933年秋,因为在军费问题上与产生了严重的分歧,宋子文辞去财政部长、中央银行总裁、行政院院长等政府要职。政治上的失意,反而刺激了宋子文从商的兴趣。他先是筹划成立了中国建设银公司,又在1935年中国银行改组后担任董事长一职。至此,宋凭借着自己掌控的经济委员会、中国建设银公司、中国银行等三大工具,不断实施对民族工商业、金融业的渗透、控制及兼并活动,并以惊人的速度,营造出一个以家族为核心的官僚买办集团与托拉斯王国,这也奠定了宋氏迅速发家的基础。

In the autumn of 1933, Song Ziwen resigned as the Minister of finance, the president of the central bank, the president of the Executive Yuan and other important positions of the government because of serious differences on military expenditure. Political frustration, on the contrary, stimulated Song Ziwen's interest in business. He first planned to establish China Construction Bank Corporation, and then served as the chairman of the board of directors after the reorganization of Bank of China in 1935. So far, with the three major tools under his control, namely, the Economic Commission, China Construction Bank Corporation and Bank of China, Song Dynasty continuously carried out the infiltration, control and merger of national industry, commerce and finance, and at an amazing speed, created a bureaucratic buying group and trust kingdom with family as the core, which also laid the foundation for song's rapid prosperity.

  但宋子文英美派领袖的背景,为他招致了来自日本方面及国内亲日派的敌视。因而,在日本及汪伪一派的反击下,宋子文的豪门财富及其疯狂的敛财行为,不断被曝光。例如,1939年,在一份据说是日本特工对国民党政府高级官员存款情况的秘密调查报告中,单宋子文一人就被披露有5000多万元的财产存在上海的外国银行内。战争期间,日本又指控宋子文在大通国民银行和纽约的花旗银行存款达7000万美元。与此同时,宋子文是当时“世界首富”的消息也不胫而走。

But Song Ziwen's background as a leader of the British and American school caused him hostility from Japan and the pro Japanese school at home. Therefore, under the counterattack of Japan and Wang puppet school, Song Ziwen's wealth and his crazy behavior of collecting money are exposed constantly. For example, in 1939, in a secret investigation report on the deposits of senior officials of the Kuomintang government by Japanese secret agents, Song Ziwen alone was revealed to have more than 50 million yuan of property in foreign banks in Shanghai. During the war, Japan accused Song Ziwen of saving $70 million at Chase National Bank and Citibank in New York. At the same time, the news that Song Ziwen was "the richest man in the world" spread widely.

  “四大家族”占据200亿美元?

"Four families" account for 20 billion dollars?

  对其豪门资本的揭露,最为熟知的是1946年陈伯达在《中国四大家族》一书中说:“四大家族或是‘官’式的,或是‘商’式的,在金融、商业、工业、地产诸方面所独占的财产,以及他们在外国的存款和产业,粗略统计一下,至少当在二百万万美元左右。”

The most well-known disclosure of his powerful capital is Chen Boda's book "four big families in China" in 1946, which said: "the four big families are either" official "or" business "type property monopolized in finance, commerce, industry, real estate, as well as their deposits and industries in foreign countries. According to the rough statistics, they should be at least about two million dollars."

  若真如此,那么四大家族中随便一人的私产都可跻身于世界首富的行列,但事实是怎样的呢?据史料统计,当时全国三个最大的国家垄断资本集团——“四行二局 ”(中央银行、中国银行、交通银行、中国农业银行、中国托局和邮政储金汇业局)、资源委员会和中国纺织建设公司的资产,合计也只有62972亿元法币,以1947年的汇率计算,尚不足100亿美元。若把当时国民政府管辖的所有财产加起来,也不超过200亿美元。

If so, the private property of any one of the four families can be ranked among the richest in the world. But what's the truth? According to historical data, at that time, the three largest national monopoly capital groups in China - "four banks and two bureaus" (central bank, Bank of China, bank of communications, Agricultural Bank of China, China Trust Bureau and postal savings and Remittance Bureau), resource committee and Zhongzhong The total assets of China Textile Construction Corporation are only 6297.2 billion French dollars, which is less than 10 billion US dollars at the exchange rate of 1947. If we add up all the property under the jurisdiction of the national government at that time, it will not exceed 20 billion US dollars.

  可见上面所说“四大家族”财产,并不是单指蒋介石、宋子文、、陈立夫、陈果夫5人的私有财产,而是泛指国民党及其政府统治下的“国家垄断资本”的财产。

It can be seen that the property of the "four families" mentioned above does not refer to the private property of Chiang Kai Shek, Song Ziwen, Chen Lifu and Chen Guofu, but generally refers to the property of "state monopoly capital" under the rule of the Kuomintang and its government.

  “倒宋”风潮

"Down song" trend

  到了国民党政府统治后期,国家经济已经到了崩溃的地步,通货膨胀、物价飞涨、财政赤字触目惊心、工商业纷纷停产倒闭。宋子文一系列的举措,不但没能挽救危局,反而更加剧了形势的恶化。作为行政院首脑、全面负责经济的宋子文便成为这一切的罪魁。与此同时,经济的崩溃连同军事失利、官僚腐败、政权危亡,所有这些造就出的泄愤情绪似乎都一同指向了宋子文。

By the late period of the Kuomintang government, the national economy had reached the point of collapse. Inflation, soaring prices, the fiscal deficit was shocking, and industry and commerce were shut down. Song Ziwen's series of measures not only failed to save the crisis, but also made the situation worse. Song Ziwen, as the head of the Executive Yuan and in charge of the economy in an all-round way, became the culprit of all this. At the same time, the collapse of the economy, together with military failure, bureaucratic corruption, and the collapse of the political power, all these feelings of anger seem to point to Song Ziwen.

  以四大家族中的兄弟为例,陈氏兄弟窥视财政金融大权已久,但宋子文对财经大权的包揽,使他们丝毫未能染指。宋子文理财的失败,正为他们打败宋子文提供了机会。陈氏兄弟利用手中掌握的舆论,不断地对宋的豪门势力进行讨伐,“炮打宋子文”的文章连连出现。

Taking the brothers of the four families as an example, Chen brothers have been spying on the power of Finance and finance for a long time, but Song Ziwen's embrace of the power of Finance and finance has left them untouched. The failure of Song Ziwen's financial management provides them with an opportunity to defeat Song Ziwen. Chen brothers used the public opinion in their hands to constantly attack the powerful forces of the Song Dynasty, and articles about "shelling Song Ziwen" appeared in succession.

  至于当时舆论之中,宋子文的财产被传到怎样的程度,以下的材料即可。据记载,当时一位激烈批评政府的人说:“中国不摆脱宋氏家族,不可能有光明前途。因为他们有十亿以上的美元存在、伦敦和阿姆斯特丹等各地银行的个人账户中。”1949年5月,正当国民党与中共激烈厮杀的时候,49名立法委员联名提出临时紧急动议,要求向宋子文、孔祥熙、张嘉三豪门“征借”10亿美元,以充实国军军费。这一主意,竟获得全体出席委员赞同通过。

As for the extent to which Song Ziwen's property was spread among the public opinions at that time, the following materials are enough. According to records, a fierce critic of the government at that time said: "China cannot have a bright future without getting rid of the Song family. Because they have more than a billion dollars in their personal accounts in banks around London and Amsterdam. " In May 1949, when the Kuomintang and the Communist Party were fighting fiercely, 49 legislators jointly proposed a temporary emergency motion, asking Song Ziwen, Kong Xiangxi and Zhang Jia to "borrow" 1 billion US dollars to enrich the military expenditure of the national army. The idea was adopted by all the members present.

  面对这种境地,宋子文选择了一走了之。1949年5月16日,宋子文偕夫人乘机离开香港,去往巴黎。临行前他对记者发表讲话说:“那种建议,正足以表示那班人员的脑筋如何,因为据余所知,目前中国政府和私人存在美国的外汇资产总金额不过五亿美元,他们竟要余和孔、张两氏共同捐出10亿美元,岂非捕风捉影。”

Facing this situation, Song Ziwen chose to leave. On May 16, 1949, Song Ziwen and his wife left Hong Kong for Paris. "That kind of suggestion is enough to show the brains of those people," he said in a speech to reporters before leaving. "As far as I know, the total amount of foreign exchange assets of the Chinese government and private individuals in the United States is no more than 500 million US dollars. They want Yu and Kong and Zhang to donate 1 billion US dollars together. Isn't it just catching the wind and catching the shadows?"

  联邦调查局对宋、孔家族进行财产调查

The FBI investigates the property of the song and Kong families

  1949年6月,宋子文赴美之后,依旧大卖力气为国民党争取美援。他多次求见美国高官,要求美国进一步向国民党政权提供两亿美元援助。然而,这最终成了。

In June 1949, after Song Ziwen went to the United States, he still made great efforts to fight for American aid for the Kuomintang. He has repeatedly asked for senior officials of the United States to provide further US $200 million in aid to the Kuomintang regime. However, it eventually became.

  在美国舆论看来,这除了归咎于国民党官僚系统的腐败无能之外,在某种程度上也要归咎于宋子文的徇私舞弊。《华盛顿明星晚报》在一篇文章中不无调侃地写道:“台湾的蒋介石政府与其请求美国国会的援助,不如动用私人存美的资产。蒋总统目前所急需安定金融、建设经济等款项共约三亿美元,实在可以由孔祥熙与宋子文两氏私人借款,不必再向美国纳税人乞求。因为根据美国官方确切可靠的统计,孔、宋两人在美国的银行存款达五亿美元之多,从中间借款三亿给蒋介,决不会使他们两人当真‘贫穷’起来的。”

In the opinion of American public opinion, this is not only attributed to the corruption and incompetence of the Kuomintang bureaucracy, but also to the malpractice of Song Ziwen to some extent. "Taiwan's Chiang Kai Shek government, rather than asking for help from the U.S. Congress, might as well use the assets of private savings in the United States," the Washington star evening news wrote in an article. President Jiang's urgent need for financial stability, economic construction and other funds totaled about 300 million US dollars, which could be borrowed by Kong Xiangxi and Song Ziwen's private owners, and he did not need to ask us taxpayers any more. Because according to the accurate and reliable statistics of the United States, Kong and song had as much as $500 million in bank deposits in the United States and borrowed $300 million from the middle to Chiang Kai Shek, which would never make them really "poor."

  对此,孔祥熙曾不无愤怒地表示:我丢在中国大陆的财富比现在多多了!并情愿接受美国政府的调查。于是,50年代初下令联邦调查局(FBI)对宋、孔财产展开了秘密调查,但不知何故,此后几十年,美国政府一直对这次调查的结果讳莫如深。

In response, Kong Xiangxi said angrily: I lost more wealth in mainland China than now! And willing to accept the investigation of the U.S. government. Therefore, in the early 1950s, the Federal Bureau of investigation (FBI) was ordered to conduct a secret investigation of song and Kong's property, but somehow, for decades, the U.S. government kept the results of the investigation secret.

  1971年4月,77岁的宋子文赴旧金山看望老友。晚宴上,他心情愉悦,颇有食欲,却不幸因一小块食物鲠在气管,突然辞世。很快,消息传到了纽约——20年来宋子文寓居的地方,纽约州政府的税务官员们立即对宋子文的经济状况着手展开调查,然而,事实却令人大失所望。在纽约遗产法庭关于宋子文遗产分割执行书中,我们看到了那次调查的结果:宋子文的非固定财产只有100多万美元,加上20年间大为升值的房产,也就七八百万美元(一说其财产总值为10485729.47美元)。这样的财产在遍地富豪的纽约简直不值一提。

In April 1971, Song Ziwen, 77, went to San Francisco to see his old friends. At the dinner party, he was in a happy mood and had an appetite. Unfortunately, he died suddenly because of a small piece of food stuck in his windpipe. Soon, the news reached New York, where song lived for 20 years. Tax officials of the New York state government immediately began to investigate song's economic situation. However, the fact was disappointing. In the New York heritage court's execution of Song Ziwen's heritage division, we saw the results of that investigation: Song Ziwen's non fixed property was only more than $1 million, plus the property that appreciated greatly in 20 years, which was also $7.8 million (i.e., the total value of the property was $10485729.47). This kind of property is not worth mentioning in the wealthy New York.

  如此结果,当然令美国的税务官们难以置信。宋子文家产仅有“100万美元”的报道,也随即流传开来。

The result, of course, is unbelievable to US tax officials. The report that Song Zi's literary family had only "one million dollars" was spread immediately.

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