全民偶像宋仁宗:去世时连辽国皇帝都泪流满面-看世界

全民偶像宋仁宗:去世时连辽国皇帝都泪流满面

  消息从大宋传到辽国,彪悍的辽国君主也大吃一惊,冲上来抓住宋国使者的手:“你说什么?他老人家怎么就过世了?”说着眼泪就掉下来:“我要给他建一个衣冠冢,寄托哀思。”从贫民到敌人,都舍不得他死——皇帝做到了这份上,大有“偶像巨星”之势。直到700年后,看谁都比自己差一大截的乾隆皇帝,也不得不承认:平生最佩服的三个帝王,除了爷爷康熙和唐太宗,就是宋仁宗了。

  导读:公元1063年农历三月,54岁的去世了。消息从皇宫传到街市,开封街头的一个小乞丐,起初一愣,接着竟放声大哭,就往皇宫跑。谁知宫门外早挤满了人,褴褛的乞丐、斯文的书生、稚气的小孩……哭做一团,披着白麻,烧着纸钱,给“送别”。第二天,焚烧纸钱的烟雾飘满了城市上空,以至天日无光。

Introduction: in March 1063, the 54 year old died. The news spread from the palace to the street market. A little beggar in the street of Kaifeng was stunned at first, then burst into tears and ran to the palace. Who knows that the gate of the palace is already full of people, ragged beggars, literati and childish children Cry to make a ball, wear white hemp, burn paper money, give "farewell". The next day, the smoke of burning paper money filled the sky of the city, even the sky was dark.

  消息从大宋传到辽国,彪悍的辽国君主也,冲上来抓住宋国使者的手:“你说什么?他老人家怎么就过世了?”说着眼泪就掉下来:“我要给他建一个衣冠冢,寄托哀思。”从贫民到敌人,都舍不得他死——皇帝做到了这份上,大有“偶像巨星”之势。直到700年后,看谁都比自己差一大截的皇帝,也不得不承认:平生最佩服的三个帝王,除了爷爷和唐太宗,就是宋仁宗了。

The news spread from the great Song Dynasty to the state of Liao. The fierce monarch of the state of Liao rushed up and grabbed the hand of the emissary of the state of song: "what do you say? How did his old man die?" tears fell down as he said, "I want to build a tomb for him to mourn." From the poor to the enemy, he was reluctant to die - the emperor did this, with the potential of "idol superstar". Until 700 years later, it seems that no one is more than his own emperor, and it has to be admitted that the three most admired emperors in his life, except his grandfather and Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty, are emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty.

  宋仁宗出生时,那一声婴儿的啼哭,让伸长脖子的文武百官大大松了口气——在他之前,所有的皇子都夭折了。于是他取名“受益”,5岁封庆国公,9岁为太子,13岁老爹一驾崩就改名,登基为帝。比起后世的九子夺嫡、你死我活,这家伙的好命,足以叫历代皇子们嫉妒。但殊不知,宋仁宗的少年时光,却过得异常艰难——他的糊涂老爹、那个签下了丢脸的“”的,竟然时刻担心大臣们会利用太子架空自己。他越看儿子,越有“被害幻想症”:干脆,我先下手为强吧。

When song Renzong was born, the crying of the baby greatly relieved the civil and military officials who stretched their necks - before him, all the princes died. So he was named "beneficiary". At the age of 5, he was granted the title of Duke Qingguo. At the age of 9, he was crown prince. At the age of 13, his father changed his name as soon as he died and became emperor. Compared with the nine sons of later generations, who have taken over the royal family and killed each other, the good life of this guy is enough to make the princes of all generations jealous. However, song Renzong's youth was extremely difficult. His confused father, the one who signed the "disgraced", always worried that the ministers would use the crown prince to raise themselves. The more he looks at his son, the more he has "victim fantasy": let me start first.

  大臣们实在看不下去了:“陛下还有几个儿子,能让你想杀就杀?”这才让真宗正视一个后果:杀了太子,就绝嗣了。太子一条小命虽然保住,可父亲的猜疑并没缓解。弥留之际,真宗满脑子都在想:这儿子不可,只有把权力交给皇后。经过父亲的“严防死守”,13岁的少年赵祯即位之后,也没什么舒心日子,最大的考验来自他的“母后”——章献。拜《狸猫换太子》的“戏说”所赐,人人都知道,宋仁宗的生母是李妃,而章献太后正是戏中的坏人刘皇后。但实际上,章献太后非但不是“奸妃”,反而聪慧敏捷,颇有政治头脑。她理所当然地坐到了宋仁宗身后,垂帘听政11年。

The ministers couldn't see it any longer: "Your Majesty has several sons, you can kill them if you want to?" this made the real sect face up to one consequence: kill the prince, and die. Although the prince's life was saved, his father's suspicion was not relieved. At the end of his life, the emperor was thinking: this son is not allowed, only to give power to the queen. After his father's "guard against death", 13-year-old Zhao Zhen won the throne, and there was no comfortable life. The biggest test came from his "mother and empress" - Zhang Xian. Thanks to the "joking" in "cat for Prince", everyone knows that song Renzong's birth mother is Princess Li, and Zhang Xian is the villain empress Liu in the play. But in fact, instead of being a "adulteress", empress Zhang Xian is smart, quick and politically minded. She took it for granted to sit behind emperor Renzong for 11 years.

  权力的滋味,一旦尝到,就不想放弃;更何况,从深宫走到朝廷上的聪颖女子,前朝就有一个。章献太后把皇袍披到身上,故意问大臣:“你说,武则天是个什么样的皇帝呀?”这个小动作让气氛紧张起来,太后和臣子开始了权力拉锯。好笑的是,双方打出的旗号都是“保护天子”。年少的赵祯,成了这两派斗争中的挡箭牌,也成了他们互掷的矛,皇位之上如履薄冰。

Once you taste the taste of power, you don't want to give up. What's more, there was an intelligent woman who went from the deep palace to the court. Zhang Xian put the emperor's robe on her body and deliberately asked the minister, "what kind of emperor do you think Wu Zetian is?" this little action made the atmosphere tense. The Empress Dowager and his subjects began to pull the saw of power. It's funny that the flags of both sides are "protect the emperor". Zhao Zhen, a young man, became the shield in the struggle between the two groups and the spear they threw at each other. His throne was as thin as ice.

  如果赵祯只是个昏庸的草包,那倒罢了,日子混混也就过去了。但他偏偏在孩童之时,就能一眼洞穿父亲的宠臣王若钦“实是奸邪”。这样敏锐的孩子成了“夹心饼干”,会有怎样的内心煎熬?唯一能让后世浮想联翩的是,在这11年里,他酷爱书法,一手“飞白体”,练得极为神妙。或许,练字就是练心。也因此,赵祯成了一个异数——从到,中国不乏母后掌权,在她们身边长大的小皇帝,要么敏感怯懦,要么偏激残暴。但赵祯却有了对弱者的同情、对世事的宽仁。正是这一点,决定了北宋初年改革的走势——高潮短暂,余音很长。

If Zhao Zhen is just a mediocre straw bag, that's all. The days are gone. However, when he was a child, he was able to see through Wang ruoqin, his father's favorite, who was "really treacherous". What kind of inner suffering does such a keen child have when he becomes a "sandwich biscuit"? The only thing that can make future generations imagine is that in the past 11 years, he loved calligraphy very much and practiced "flying white body" with one hand, which was extremely wonderful. Perhaps, practicing calligraphy is to practice heart. As a result, Zhao Zhen became a strange number - from then on, there were no lack of little emperors who grew up with their mothers, who were either sensitive and cowardly or extremely cruel. However, Zhao Zhen had sympathy for the weak and benevolence for the world. It is this that determines the trend of reform in the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty - the climax is short and the aftersound is long.

  公元1033年,宋仁宗亲政。他太清楚自己接手的烂摊子:老爹当年爱面子、好排场,为了弥补“澶渊之盟”里受伤的自尊心,竟然一口气把“五岳”都封禅了。想当年,唐太宗想封禅一座华山,都因为太贵而作罢。可想而知,的国库消耗到了何等地步。宋仁宗的第一把火,就是抓经济。对外平息战争,对内作风俭朴,从而扭转了经济颓势,迎来一个黄金发展时期。至此,他才腾出手来,寻觅合适的改革经纪人。

In 1033 A.D., Emperor Renzong of song was in charge. He was too clear about the mess he took over: in order to make up for the wounded self-esteem in the "alliance of the abyss", he even closed the "Five Mountains" in one breath. In those days, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty wanted to seal a Huashan Mountain, but he gave up because it was too expensive. It can be imagined how much the State Treasury has been consumed. Song Renzong's first fire was to focus on economy. To put down the war with foreign countries and to work frugally at home has reversed the economic downturn and ushered in a golden period of development. At this point, he came to find the right reform agent.

  几经斟酌,在群众中呼声很高的,进入视野。1048年,宋仁宗宣布全新的“内阁名单”:调范仲淹回京,任参知政事(即宰相),与枢密副使富弼、韩琦一道主持朝政。范仲淹从政已经28年,改革在他脑子里酝酿已久,十大政策一挥而就——明黜陟、抑侥幸、精贡举、择官长、均公田、厚农桑、修武备、减徭役、覃恩信、重命令。宋仁宗当场拍板:准奏,全国执行。但是,仅仅1年零4个月后,范仲淹、富弼和韩琦相继被调出京城,改革突然刹车。是宋仁宗不信任他吗?不。历朝历代,改革者如车裂、掘坟,比比皆是,可小范毫发无损,“圣眷”不可谓不深。是政敌暗算他了吗?也不尽然。学几笔小范亲信的字体、造一封逼仁宗退位的假信,这样拙劣的政治伎俩,宋仁宗不会看不出。

After several times of deliberation, those who have a high voice among the masses have entered the field of vision. In 1048, song Renzong announced a new "cabinet list": he transferred Fan Zhongyan back to Beijing to serve as a political adviser (Prime Minister) and presided over the government together with Fu Bi and Han Qi, deputy envoys in chief. Fan Zhongyan has been in politics for 28 years, and the reform has been brewing in his mind for a long time. Ten major policies were carried out at one stroke: Ming Dynasty dethroned Zhizhi, restrained fluke, refined tribute, elected officials, jungongtian, hounongsang, xiuwubei, reduced corvee, qinenxin and re ordered. Song Renzong clapped on the spot: zhunzuo, national execution. However, only one year and four months later, Fan Zhongyan, Fu Bi and Han Qi were successively transferred out of the capital, and the reform suddenly stopped. Did song Renzong distrust him? No. Throughout the dynasties, reformers, such as cracking cars and digging graves, were everywhere, but fan was undamaged, and the "saint's family" was not deep. Did the political enemy plot against him? Not always. Learn some of fan's letters and make a fake letter that forces Renzong to abdicate. Song Renzong will not fail to see such a bad political trick.

  问题只在于,操之过急。有一次,范仲淹审查一份官员名单,不称职的都毫不客气一笔勾销。一旁的富弼看了不忍:“小范呀,你笔一勾,可害哭一家人。”范仲淹严肃地说:“不害一家哭,那就害了一路百姓哭。”富弼哑然了。不错,官员要严格选拔;可你只看一眼名单,又凭什么认定昏官呢?范仲淹是一个理想主义者,他言简意赅地找到改革的目标,却找不到复杂精细的实施办法。面对那封假造的退位信,宋仁宗看到了潜在的危机:群臣惶惶,小范孤立,新政还怎么执行?他果断地叫停了。

The only problem is that we are too quick. Once, Fan Zhongyan reviewed a list of officials. Those who were incompetent were not polite enough to write off. Fu Bi on one side couldn't bear to read: "little fan, you can make a family cry with your pen." Fan Zhongyan said seriously, "if you don't make one family cry, you will make all the people cry." Fubi was dumb. It's true that officials should be selected strictly, but why do you decide to be a faint official when you only look at the list? Fan Zhongyan is an idealist who can find the goal of reform in a concise and comprehensive way, but can't find a complicated and detailed implementation method. In the face of the fake abdication letter, song Renzong saw the potential crisis: the panic of the ministers, the isolation of fan, how to implement the new deal? He resolutely called a halt.

  范仲淹离去了,岳阳楼留下他文人的绝唱,“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”。但宋仁宗不会离去,开封城延续着他政治的部署——文彦博,一个有些保守的大贵族,接替了小范的宰相职位。这一次,宋仁宗选对了改革的经纪人。此后的十多年里,文彦博以沉默而实干的姿态,把宋仁宗的改革意图,地贯彻了下去。和他一道的,是、杜衍这批能臣。没有口号、没有激辩,小范的十大政策,一条条修改,变得可以操作了。

Fan Zhongyan left, and Yueyang Tower left his scholar's masterpiece, "worry about the world first, and then enjoy the world". However, song Renzong would not leave. Kaifeng city continued his political deployment - Wen Yanbo, a conservative aristocrat, took over the post of Prime Minister of Xiao Fan. This time, song Renzong chose the right agent for the reform. In the following ten years, Wen Yanbo carried out the reform intention of song Renzong with a silent and practical attitude. Together with him are those able officials like Du Yan. Without slogans, without fierce debate, the top ten policies of Xiao Fan, one by one, have become operational.

  1050年前后,文彦博觉得,宋仁宗在四川试点多年的纸币“交子”,向全国推广的时机成熟了。陕西长安的官员“立功”心切,说干脆废止铁钱,只用纸币吧。此言一出,老百忙抛售铁钱、抢购货物,长安经济陷于混乱。紧急关头,文彦博并没有强制推行“交子”,而是拿出了自己家里的丝绸,来到长安:“来来来,今日我卖丝绸,只收铁钱。”一下子就稳定了民心。从那以后,朝廷再推广“交子”,就没有阻力了,因为百姓对主政者有了信任。

Around 1050, Wen felt that the time was ripe for song Renzong to promote the paper currency "Jiaozi", which had been piloted in Sichuan for many years, to the whole country. Officials in Chang'an, Shaanxi Province, were eager to "make contributions" and said they would simply abolish iron money and use only paper money. As soon as this statement was made, Chang'an's economy was in chaos because of the busy selling of iron money and the rush to buy goods. In an emergency, Wen Yanbo did not force the implementation of Jiaozi, but took out his own silk and came to Chang'an: "come here, today I sell silk and only collect iron money." All of a sudden, the popular sentiment was stabilized. Since then, there has been no resistance for the court to promote "Jiaozi", because the people have trust in the leader.

  或许,宋仁宗这种含蓄渐进的方式,错过了大变革的可能时机,治不好国家的病根;又或许,这种方式的成功,过分依赖他个人的宽仁魅力,而令后世之君难以效仿。但无论如何,新党旧党的争议淡化了;日后改革的中心人物提拔了;人才荟萃的一座高峰到来了——在“”里,除了唐代的、,其他6人都活跃于仁宗时期。以至于林语堂说,这是中国文人“最好的时代”。

Perhaps, song Renzong's implicit and gradual way missed the opportunity of great change and could not cure the country's disease roots; or perhaps, the success of this way depended too much on his personal charisma of leniency and benevolence, which made it difficult for future generations to follow. However, in any case, the dispute between the new party and the old party has been weakened; the central figure of the future reform has been promoted; a peak of talent gathering has arrived - in the "" period, except in the Tang Dynasty, six other people are active in the Renzong period. So Lin Yutang said that this was the "best time" for Chinese scholars.

  很多年以后,激进的王安石改革失败了,又恢复了祖父仁宗的温和改良做法,辽国君主急忙召集将领:“不许再去边界惹事了,宋朝又回到了仁宗的路上”。辽国人或许不会懂得,他们敬畏的这个,为什么叫“仁宗”。仁,是儒家思想的核心追求;在中国历史上,他是第一个被尊称为“仁宗”的皇帝,并造就了北宋一世繁华。

Many years later, the radical reform of Wang Anshi failed, and his grandfather Renzong's moderate improvement was restored. The monarch of the Liao state hurriedly called the generals: "no more trouble at the border, and the Song Dynasty returned to the road of Renzong.". People in Liao may not understand why they call this "Renzong" in awe. Benevolence is the core pursuit of Confucianism. In Chinese history, he was the first emperor who was honored as "benevolence emperor", and made the Northern Song Dynasty prosperous.

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