I don't know yet: readers who have made contributions to China, the following editor will give you a detailed introduction. Let's look at it next~
In 1616 A.D., 58 years old was founded in the later Jin Dynasty. And the subsequent victory also made later Jin gradually occupy the land of Liaodong. Nurhachi died in 1626. As a successor, during his reign, Nurhachi gradually gained the advantage over the Ming Dynasty, and finally killed the emperor by means of the counter plot. In 1635, when he conquered the Khan for the third time and destroyed the Chahar department, Lin Dan Khan's son presented it (in fact, it was a fake), and Huang Taiji, who had obtained the national jade seal, thought that the fate of heaven had come. The next year, he changed the name of the country to Qing Dynasty, and his desire for the world was clearly revealed. Since then, the Qing Dynasty, under the support of "Shiyun", easily defeated and realized the dream of becoming the master of the Central Plains and dominating the world. But the way of prosperity and decline, though it is called destiny, is not human behavior.
Since the Opium War in 1840, the Great Qing Dynasty was finally doomed by humiliation, humiliation, land cutting, compensation and the extravagance of Empress Dowager Cixi. In 1912, when it broke out, the Empress Dowager announced the abdication of the emperor, and the Qing Dynasty ended.
In the 276 year reign of the Qing Dynasty, because of the invasion of Western powers, the late Qing Dynasty was criticized for its "great changes that have not happened in three thousand years", even though it was "scorned" by many people. So what contribution did the Qing Dynasty leave to us?
The first: laying the foundation of territory
As a minority regime, when the Shunzhi dynasty took over the Central Plains, the Qing Dynasty quickly made use of Li Zicheng's internal and external discord, Nanming Dynasty's bloodthirsty and immoral, and quickly eliminated the remaining forces and peasant army under the unified forces of Dorgon, Dodo, azig, and others.
Of course, what we can't ignore is that as a winner, Manchu is not noble, and has, and so on atrocities. But in the historical tuyere, the Qing Dynasty undoubtedly became a "flying pig". For Mongolia, which was hostile to the Ming Dynasty at that time, Huangtaiji had already passed a series of expeditions into the bag; for Taiwan, the emperor was unified in 1683; in the face of the invading tsarist Russia's invasion in the northeast border area of Heilongjiang, Kangxi Emperor signed with tsarist Russia in 1689 to establish the border base of the northeast area; for gardan, which was located in Xinjiang, Kangxi had gone through a series of expeditions In 1720, Tibet and Qinghai were conquered.
So far, the Qing Dynasty also achieved the most solid rule over the border areas in ancient Chinese history, especially Xinjiang and Tibet. And the land area has also reached more than 13 million square kilometers. The official name of China has also been determined. As a huge empire, when the strong ships and guns of Western powers arrived, it did. There are countless land cuts and reparations, but they still leave a huge land for China and prepare the most basic territorial basis for national rejuvenation. However, the determination of the legal basis of the territory of Xinjiang, Tibet, Northeast China and Mongolia really contributed a lot to the Qing Dynasty.
Second: peak population
Before the entry of the Qing Dynasty, as a representative indicator of agricultural civilization, the population of the Central Plains was also growing slowly. At the height of Ming Dynasty, it was about 100 million, but the development of population was restricted by agricultural production technology, land bearing capacity, and the influence of war. After the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, the Qing government, under the foundation of Shunzhi, ushered in a peak of agricultural civilization under the small-scale peasant economy - KangQian prosperous age.
In the 150 year long prosperous period of Kangxi and Qianlong, what we don't want to discuss is whether it is a "sweet potato prosperous period", because in the prosperous period of Kangxi and Qianlong, there have been, Miao Luan, Bai Lianjiao uprising and so on, and there are also records of people's life in the travels of magari Ni. However, the population as a national potential was encouraged by Emperor Kangxi to reclaim wasteland and Emperor Yongzheng; the inflow of high-yield crops such as corn, sweet potato and potato from America achieved explosive growth. By the time of Emperor Qianlong, it had reached 300 million yuan, and even 400 million yuan.
What the author wants to say here is that the population problem is a double-edged sword. It may leave the people of the world living in poverty, the per capita cultivated land area is reduced, and the people can't live; but it leaves a country and a nation with unlimited war potential and resistance to foreign aggression. It was the resistance from the bottom up that finally broke the obsession of Western powers trying to conquer.
Third: cultural identity and cultural products
After the entry of the Qing Dynasty, Dourgen adopted sun's opinion and carried out the policy. There are countless people who have died because of this. Later, Emperor Kangxi, Emperor Yongzheng and Emperor Qianlong were still illiterate in the breeze, so why did they read books in disorder. It seems that only the Manchu and Qing Dynasties of the ethnic minorities have to make a statement. However, as a form of expression rooted in the nation, Chinese culture inevitably spread out within the rulers of the Qing Dynasty, and Emperor Yongzheng and even had the argument of Hua Yi.
With the deepening of Confucian culture, the system has also been improved, and as the product of culture, many summative and great classics have been born. They are "Kangxi dictionary" and "the whole Tang poetry"; they are also the peak works in the novel "and", "and", "travel notes of the old disabled"; they are also "and" in Kunqu Opera ", the prosperity of Peking Opera.
Conclusion: as a feudal dynasty, the Qing Dynasty is like a copy of many dynasties in Chinese history. It has made great achievements, and it was even more vulnerable at the end of the dynasty. Only as the most closely linked feudal dynasty with the west, it bears more humiliation to us.
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