如何客观评价蔡京?应当如何看待权相蔡京?-看世界

如何客观评价蔡京?应当如何看待权相蔡京?

      关于蔡京的评价,向来褒贬不一。《宋史》将蔡京列入《奸臣传》,大加贬斥。但是不少人替他写过翻案文章。蔡京死后,其门人吕川卞醵钱以葬,曾为蔡京写墓志,有“天宝之末,姚、宋何罪”之句,认为金兵入侵不能全归罪于蔡京。南宋人叶适说:“宋财赋之入比唐增倍,熙丰以后又增数倍,‘而蔡京变钞法,以后比熙宁又再倍矣。’”代初年设立盐法,“置局设官,令商人贩鬻”。都是蔡京盐法的延伸。王夫之亦称:“方腊之反,殴之者朱动花石之扰,非新法迫之也。”

  ,字元长,北宋权相之一、书法家。兴化仙游(今属福建莆田市仙游县枫亭镇)人,熙宁三年进士及第第一名,先为地方官,后任中书舍人,改龙图阁待制、知开封府。崇宁元年(1102),为右仆射兼门下侍郎(右相),后又官至太师。蔡京先后四次任相,共达十七年之久。蔡京兴花石纲之役;改盐法和茶法,铸当十大钱。北宋末,太学生陈东上书,称蔡京为“六贼之首”。即位后,蔡京被贬岭南,途中死于潭州(今湖南长沙)。《东都事略》卷一〇一、《宋史》卷四七二有传。

, Yuan long, one of the power phase of the Northern Song Dynasty, calligrapher. Xinghua Xianyou (now Fengting Town, Xianyou County, Putian City, Fujian Province) is the first person in the three years of Xining. First, he was a local official, and then he was a middle school secretary. He changed the Longtu pavilion to wait for the system and knew Kaifeng mansion. In the first year of Chongning (1102), he was the right pusher and the servant of the door (the right minister), and then the official went to the grand master. Cai Jing served as Prime Minister for four times, a total of 17 years. Cai Jingxing: the battle of Hua Shi Gang; he changed the salt method and tea method to make ten big coins. At the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, Chen Dong, a student from Taiyuan, wrote that Cai Jing was "the first of the six thieves". After assuming the throne, Cai Jing was demoted to Lingnan and died in Tanzhou (now Changsha, Hunan Province) on the way. There is a biography in volume 101 of Dongdu brief and volume 472 of song history.

      关于蔡京的评价,向来褒贬不一。《宋史》将蔡京列入《奸臣传》,大加贬斥。但是不少人替他写过翻案文章。蔡京死后,其门人吕川卞醵钱以葬,曾为蔡京写墓志,有“天宝之末,姚、宋何罪”之句,认为金兵入侵不能全归罪于蔡京。人叶适说:“宋财赋之入比唐增倍,熙丰以后又增数倍,‘而蔡京变钞法,以后比熙宁又再倍矣。’”代初年设立盐法,“置局设官,令商人贩鬻”。都是蔡京盐法的延伸。王夫之亦称:“方腊之反,殴之者朱动花石之扰,非新法迫之也。”

Cai Jing's evaluation has always been mixed. In the history of Song Dynasty, Cai Jing was included in the biography of treacherous officials, which was greatly denounced. But many people have written for him. After Caijing's death, his disciple, LV Chuan, Bian Jianqian, buried him. He wrote a epitaph for Caijing, saying, "at the end of Tianbao, Yao and Song Dynasty, what's the crime?" he believed that the invasion of Jin soldiers could not be entirely attributed to Caijing. Ye Shi, a man, said, "the income of the Song Dynasty's finance and tax increased by times compared with that of the Tang Dynasty, and it increased by several times after Xifeng," and when Caijing changed the method of money, it will be twice as much as Xining. " In the early years of the dynasty, salt law was set up, which "set up bureaus and officials to make merchants sell goods". They are all extensions of Cai Jing's salt law. Wang Fuzhi also said: "Fang La's rebellion, the beating of Zhu Huashi disturbance, is not forced by the new law."

  蔡京以贪渎闻名。蔡京先后四次任相,长达十七年之久。在任时设应奉局和造作局,大兴花石岗之役;建延福宫、艮岳,耗费巨万;设西城括田所,大肆搜刮民田;为弥补财政亏空,他尽改盐法和茶法,铸当十大钱,以致币制混乱,民怨沸腾,时称“六大贼首”。最后,“皇恩浩荡”,将其发配到岭南韶关。刚走了一半路程,便一命呜呼。

Cai Jing is famous for his blasphemy. Cai Jing served as Prime Minister four times, for 17 years. During his term of office, he set up the office of serving the emperor and the office of making works, which greatly promoted the battle of huashigang; built Yanfu palace and Genyue, which cost a lot of money; set up the west city to enclose the land, and plundered the people's land; in order to make up for the financial deficit, he changed the salt method and the tea method to make ten big coins, which led to the confusion of the currency system and the people's resentment, which was called "six thieves". Finally, "huangen haodang" distributed it to Lingnan Shaoguan. Half the way, he died.

  蔡京执政后,便开始结党营私,,窃弄权柄,陷害忠良。特别是对所谓“元祐党人”尽行贬斥,就是对曾经重用过他的司马光的毁誉也毫不手软。他在文德殿端礼门前立石碑,把以司马光为首的一百二十人刻名碑上,名曰:“党人碑”或“奸人碑”。其朋党后人皆不得录用。一时间,蔡京是“威福在手,中外莫敢议。”

After Cai Jing came into power, he began to form a party for personal gain, steal power and frame loyalty. In particular, the so-called "Yuanyou party people" were denounced, that is to say, Sima Guang, who once used him for a long time, had no soft touch. He set up a stone tablet in front of the gate of rites at the end of Wende hall, and engraved the name of 120 people headed by Sima Guang, which was called "party people's Tablet" or "traitor's Tablet". No posterity can be hired. For a time, Cai Jing was "Weifu in hand, and no one at home or abroad could dare to argue."

  但是另一方面,他又是个很有才学的人。

But on the other hand, he is a very talented person.

  蔡京的艺术天赋极高,素有才子之称,在书法、绘画、诗词、散文等各个艺术领域均有辉煌表现。他的书法,跻身于北宋苏、黄、米、蔡四大家之中。 蔡京书法颇妙。博采诸家众长,自成一体。其书笔法姿媚,字势豪健,痛快沉着,独具风格,为海内所崇尚。当时的人们谈到蔡京的书法时,使用的词汇经常是“”、“无人出其右者”等等,以至于就连狂傲的米芾都曾经表示,自己的书法不如蔡京。据说,有一次蔡京与米芾聊天,蔡京问米芾:“当今书法什么人最好?”米芾回答说:“从晚期的柳公权之后,就得算你和你的弟弟蔡卞了。”蔡京问:“其次呢?”米芾说:“当然是我。”

Cai Jing has a very high artistic talent, known as a talent, and has brilliant performance in calligraphy, painting, poetry, prose and other art fields. His calligraphy, among the four great masters of the Northern Song Dynasty: Su, Huang, MI and CAI. Cai Jing's calligraphy is quite wonderful. He is a man of his own. Its calligraphy is beautiful, vigorous, cheerful and calm, with unique style, which is advocated by the sea. When people at that time talked about Cai Jing's calligraphy, they often used the words "" and "no one is out of the right", etc., so that even the arrogant Mi Fu once said that his calligraphy was not as good as Cai Jing's. It is said that Cai Jing once talked with Mi Fu. Cai Jing asked Mi Fu, "who is the best calligrapher today?" Mi Fu replied, "after Liu Gongquan in the late period, you and your brother Cai Bian will be counted." Cai Jing asked, "what's next?" Mi Fu said, "of course I am."

  蔡京还是是变法的坚决拥护者和得力干将。

Cai Jing is also a strong supporter and capable general of reform.

  王安石变法,政府收入有所增加;促进农业生产,全国各地兴修水利工程一万多处。但当时,反对变法者却众多,视新法为洪水猛兽,王安石被说成是。死后,子哲宗立,高临朝听政,司马光出任宰相,尽复旧人旧法,对新人新法一概排除,蔡京这个王安石变法的得力干将,成了被打击的主要对象。

Wang Anshi's reform led to an increase in government revenue; agricultural production was promoted, and more than 10000 water conservancy projects were built across the country. At that time, however, there were many opponents of the reform. Wang Anshi regarded the new law as a great beast and was said to be. After his death, Zizhe Zongli, Gao linchao, and Sima Guang, the prime minister, tried to restore the old laws and eliminate the new ones. Caijing, the powerful general of Wang Anshi's reform, became the main target of the attack.

蔡京书法

Cai Jing's Calligraphy

      直到元佑八年(1093年),哲宗亲政,重新使用变法者,不久,蔡京回都城,任户部尚书,继续宣传和介绍王安石新法,使王安石的遗志有人继承。也正因此,蔡京与保守派“通天臣”势如水火。

Until the eighth year of Yuanyou's reign (1093), when zhe Zong was in charge of the government and re used the reformers, Cai Jing returned to the capital and became the Minister of the Ministry of the household. He continued to publicize and introduce Wang Anshi's new law, so that Wang Anshi's legacy could be inherited. As a result, Cai Jing and the conservative "tongtianchen" are in a hot situation.

  总之,对蔡京的评价应该再客观一些,不能单凭小说家言。

In a word, the evaluation of Cai Jing should be more objective, not just by novelists.

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