Introduction: in March 1063, the 54 year old died. The news spread from the palace to the street market. A little beggar in the street of Kaifeng was stunned at first, then burst into tears and ran to the palace. Who knows that the gate of the palace is already full of people, ragged beggars, literati and childish children Cry to make a ball, wear white hemp, burn paper money, give "farewell". The next day, the smoke of burning paper money filled the sky of the city, even the sky was dark.
The news spread from the great Song Dynasty to the state of Liao. The fierce monarch of the state of Liao rushed up and grabbed the hand of the emissary of the state of song: "what do you say? How did his old man die?" tears fell down as he said, "I want to build a tomb for him to mourn." From the poor to the enemy, he was reluctant to die - the emperor did this, with the potential of "idol superstar". Until 700 years later, it seems that no one is more than his own emperor, and it has to be admitted that the three most admired emperors in his life, except his grandfather and Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty, are emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty.
When song Renzong was born, the crying of the baby greatly relieved the civil and military officials who stretched their necks - before him, all the princes died. So he was named "beneficiary". At the age of 5, he was granted the title of Duke Qingguo. At the age of 9, he was crown prince. At the age of 13, his father changed his name as soon as he died and became emperor. Compared with the nine sons of later generations, who have taken over the royal family and killed each other, the good life of this guy is enough to make the princes of all generations jealous. However, song Renzong's youth was extremely difficult. His confused father, the one who signed the "disgraced", always worried that the ministers would use the crown prince to raise themselves. The more he looks at his son, the more he has "victim fantasy": let me start first.
The ministers couldn't see it any longer: "Your Majesty has several sons, you can kill them if you want to?" this made the real sect face up to one consequence: kill the prince, and die. Although the prince's life was saved, his father's suspicion was not relieved. At the end of his life, the emperor was thinking: this son is not allowed, only to give power to the queen. After his father's "guard against death", 13-year-old Zhao Zhen won the throne, and there was no comfortable life. The biggest test came from his "mother and empress" - Zhang Xian. Thanks to the "joking" in "cat for Prince", everyone knows that song Renzong's birth mother is Princess Li, and Zhang Xian is the villain empress Liu in the play. But in fact, instead of being a "adulteress", empress Zhang Xian is smart, quick and politically minded. She took it for granted to sit behind emperor Renzong for 11 years.
Once you taste the taste of power, you don't want to give up. What's more, there was an intelligent woman who went from the deep palace to the court. Zhang Xian put the emperor's robe on her body and deliberately asked the minister, "what kind of emperor do you think Wu Zetian is?" this little action made the atmosphere tense. The Empress Dowager and his subjects began to pull the saw of power. It's funny that the flags of both sides are "protect the emperor". Zhao Zhen, a young man, became the shield in the struggle between the two groups and the spear they threw at each other. His throne was as thin as ice.
If Zhao Zhen is just a mediocre straw bag, that's all. The days are gone. However, when he was a child, he was able to see through Wang ruoqin, his father's favorite, who was "really treacherous". What kind of inner suffering does such a keen child have when he becomes a "sandwich biscuit"? The only thing that can make future generations imagine is that in the past 11 years, he loved calligraphy very much and practiced "flying white body" with one hand, which was extremely wonderful. Perhaps, practicing calligraphy is to practice heart. As a result, Zhao Zhen became a strange number - from then on, there were no lack of little emperors who grew up with their mothers, who were either sensitive and cowardly or extremely cruel. However, Zhao Zhen had sympathy for the weak and benevolence for the world. It is this that determines the trend of reform in the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty - the climax is short and the aftersound is long.
In 1033 A.D., Emperor Renzong of song was in charge. He was too clear about the mess he took over: in order to make up for the wounded self-esteem in the "alliance of the abyss", he even closed the "Five Mountains" in one breath. In those days, Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty wanted to seal a Huashan Mountain, but he gave up because it was too expensive. It can be imagined how much the State Treasury has been consumed. Song Renzong's first fire was to focus on economy. To put down the war with foreign countries and to work frugally at home has reversed the economic downturn and ushered in a golden period of development. At this point, he came to find the right reform agent.
After several times of deliberation, those who have a high voice among the masses have entered the field of vision. In 1048, song Renzong announced a new "cabinet list": he transferred Fan Zhongyan back to Beijing to serve as a political adviser (Prime Minister) and presided over the government together with Fu Bi and Han Qi, deputy envoys in chief. Fan Zhongyan has been in politics for 28 years, and the reform has been brewing in his mind for a long time. Ten major policies were carried out at one stroke: Ming Dynasty dethroned Zhizhi, restrained fluke, refined tribute, elected officials, jungongtian, hounongsang, xiuwubei, reduced corvee, qinenxin and re ordered. Song Renzong clapped on the spot: zhunzuo, national execution. However, only one year and four months later, Fan Zhongyan, Fu Bi and Han Qi were successively transferred out of the capital, and the reform suddenly stopped. Did song Renzong distrust him? No. Throughout the dynasties, reformers, such as cracking cars and digging graves, were everywhere, but fan was undamaged, and the "saint's family" was not deep. Did the political enemy plot against him? Not always. Learn some of fan's letters and make a fake letter that forces Renzong to abdicate. Song Renzong will not fail to see such a bad political trick.
The only problem is that we are too quick. Once, Fan Zhongyan reviewed a list of officials. Those who were incompetent were not polite enough to write off. Fu Bi on one side couldn't bear to read: "little fan, you can make a family cry with your pen." Fan Zhongyan said seriously, "if you don't make one family cry, you will make all the people cry." Fubi was dumb. It's true that officials should be selected strictly, but why do you decide to be a faint official when you only look at the list? Fan Zhongyan is an idealist who can find the goal of reform in a concise and comprehensive way, but can't find a complicated and detailed implementation method. In the face of the fake abdication letter, song Renzong saw the potential crisis: the panic of the ministers, the isolation of fan, how to implement the new deal? He resolutely called a halt.
Fan Zhongyan left, and Yueyang Tower left his scholar's masterpiece, "worry about the world first, and then enjoy the world". However, song Renzong would not leave. Kaifeng city continued his political deployment - Wen Yanbo, a conservative aristocrat, took over the post of Prime Minister of Xiao Fan. This time, song Renzong chose the right agent for the reform. In the following ten years, Wen Yanbo carried out the reform intention of song Renzong with a silent and practical attitude. Together with him are those able officials like Du Yan. Without slogans, without fierce debate, the top ten policies of Xiao Fan, one by one, have become operational.
Around 1050, Wen felt that the time was ripe for song Renzong to promote the paper currency "Jiaozi", which had been piloted in Sichuan for many years, to the whole country. Officials in Chang'an, Shaanxi Province, were eager to "make contributions" and said they would simply abolish iron money and use only paper money. As soon as this statement was made, Chang'an's economy was in chaos because of the busy selling of iron money and the rush to buy goods. In an emergency, Wen Yanbo did not force the implementation of Jiaozi, but took out his own silk and came to Chang'an: "come here, today I sell silk and only collect iron money." All of a sudden, the popular sentiment was stabilized. Since then, there has been no resistance for the court to promote "Jiaozi", because the people have trust in the leader.
Perhaps, song Renzong's implicit and gradual way missed the opportunity of great change and could not cure the country's disease roots; or perhaps, the success of this way depended too much on his personal charisma of leniency and benevolence, which made it difficult for future generations to follow. However, in any case, the dispute between the new party and the old party has been weakened; the central figure of the future reform has been promoted; a peak of talent gathering has arrived - in the "" period, except in the Tang Dynasty, six other people are active in the Renzong period. So Lin Yutang said that this was the "best time" for Chinese scholars.
Many years later, the radical reform of Wang Anshi failed, and his grandfather Renzong's moderate improvement was restored. The monarch of the Liao state hurriedly called the generals: "no more trouble at the border, and the Song Dynasty returned to the road of Renzong.". People in Liao may not understand why they call this "Renzong" in awe. Benevolence is the core pursuit of Confucianism. In Chinese history, he was the first emperor who was honored as "benevolence emperor", and made the Northern Song Dynasty prosperous.
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