暧昧君臣:揭秘乾隆与和珅是怎样相互“玩弄”的-看世界

暧昧君臣:揭秘乾隆与和珅是怎样相互“玩弄”的

  乾隆与和珅的初遇

  “康乾盛世”是中国封建史上的又一颠峰,然而,它又埋下了一个可怕的梦靥。俗话说,富不过三代,帝在先帝的基业上励精图治,延续了一代繁华,但他大概不会想到,他的一世英名,竟会葬送在一名宠的臣子手中。早期的乾隆帝能书善画,精通蒙汉,如果不是后来与和绅“勾搭”上了,他可能会成为一个比较完美的吧!

"The prosperous period of Kangxi and Qianlong" is another peak in the feudal history of China. However, it has a terrible nightmare. As the saying goes, the rich are no more than three generations. The emperor made great efforts in the foundation of the former Emperor and continued the prosperity of a generation. However, he probably would not have thought that his great reputation would be buried in the hands of a beloved minister. The early Emperor Qianlong was good at painting and calligraphy, and was proficient in Mongolian and Han Dynasties. If he didn't "hook up" with the gentry later, he might have become a perfect one!

  乾隆与的初遇

Qianlong and his first encounter

  历史总是充满巧合。和绅是在乾隆中后叶、“适百里路而半九十”、精力不逮、政治倦怠的情况下粉墨登场的。关于他们之间的缘分,有一个很浪漫的传说。话说乾隆还是皇子的时候,有一次去拜见一位他父亲的妃子。此妃面容姣艳,正对镜梳妆,生性风流的乾隆(那时还叫)便和她开了一个玩笑,从后面用双手蒙住她双眼。妃子以为是皇上,便用梳子在他的额头上敲了一下。不幸的是这一幕恰被皇后看见,误以为妃子戏弄皇子,便赐死了这位美貌的妃子。乾隆心中有愧,便染朱于指,印于已死妃子颈上,约于二十年后相见。

History is full of coincidences. He Shen came to the stage in the middle and later period of Qianlong's reign, when he was "fit for a hundred Li road but half a 90", unable to catch his energy and political weariness. There is a very romantic legend about their fate. When Qianlong was still the prince, he once went to see his father's concubine. The concubine, with a beautiful face, was dressing in front of the mirror. Qianlong (then called Qianlong), who was very romantic, made a joke with her and covered her eyes with her hands from behind. The concubine thought it was the emperor, so she knocked on his forehead with a comb. Unfortunately, this scene was just seen by the queen, who mistakenly thought that the concubine was teasing the emperor, and then killed the beautiful concubine. When Qianlong was ashamed, he dyed Zhu on his finger and on the neck of the dead concubine. He met about 20 years later.

  二十年后,在一个偶然的机会里,乾隆遇见了和绅,瞬间就产生初遇时那似曾相识的感觉,又发现其颈间指痕宛然,很重感情的乾隆便对他“一见钟情”,从此信任有加。这种说法虽然有些夸大其辞,但总归事出有因,也足见和绅的不平凡。

Twenty years later, in an accidental opportunity, Qianlong met with the gentry, and instantly had the same feeling of familiarity when he first met him, and found that the finger mark between his neck was just like that. Qianlong, who was very emotional, fell in love with him at first sight, and had more trust since then. Although this statement is somewhat exaggerated, there are always reasons for it. It also shows that the harmony gentry is extraordinary.

  还有,在这之前,大小金川之战不断,这很令乾隆帝头疼。而一遇见和绅,嘿,怪了,居然捷报频传,清水教徒等很快便剿尽了。于是迷信思想挺重的乾隆帝便认定和绅为其命中的一颗福星。

Moreover, before this, the battle between Jinchuan and xiaojinchuan continued, which was a headache for Emperor Qianlong. And as soon as he met the squire, hey, it was strange that the news came back frequently, and the Qingshui disciples soon wiped out. Therefore, Emperor Qianlong, who was superstitious, believed that he Shen was a lucky star.

  如何“征服”乾隆

How to "conquer" Qianlong

  然而,打,一个愿打,另一个还要愿挨呢!和绅可不是一盏省油的灯,再说乾隆帝还没有糊涂到仅凭一个面善就对他无所顾忌了吧!关键还得靠和绅自己。和绅虽然面目清朗,但还不足以“以色悦龙颜”,虽然有一些才情,但皇帝身边像、、阿贵那样的能人俯拾即是,他那点小儿科还不足以“以才邀眷顾”。

However, one is willing to fight, and the other is willing to suffer. He Shen is not a fuel-efficient lamp. Besides, Emperor Qianlong is not confused enough to be reckless to him only by virtue of his good face. The key lies in he Shen himself. Although Heshen has a clear face, it is not enough to "delight the dragon's face with color". Although he has some talent, the emperor is surrounded by talented people like,, Agui. His little pediatrics is not enough to "invite his attention with talent".

  那么,和绅又是怎样从一个小小的侍云直上到一个位尊权重的军机大臣、大学士的呢?那么他“征服”皇帝的杀手锏又是什么呢?可以概括为三点:无良知,无德信,无忠贞。如果说善于揣度圣心的深重心机是其得皇恩的根由,精通蒙汉满的才情是他步入内阁的敲门砖,那么敢于给圣人暗献美姬的淫巧则是其博得信赖的直接手段。就这样,两个臭味相投的人很快便粘在一起了,炸弹都轰不开。

Then, how does he go from a small servant cloud to a powerful military minister and a great scholar? What's his trump card for "conquering" the emperor? It can be summarized as three points: no good knowledge, no virtue, no loyalty. If it is said that the reason for his royal favor is to be good at guessing the deep mind of the holy heart, and the key to his cabinet is to be proficient in the talents of Meng hanman, then the direct means to win his trust is to dare to offer the beauty to the saint. In this way, two people with similar smell soon stick together, and the bombs can not be opened.

  我们都知道,说到和绅,给人的第一感觉是:贪!他在一步步得宠后,那丑恶的真面目便暴露出来了,而他的贪欲也随着官职的升迁和被信赖的加深而日益膨胀。乾隆四十五年,和绅创建议罪银制度,借事罚银,少则千两,多则数十万不等,而这些银两很多都饱入他的私囊了。和绅最后到底贪了多少财产呢?没有人能给出一个具体答案。有人做了保守估计,他的家财折合成银两不下八亿,相当于清政府二十年财政总收入的一半,如果用来赔甲午庚子中的两次赔款还有余矣。

As we all know, when it comes to peace and gentry, the first feeling is: greed! After he is favored step by step, the ugly truth will be exposed, and his greed will also expand with the promotion of official positions and the deepening of trust. In the forty-five years of Qianlong's reign, he established the system of discussing crimes and punishing money by borrowing things, which was thousands of Liang less and hundreds of thousands more, many of which were full of his private pockets. How much property did he Shen finally covet? No one can give a specific answer. Some people have made a conservative estimate that his family wealth is less than 800 million yuan, equivalent to half of the total financial revenue of the Qing government in the past 20 years. If it is used to compensate for the two losses in Jiawu gengzi, there will be more.

  乾隆帝毕竟不是一个昏君,他对自己廷下的种种贪污现象难道没有耳闻吗?不,他比谁都洞彻。他开始的时候,在惩贪方面的确下了一番工夫,他上任时即说:“若视朕之宽而一任属官欺蒙,百蔽丛生,激朕将有来不得不严之势,恐非汝大员及天下臣民之福,汝等可明知朕意。”足见其惩贪之决心。在随后的“南河亏空案”、“两淮盐引案”、“甘肃捐监冒赈案”、“闽省亏空案”等一系列贪污案件中,他可谓阔斧,而且气势磅礴:“此等劣官,多留一日,则民多受一日之残,国多受一日之蠹。国家设官分职,均宜洁公奉己,廉隅自励,恣饱欲壑,置民疾不问,此等不力,何以肃吏治而儆百官?”可是憾一叶难以震大树,戒贪却屡禁不止,连他本人都喟叹道:“各省督抚中洁自爱者,不过十之二三。察吏非不得,而贪墨未息;锄恶非不力,而纵逸尚闻。”

After all, Emperor Qianlong was not a faint king. Did he not hear about all kinds of corruption in his own court? No, he was better than anyone. At the beginning, he did work hard in punishing corruption. When he took office, he said: "if one of the officials bullied me depending on my width, I would be forced to be strict if I was blinded by all kinds of people. I'm afraid it's not the blessing of your superiors and people all over the world. You can know what I want." It shows his determination to punish corruption. In the following series of corruption cases, such as "Nanhe deficit case", "Lianghuai salt diversion case", "Gansu donation, supervision and risk relief case" and "Fujian deficit case", he can be described as broad-minded and magnificent: "if such bad officials stay for more than one day, the people will suffer more than one day of disability, and the country will suffer more than one day of worm. The state has set up officials and different posts. They should be honest and upright, encourage themselves in the corner, indulge in greed, and keep the people away from disease. How can they be so incompetent as to make an example of the officials? But it is a pity that they are hard to shake the tree, but they have repeatedly forbidden corruption. Even he himself sighed: "the governors of all provinces, who love themselves, are only two or three of ten. The inspectors are not forbidden, but greedy for ink; they are not ineffective in eliminating evil, but they are still aware of their leisure. "

  为什么会出现这种状况呢?首先是执行的问题。很多时候,他并不能做到一碗水端平。例如他有一个宠臣李侍尧,收受贿银三万余两,乾隆却亲自为他开脱,说其“历任封疆,在总督中最为出色,是以简用大学士,数十年来受朕倚用深思”。当然他对和绅的“特殊恩典”也不例外。弹劾和绅的大臣不是没有,但大多是落了个自讨没趣。乾隆四十五年,御史曹锡宝奏了和绅一本,结果乾隆帝本人不仅积极地为和绅宠护,还断曹诬告。这便更增加了和绅的嚣张气焰,使其贪婪的魔爪不仅有恃无恐,还起来,甚至对进献给皇上的贡品也不放过。再说乾隆帝本人就是一个贪得无厌的家伙,凡百官被籍没收缴的家产,一律归内务府所有。

Why does this happen? The first is the issue of implementation. Many times, he can't make a bowl of water level. For example, he had a favorite minister, Li Shiyao, who received more than 30000 bribes. However, Qianlong himself excused him, saying that "the most outstanding of the governors in his previous posts was to simply use the great scholar, who had been used by me for decades to ponder.". Of course, his "special grace" to the squire is no exception. The ministers who impeached the peace gentry were not without them, but most of them fell into a trap. In the 45th year of Qianlong's reign, Cao Xibao, the imperial historian, played a copy of Heshen. As a result, Emperor Qianlong not only actively protected Heshen, but also accused Cao falsely. This added to the arrogance of the gentry, which made their greedy claws not only have no fear, but also get up, and even pay tribute to the emperor. Besides, Emperor Qianlong himself is a greedy guy. All the household property confiscated by the local government belongs to the interior office.

  试想,,作为一个老板,自己尚不能以身作则,谈何教育员工呢?乾隆在中后期的统治中,可能是对各种贪案已经麻木了吧,“不为己甚”,再也没有昔日的激情了,拿他自己的话说就是“朕实不愿兴大狱”。因为贪官太多了,野火烧不尽,连他都束手无策了,干脆就睁一只眼闭一只眼得了。

Just imagine, as a boss, he can't set an example. How can he educate his employees? In the middle and later period of Qianlong's reign, he may have been numb to all kinds of corruption cases, "don't do anything for himself", and no longer have the passion of the past. In his own words, he said, "I really don't want to go to jail.". Because there are too many corrupt officials and the wildfire can't burn out, he can't help it, so he just opened one eye and closed one eye.

  就这样,上面的不作为,似乎让和绅的行贪“师出有名”,而处于一人之下万人之上的权位,又为他的行贪提供了太多的可能性。

In this way, the above inaction seems to make the gentry's corruption "learn from the past", and the position of power above ten thousand people under one person provides too many possibilities for his corruption.

  另外,晚年以后的乾隆,早以不是先前那个踌躇满志、誓要带子民们共创一片美好江山的好皇帝了。他本人就是一个虚伪的家伙,和和绅在一起,只会让他身上仅有的一点君子气也消失殆尽。他一方面劝谕百官:“时时思物力之维艰,事事为奢靡之是戒。”另一方面又穷奢极欲,逢年节、寿诞、南巡、东巡等,讲极了排场。这时的清政府GTP已大不如前了,乾隆又死要面子,没钱,咋办?这不打紧,有权就是有钱嘛。他也开始更加无节制地挥霍公款了,甚至明文摊派。

In addition, Qianlong after his old age was not the good emperor who was full of ambition and vowed to bring people to create a beautiful land. He himself is a hypocritical fellow, and with the gentry, only a little bit of gentleness will disappear from him. On the one hand, he advised all officials: "always think about the difficulties of material resources, and everything for extravagance is the precept." On the other hand, they were extravagant and extravagant. They were extremely extravagant at festivals, birthdays, southern tours, Eastern tours, etc. At that time, the GTP of the Qing government was not as good as before. Qianlong wanted face again. What should he do if he had no money? It doesn't matter. Power means money. He also began to spend public money more recklessly, even explicitly.

  成为皇亲国戚

To be a royal relative

  ,到头来受伤最深的还是老百姓。在这方面,和绅又是一个难得的敛钱能才,凭着他能言善变的口才和马首是瞻的奉献精神,不仅把圣上服侍得服服帖帖,龙颜大悦,而且还绝不肯亏待自己,来个。而这时的战事又风起云涌,西北有白莲,东南有舰盗,皇帝本来就够日理万机了,不仅要忙着对付外忧,还要忙着去全国巡游,忙着和他的和爱卿寻花问柳于大街小巷,至于贪污受贿这些已经无足轻重的家务事,他已无暇顾及了,且由着他去吧!只是可怜天下苍生,他们日出而作,日落而息,那仅得的一点微薄收获,也不足以填补百官及圣上那欲望的无底洞啊!

In the end, it is the common people who are hurt the most. In this respect, he Shen is also a rare talent for collecting money. With his changeable eloquence and the dedication of horse's head, he not only serves the holy one to be obedient, but also refuses to treat himself badly. At that time, the fighting was turbulent. There were white lotus in the northwest and ship robbers in the southeast. The emperor had enough opportunities to deal with the external worries. He was also busy traveling around the country. He was busy looking for flowers and willows with his and his love Qing. He had no time to take care of the trivial household affairs, such as corruption and bribery, and let him go. He just had pity on the world, They work at sunrise and rest at sunset, and the little gains they get are not enough to fill the bottomless hole of the desire of the officials and the holy ones!

  还有,如果我们认为和绅仅具有以上那些伎俩,那可太冤枉他这只老狐狸了。他在用冷水慢慢煮乾隆这只青蛙时,也不忘给自己织一张进可以攻、退可以守的人际关系网。他让自己的儿子丰申殷德娶了乾隆帝最疼爱的女儿和孝公主,并将其女嫁给帝的曾孙贝勒永均,将其侄女嫁给了乾隆的质郡王绵庆。这样,和绅已不仅是乾隆的得力秘书,最亲密的搭档,而且还皇亲国戚了。这一张王牌实在打的妙,牵一发而动全身,从此我和绅即使犯了欺君之罪了,你皇帝老儿能把我怎样?你去灭我九族吧,sorry,拿你连你自己都一起灭了不得吧! “于是,弘历跟和绅这两个满州肥佬,密切合作,倾所有的力量把清王朝的根基凿空,把大黑暗召回。”(柏杨语)

Moreover, if we think that the harmony gentry only has the above tricks, it would be too wrong for him, an old fox. When he slowly cooked the frog in cold water, he did not forget to weave a network of interpersonal relationships that he could attack and defend. He asked his son Fengshen Yinde to marry the most beloved daughter and filial Princess of Emperor Qianlong, married his daughter to his great grandson, belleyong Jun, and married his niece to mianqing, the quality Prince of Qianlong. In this way, Heshen was not only Qianlong's powerful secretary, the closest partner, but also the emperor's relatives and relatives. This trump card is really wonderful. Even if I and the gentry have committed the crime of deceiving the king, what can your emperor do to me? You can't destroy the nine clans with you, sorry. You can't even destroy yourself! "So Hongli and the two Manchu fat men, Heshen, work closely together to dig out the foundation of the Qing Dynasty and recall the darkness (Bo Yang)

  企图拉新皇帝下水

Qitula new emperor launched

  可是,,和绅毕竟引起公愤了呀,这一点皇帝能不知道吗?他知道,他们现在已经是血脉相连了,他没办法,也不能把他怎么样,也只好装糊涂。对于这个很棘手的问题,他还是颇有远见的,应验了两百年后邓小平那句话:“这个问题(指台湾问题)我们这辈解决不了,我们可以留给我们的后代、后后代来解决嘛!”就这样,他便将这个烫手的山芋交给了。要说明一点的是,乾隆在把大印正式交给嘉庆前,做了四年大清历史上仅有的太上皇。

But, after all, the gentry caused public indignation. Can the emperor not know this? He knows that they are now connected by blood. He can't help it, and can't do anything about it, so he has to pretend to be confused. For this very difficult problem, he still has a vision. After two hundred years, Deng Xiaoping said: "this problem (referring to the Taiwan problem) can't be solved by our generation, we can leave it to our future generations and future generations to solve it!" so he gave this hot potato to us. It should be noted that Qianlong was the only emperor in the history of the Qing Dynasty for four years before he formally handed over the seal to Jiaqing.

  在这四年里,和绅也太了,他丝毫不知道急流勇退、见好就收这个大道理,还以他那老手段企图拉新皇帝下水。可嘉庆根本不吃他这套,他与和绅势不两立,并且已经对和绅恨入骨髓了恨不得立马将其碎尸万段。可惜他的翅膀还没有丰满,他要忍。他在这期间暗暗收集证据,拔掉他的一些爪牙。于是等他一旦实权在握,也不顾还尸骨未寒,立马宣布了和绅的二十条罪状,并用了“丧尽天良”、“蠹国病民”、“贪黩放荡”、“丧心病狂”、“无父无君”等极其经典的形容词。

In the past four years, the peace gentry was too much. He had no idea of the principle of going back in a hurry and taking good care of himself. He also tried to bring the new emperor into the water by his old means. But Jiaqing didn't take his advice at all. He was at odds with the peace gentry, and he hated the peace gentry so much that he could not tear him to pieces. It's a pity that his wings are not full. He has to bear it. During this period, he secretly collected evidence and pulled out some of his paws and teeth. So when he had real power, and even though his body was still cold, he immediately announced the 20 crimes of the peace gentry, and used the most classic adjectives such as "lost all the goodness", "spoiled the country and sick the people", "greedy and dissolute", "despondent", "fatherless" and so on.

  至于抄他的家,“和绅一倒,嘉庆吃饱”这是后话。当然最重要的还是树立了自己的威信,上任后的第一把火烧的够燎原了。可怜的和绅,他大概做梦也不会想到,他会同前辈梁师成、、等一样,生前飞扬跋扈,最后竟沦为权位更迭中政治上的牺牲品。悲矣!哀矣!后半生已没有什么作为的乾隆帝,死后没有给他的继承人留下什么,权且把和绅作为最大的一场馈赠吧,这样,他也可以了!

As for the copying of his house, "when the gentry falls down, Jiaqing will be satisfied with food" is a postscript. Of course, the most important thing is to establish their own prestige. The first fire after taking office is enough to start a prairie fire. Poor he Shen, he would never have dreamed that he, like his predecessor Liang Shicheng,, and so on, was domineering and domineering before his death, and finally became a political victim in the change of power. Lament! Lament! Emperor Qianlong, who has done nothing in the latter half of his life, has left nothing to his successor after his death. Let's take the peace gentry as the greatest gift. In this way, he can also do it!

  斯人已矣!乾隆和和绅这对君臣既齿唇相依,又,这种暧昧的关系注定了他们不能殊途同归。“古今多少事,都付笑谈中。”留给后人的,应是无尽的感慨吧!

As for the gentry and the emperor, the relationship between them was not the same. "How many things in ancient and modern times are being talked about with a smile." What is left for posterity is endless emotion!

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