揭秘:谁是中国史上制造冤案最多的一个皇帝?-看世界

揭秘:谁是中国史上制造冤案最多的一个皇帝?

  因而,在朱元璋时期,太监除了端尿送茶的机会,是没有任何玩一把权力的机会的,即使有,也没有人敢玩,朱元璋制定的那些“太监守则”可不是好玩的,“内臣不得干预政事,预者斩!”违者是死路一条。

  导读:历朝历代以来,宦官擅权、祸国殃民的事都不少见,但为祸最烈者要数。其实,从一开始,明朝开国就知道宦官擅权是朝政不修的源溯,因而,只是让宦官们为自己端茶端尿,或者整整档案而已,“古时此辈所治,止于酒浆酰醢、司服守祧数事。”而其他事宜朱元璋如超人般皆亲自大包大揽,不让宦官们沾一点边。

Guide: since the past dynasties, eunuchs have been good at power, causing disasters to the country and the people, but the most serious ones are to be counted. In fact, from the very beginning of the Ming Dynasty, it was known that eunuch's authority was the source of the government's failure to repair. Therefore, it was only for eunuchs to carry tea and urine for themselves, or complete files. "In ancient times, this generation's governance was limited to the number of things such as wine acyl and obedience." Zhu Yuanzhang, like Superman, took charge of other affairs in person and kept the eunuchs away.

  因而,在朱元璋时期,除了端尿送茶的机会,是没有任何玩一把权力的机会的,即使有,也没有人敢玩,朱元璋制定的那些“太监守则”可不是好玩的,“内臣不得干预政事,预者斩!”违者是死路一条。

Therefore, in the period of Zhu Yuanzhang, there was no chance to play with any power except the opportunity to carry urine and send tea. Even if there was, no one dared to play. The "eunuch rules" formulated by Zhu Yuanzhang were not amusing, "the internal ministers should not interfere in political affairs, and the forerunner should be cut off!" the violator was a dead end.

  被压低了官阶,不得兼外臣的文武职衔的宦官们,老老实实地谨记着“太监守则”中诸如不准有公文、私书往来,殿内殿外都不准“泛言及朝政”等等制度,并每天不忘瞻仰朱元璋悬于宫门上的明示着不许干政的警戒的铁牌。甚至,连书也是不敢读的,因为皇帝朱元璋不让。

The eunuchs who have been lowered to the rank of civil and military officials, who are not allowed to serve as foreign ministers, keep in mind the "eunuch rules" such as no official documents and private books, no "extensive words and government" in and out of the palace, etc., and never forget to pay attention to Zhu Yuanzhang's iron signboard on the palace gate, which indicates that he is not allowed to do politics. Even the book is not dare to read, because the Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang did not let it.

  自古有“女子无才便是德”,难道朱元璋受到发,认为“读书越多越反动”了?从政施政者向来多为高智力者,朱元璋不能不防啊。因此,他收一些愚顽未启,茅塞未开的幼童来当太监,让他们一点书底子也没有,彻底把一些可能滋长的反动苗头扼杀在萌芽状态。

Since ancient times, there has been a saying that "a woman without talent is a virtue". Is it true that Zhu Yuanzhang was sent out and thought that "the more you read, the more reactionary you will be"? Most of the people who have been in politics are highly intelligent. Zhu Yuanzhang cannot help but guard against it. Therefore, he took some young children who had not been enlightened or thatched to be eunuchs, so that they could not have any foundation, and thoroughly strangled some possible reactionary signs in the bud.

  后来,迫于宦官要管理典簿文籍,不识字就揽不了这活的现实,朱元璋对这条政策有所松动,允许太监也可以识字,但政治还是不可以讲。

Later, forced by the eunuch to manage the books and records, the illiterate could not take over the reality of this life. Zhu Yuanzhang loosened this policy and allowed eunuchs to read, but politics could not be said.

  朱元璋对宦官的管理是公认的严厉。可是,“智者千虑,必有一失”,让朱元璋死不瞑目的是,他的所有努力都在他后代人的手里毁于一旦了。后来宦官不仅成为皇权卵翼下祸国殃民的一股特殊势力,他们的威福还远达宫门之外,渗透到明朝的各个角落,人数呢,也突破了历朝历代的记录,高达数万之多。“奄宦之祸,历汉、唐、宋相寻无已,然未若明之为烈也。”(黄宗羲《明夷待访录》)明朝的太监们不仅为明朝夺得了历史宦官干政之冠,还创造了一个太监祸国殃民的巅峰时代。

Zhu Yuanzhang's management of eunuchs was generally recognized as severe. However, "a wise man with a thousand worries will have a loss". The purpose of Zhu Yuanzhang's death is that all his efforts have been destroyed in the hands of his descendants. Later, eunuchs not only became a special force under the wing of imperial power, but also far beyond the palace gate, infiltrating into every corner of the Ming Dynasty. The number of eunuchs also broke the records of all dynasties, as many as tens of thousands. "The misfortune of dying officials, which had never been found in the Han, Tang and Song Dynasties, was not clear as fierce." The eunuchs of Ming Dynasty not only won the top of the history of eunuch administration, but also created a peak era of eunuch disaster.

  从永乐朝始,宦官的天空就变了颜色,宦官遮天的手就越来越大。渐渐受到重用的宦官们,翻身了的宦官们,终于有机会玩一把权力了。你皇帝老子朱元璋先前不是不让宦官读书嘛,现在我有权了,我偏读,我还请建专门的学校请专门的老师来教我。永乐皇帝时为太监们请的还是临时性质的教师,到宣德年间时,太监读书成了一种“制度安排”,有专门的学校,名为内书堂,并且专门配备翰林院的官员来担任教师,待遇可不是一般的高。

From the beginning of Yongle Dynasty, the sky of eunuch changed color, and eunuch's hand to cover the sky became bigger and bigger. The eunuchs who are gradually put into use, the eunuchs who have turned over, finally have a chance to play with power. Your Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang didn't allow eunuchs to read before. Now I have the right. I prefer to read. I also invite special schools and special teachers to teach me. During the reign of Emperor Yongle, the eunuchs were invited temporary teachers. During the reign of Xuande, the eunuchs' study became a kind of "institutional arrangement". There was a special school called neishutang, which was specially equipped with officials from the Imperial Academy to serve as teachers. The salary was not generally high.

  难道真的是读书越多越反动吗?能识文断字的太监们,开始是从内书堂出来的太监,为名正言顺地掌权,在正统七年公然毁去朱元璋禁宦官干政的铁牌。他“导帝用重典御下,防大臣欺蔽”(《明史·宦官传》)。后来,还把皇帝的“签字权”也揽过来了。签字权在手,还有什么不能到手的?太监不仅仅是夜夜卧在权力之榻侧了,而是卧在了权力之榻上。

Is it true that the more you read, the more reactionary you are? Eunuchs who are able to read, the more reactionary they are. They were eunuchs who came out of the inner library. They took power in the name of Zhengyan. In the seventh year of Zhengtong, they openly destroyed Zhu Yuanzhang's iron card of forbidding eunuchs to do politics. He "guides the emperor to use the heavy code to resist, prevents the minister to deceive" (the Ming Dynasty history · eunuch Biography). Later, the emperor's "right to sign" was also taken over. The power of signature is in hand. What else can't be? Eunuch lies not only on the side of the power couch at night, but on the power couch.

  接着,时的太监来了,他把玩权利的本领似乎更强,被御封为。顺魏者昌,逆魏者亡,魏忠贤利用“厂卫”杀人制造冤假错案,终于让明熹宗朝代成为中国历史上制造冤案最多的朝代。

Then, when the eunuch came, his ability to play with power seemed to be stronger, and he was granted the imperial title. Wei Zhongxian used "factory Wei" to kill people to create false and unjust cases, which finally made mingxizong Dynasty the most unjust Dynasty in Chinese history.

  但魏忠贤读的书倒不是很多,说他是读书越多越反动似乎有点缺少依据。如此说来,其实没读多少书或者说不读书都是可以起浪的。那么,明朝的太监起浪,究竟是什么原因?刘诚龙先生著文说:“太监那么反动,是读书读得多吗?恐怕不是那回事,真正的原因是皇帝授权授得多,朱元璋只授与他们端茶端尿,最多是整理档案,所以没几个反动,后来呢,秉笔批朱的‘文治权’,西厂的‘武功权’,收税收租的‘财政权’,提拔降黜的‘组织权’,‘一切权力归太监’了,自然也就越反动了。你看,这也叫做读书越多越反动?不,是权力越多越反动!”原来,权利才是最反动的。

But Wei Zhongxian didn't read a lot of books. It seems that the more he read, the more reactionary he became. In this way, in fact, not reading a lot of books or not reading can cause waves. So, what is the reason why the eunuch of Ming Dynasty rose in waves? Mr. Liu Chenglong wrote: "the eunuch is so reactionary. Is it because they read a lot? I'm afraid that's not the case. The real reason is that the emperor authorized them a lot. Zhu Yuanzhang only gave them tea and urine, but most of them were filing cases, so there were not many reactionaries. Later, he criticized Zhu's" cultural governance power "and the" martial arts power "of the West factory ’The "fiscal power" of tax collection and rent collection, the "organizational power" of promotion and demotion, and the "return of all powers to eunuchs" will naturally become more reactionary. You see, it's also called the more books you read, the more reactionary you are? No, the more power you are, the more reactionary you are! "So right is the most reactionary.

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