历史上十个“大忽悠”:民族英雄还是亡国奸臣?-看世界

历史上十个“大忽悠”:民族英雄还是亡国奸臣?

  中国古代历史上也曾经出现过载入史册的十个最猛大忽悠,现在我们就来看看他们各自的忽悠术:

  自从赵本山的小品“大忽悠系列”火爆银屏之后,“忽悠”一词也随之大行其道。“忽悠”是北方俗语,特别是在东北很流行,意思就是利用语言巧设陷阱引人上勾叫人上当,来达到自己的目的。“忽悠”有胡说、谣传、设圈套、欺骗的意思;也有吹牛、煽动、鼓动的意思;还有劝说、诱导、怂恿的意思,用意十分广泛。“忽悠”一词贬义的成分居多,赵本山在其小品中给该词注入了幽默的元素,贬义的程度也有些淡化,至少现在说起来玩笑的成分居多。

Since Zhao Benshan's essay "big Huyou series" has been popular on the screen, the word "Huyou" has also become popular. "Huyou" is a common saying in the north, especially in the northeast. It means using language to set traps to attract people to be cheated, so as to achieve their own goals. "Deception" has the meaning of nonsense, rumor, trap and deception; it also has the meaning of boasting, incitement and agitation; it also has the meaning of persuasion, inducement and encouragement, with a wide range of intentions. The derogatory elements of the word "Huyou" are in the majority. Zhao Benshan injected humorous elements into the word in his sketches, and the degree of derogatory elements has also been somewhat weakened, at least now the elements of joking are in the majority.

  中国古代历史上也曾经出现过载入史册的十个最猛大忽悠,现在我们就来看看他们各自的忽悠术:

In ancient Chinese history, there have been ten biggest deceptions recorded in history. Now let's take a look at their respective deceptions:

  1、最炫的大忽悠烛之武

1. The most dazzling big flickering candle

  忽悠术揭秘:以迂为直,以退为进。避开关键,淡化主题,故意绕开的敏感之处,大谈其他的利害关系,给你下猛料,使你的思路为之左右。

Deception reveals secrets: take detour as straight, take retreat as advance. Avoid the key, downplay the theme, deliberately bypass the sensitive places, talk about other interests, and give you a lot of material to make your thinking around.

  忽悠过程回放:烛之武是春秋时期的郑国人。一次晋国和秦国联合攻打郑国,烛之武受托出使秦国,开始忽悠,他说:秦晋两国围攻我们郑国,我们知道我们很快就要灭亡了,可是大王想想如果灭掉了郑国对您有什么好处呢?如果好处多多,那就请您自便,可是郑国离秦国很远而离晋国却很近,你们这么做只能对晋国有利,会让晋国的领土得到扩展,而晋国的实力雄厚了,您的国力也就相对削弱了。假如您放弃灭郑的打算,让郑国作为您秦国的友邦,这样秦国使者往来路过郑国,郑国还可以随时供给他们所缺乏的东西,对您秦国来说,倒是百利而无一害。况且您曾经对晋惠公有恩惠,他答应把焦、瑕二邑割让给您,可是他却出尔反尔,朝辞夕改,既没有誉野心又大,如果它再把郑国据为他东部的屏障,那么离侵占您秦国也就不远了。总之这事对你秦国没有半点好处相反却能帮了晋国的大忙,这里面的厉害,您好好掂量掂量吧。秦穆公一听,对呀,这事还真得细琢磨琢磨,幸亏你提醒,要不就便宜了晋国了,秦穆公一高兴就与郑国签订了盟约,还派兵帮郑国守卫,不和晋国玩了。晋国一看秦国撤兵了,也就放弃了攻打郑国的念头,班师回朝。这事在《左传。》上有记载。

Playing back the process of deception: zhuzhiwu was born in the state of Zheng in the spring and Autumn period. When Jin and Qin attacked Zheng together, Zhu Zhiwu was sent to Qin as an emissary and began to bluff. He said, "Qin and Jin besiege Zheng. We know that we are going to die soon. But the king wants to think about what's good for you if you kill Zheng? If there are many benefits, please help yourself. But Zheng is far away from Qin and very close to Jin. You can only do this To the advantage of the Jin State, it will expand the territory of the Jin State. If the strength of the Jin state is strong, your national strength will be relatively weakened. If you give up your intention to destroy Zheng and let Zheng State be your friend of Qin state, then the envoys of Qin State will come and go through Zheng State. Zheng state can also supply what they lack at any time. For Qin state, it will be a hundred profits without any harm. Besides, you once had a public favor for Jin Hui. He promised to cede the two cities of Jiao and Xia to you. However, he turned against each other and changed his mind. He had neither reputation nor ambition. If it took Zheng as the eastern barrier, it would not be far away from invading your country of Qin. In a word, it's not good for the state of Qin. On the contrary, it can help the state of Jin. It's powerful. Please weigh it up. Upon hearing this, Duke mu of Qin is right. It's really something to ponder. Fortunately, you remind me that it would be cheaper for the state of Jin. As soon as he is happy, Duke mu of Qin signs an alliance with the state of Zheng. He also sends troops to guard the state of Zheng and doesn't play with the state of Jin. As soon as the state of Jin saw that the state of Qin had withdrawn its troops, it gave up the idea of attacking the state of Zheng and returned to the dynasty. This is in Zuo Zhuan. 》There are records on it.

  忽悠点评:烛之武短短几句话就把堂堂的秦国国君给忽悠了,挽救郑国。

Huyou comments: in a few words, Zhu Zhiwu gave the powerful king of Qin to Huyou to save Zheng.

  2、最会下猛药的大忽悠

2. The biggest deception

  忽悠术揭秘:挑拨离间,一箭双雕。,善搞场景和气氛,借助外物吸引注意力,于无形之中已下猛药,挑拨离间,制造,即达到目的又不漏痕迹。

The trick of deception: sow discord, and kill two birds with one stone. He is good at scene and atmosphere, attracts attention with the help of foreign things, and has made powerful medicine in the intangible, provoking and manufacturing, so as to achieve the goal without leaving traces.

  忽悠过程回放:手下有三个勇士:田开疆、公孙捷、古冶子。这三个人个个勇猛异常,力能搏虎,深受齐景公的宠爱。但他们却恃宠自傲,为所欲为,横行乡里,鱼肉百姓,被人称作“三害”,晏婴于是决定除掉他们,但是还不能得罪了齐景公。机会终于来了,一次齐景公晏婴等四人在园中喝酒,晏婴说:园子里的金桃已经熟了,摘几个尝尝鲜吧?

Flicker process playback: there are three warriors under him: Tian Kaijiang, Gongsun Jie, guyezi. Each of these three men is extremely brave and powerful. They are deeply loved by qijinggong. However, they are proud of themselves and do whatever they want. They run wild in the countryside. They are called "three evils". Yan Ying decides to get rid of them, but he can't offend qijinggong. Finally, the chance came. Once Yan Ying, Duke of Qi Jing, and other four people were drinking in the garden. Yan Ying said, "the golden peach in the garden is ripe. How many are you going to taste?"?

  于是晏婴在园中摘了六个桃子,一人一个,还剩两个,晏婴就说:请君王传令群臣,谁的功劳大,谁就吃这两个金桃吧。公孙捷第一个走了上来,拍着胸膛说:有一次我陪大王打猎,突然从林中蹿出一头猛虎,是我冲上去,用尽平生之力将虎打死,救了国君。如此大功,还不应该吃个金桃吗?

So Yan Ying picked six peaches in the garden, one by one, and there were two left. Yan Ying said, "please give orders to all the officials. Whoever has great credit will eat these two golden peaches.". Gongsunjie was the first one to come up, clapped his chest and said: once I accompanied the king in hunting, suddenly a fierce tiger sprang out of the forest. It was I who rushed up, killed the tiger with all my life's strength and saved the king. Shouldn't you eat a golden peach for such a great achievement?

  晏婴说:冒死救主,功比泰山,可赐酒一杯,桃一个。公孙捷饮酒食桃,站在一旁,十分得意。古冶子见状,厉声喝道:打死一只老虎有什么稀奇,当年我送国君过黄河时,一只大鼋兴风作浪,咬住了国君的马腿,一下子把马拖到急流中去了,是我跳进汹涌的河中,舍命杀死了大鼋,保住了国君的性命。像这样的功劳,该不该吃个金桃?晏婴把剩下的一个桃子送给了古冶子。

Yan Ying said: risking death to save the Lord, Gongbi Taishan, can give a glass of wine, a peach. Gongsunjie drinks and eats peaches. Standing aside, he is very proud. Seeing this, guyezi snapped: what's so strange about killing a tiger? When I sent the king across the Yellow River, a big turtle made waves, grabbed the king's horse leg and dragged the horse into the torrent. I jumped into the turbulent River, killed the big turtle and saved the king's life. Should we eat a golden peach for such a contribution? Yan Ying gave the rest of the peach to guyezi.

  一旁的田开疆看桃子分完了急得大叫:当年我奉命讨伐徐国,舍生入死,斩其,俘虏徐兵五千余人,吓得徐国国君俯首称臣,就连邻近的郯国和莒国也望风归附。如此大功,难道就不能吃个金桃吗?晏婴忙说:田将军的功劳当然高出公孙捷和古冶子二位,然而金桃已经没有了,只好等树上的熟了,再请您尝了,先喝酒吧。田开疆气呼呼地说:打虎、杀鼋有什么了不起。我南征北战,出生人死,反而吃不到金桃,受此大辱,我还有什么面目站在朝廷之上呢?说罢挥剑自刎。

Tian Kaijiang, on the other side, was so worried that he cried out: I was ordered to fight against the Xu state. I gave up my life and killed him. I captured more than 5000 Xu soldiers and scared the king of Xu state to bow down and become a minister. Even the neighboring Tan state and Ju state also wanted to return. Can't you eat a golden peach? Yan Ying hurriedly said: General Tian's credit is certainly higher than gongsunjie's and guyezi's. However, the golden peach is no longer available, so we have to wait for the tree to ripen, and then please taste it, and drink the bar first. Tian Kaijiang said angrily: what's so great about fighting tigers and killing turtles. When I was born and died, I couldn't eat the golden peach. What face can I stand above the court? I'll kill myself with my sword.

  公孙捷大惊,也拔出剑来说:我因小功而吃桃,田将军功劳大反倒吃不到。我还有什么脸面活在世上?说罢也自杀了。古冶子更沉不住气了,大喊道:我们三人结为兄弟,誓同生死,亲如骨肉,如今他俩已死,我还苟活,于心何安?说完,也拔剑自刎了。这哥仨火气可都够大的。晏婴见三害已除,不慌不忙地说:他们都是有勇无谋的匹夫,我们国家智勇双全的人多得是,少几个这样的人也没什么了不起,各位不必介意,请继续饮酒吧。瞧瞧,谈笑之间就除了三害,还跟没事人似的。

Gongsun Jie was shocked. He drew out his sword and said, "I eat peaches because of my small skill, but general Tian can't do it.". What face do I have to live in the world? After all, I killed myself. Guyezi was even more depressed and shouted, "we three are brothers, sworn to life and death, like flesh and blood. Now they are dead, and I still live. How can I rest in my heart? Then I killed myself. The three brothers are angry enough. Seeing that the three evils have been eliminated, Yan said unhurriedly: they are brave and resourceless. There are many people who are brave and brave in our country, and few of them are nothing. You don't need to mind. Please continue to drink in the bar. Look, there are only three evils between talking and laughing. It's just like nothing happens.

  忽悠点评:晏婴用两个桃子“忽悠”的让三害自刎而死,不费,不露一点声色,既为民除害,又不得罪景公,忽悠的能力还真不是吹的。不过晏婴口碑一直很好,这次“忽悠”也是为了替民除害。算是史上口碑最好的大忽悠。

Huyou comments: Yan Ying used two peaches to "Huyou" to let three evils commit suicide and die without any expense or noise. He not only killed the people, but also didn't offend Jinggong. The ability of Huyou is really not boasted. However, Yan Ying's reputation has always been very good, and this "Huyou" is also to eliminate the harm for the people. It's the best-known blunder in history.

  3、最草根的大忽悠冯谖

3. The most basic blunder: Feng Yuan

  忽悠术揭秘:。将本来没有的事情制造出让人的假象。草根往往被别人所忽视,但却处在冷眼旁观的位置,因此往往更容易洞察上层的弱点,当局者深处局中,更容易被假象迷惑。

The secret of deception. Create the false image of the transferor by doing things that were not originally done. Grass roots are often ignored by others, but they are in the position of watching coldly. Therefore, it is easier to see the weaknesses of the upper level, and the authorities are more likely to be confused by false appearances.

  忽悠术回放:冯谖是齐相门下的食客,草根一个,不过大忽悠的本领可是非同寻常。一次齐国国君听信谗言,罢了孟尝君的相位,冯谖就对孟尝君说我可以让你的相位失而复得,而且比以前更加显贵。孟尝君一听还有这事,那就试试吧。于是冯谖就来到秦国,对秦王说:当今世上能与秦国抗衡的只有齐国,大王想不想让秦国超过齐国。

Flashback of deception: Feng Yuan is a eater under Qi Xiang's door. He is a grassroots. However, his skill of deception is extraordinary. Once the monarch of Qi listened to the slander. It was just the aspect of Lord mengchang. Feng Yuan told Lord mengchang that I could make your aspect come back, and it was more important than before. As soon as Lord mengchang heard of this, he would try it. So Feng Yuan came to the state of Qin and said to the king of Qin, "the only one who can compete with the state of Qin in the world today is the state of Qi. The king wants to make the state of Qin surpass the state of Qi.".

  秦王一听当然愿意啦,问怎么办,冯谖接着说:大王也知道齐国罢了孟尝君的官吧?齐国之所以受到天下的敬重,就是因为孟尝君,现在孟尝君因为被罢了官心中很怨愤,他必定背离齐国投靠秦国,他又熟悉齐国国情,你如果得到他肯定对你有好处,你赶快派使者备厚礼偷偷的去迎接孟尝君,千万不能错失良机,如果齐王明白过来,再度起用孟尝君就晚了。秦王被冯谖这么一忽悠,就派人去请孟尝君。

As soon as the king of Qin heard this, he would like to ask what to do. Feng Yuan went on to say: the king also knows that the state of Qi is not the official of mengchang. The reason why the state of Qi is respected by the world is because of mengchang. Now mengchang is very resentful because of the official. He must deviate from the state of Qi and join the state of Qin. He is also familiar with the state of Qi. If you get him, it will be good for you. Send an envoy as soon as possible If the king of Qi understood this, it would be too late to use the king of mengchang again. As soon as the king of Qin was fooled by Feng Yuan, he sent for Lord mengchang.

  冯谖抢在使者前面赶了齐国,又开始忽悠齐王,说唯一能和我们抗衡的秦国听说你罢免了孟尝君,已经派人来请孟尝君做相了,如果秦国得到此人,齐国就再也不能与秦国抗衡了,大王应该在秦国使者没到达之前赶快恢复孟尝君的相位,挫败秦国的阴谋,断绝它称强称霸的计划。齐王听后,这还了得,赶紧恢复了孟尝君的相位。

Feng Yuan chased the Qi state ahead of the emissary, and began to bluff the king of Qi. He said that the only state of Qin that could compete with us heard that you had dismissed Lord mengchang, and had sent someone to invite him to make a face. If the state of Qin got the man, the state of Qi could no longer compete with the state of Qin. The king should restore the face of Lord mengchang before the emissary of the state of Qin arrived, defeat the plot of the state of Qin, and cut off the plot It's called the plan for hegemony. After hearing this, the king of Qi quickly recovered the aspect of the king of mengchang.

  忽悠点评:冯谖轻松自如的就忽悠了两国的国君,还使自己的主人官复原职,他处在低位,善于观察和思考,又抓住了两个国君都想超越对方独自称霸的关键所在,再略施小技,让你深信不疑。忽悠本事可谓超强,孟尝君的食客还真是没白养。

Flicker comment: Feng Yuan easily fooled the monarchs of the two countries and restored his masters and officials to their original positions. He was good at observation and thinking. He also grasped the key point that the two monarchs wanted to surpass each other and dominate by themselves. With a little skill, you can believe it. Deception can be said to be superior. The diners of Lord mengchang are really not raised in vain.

  4、最懂逻辑的大忽悠

4. The most logical deception

  忽悠术揭秘:用缜密的逻辑混淆视听。环环相扣,密不透风。忽悠起来侃侃而谈,,诱导你的思路,使你不由得不,逻辑性极强,但不乏有诡辩的成分。

Deception: to confuse the public with careful logic. It's closed and airtight. You can't help but talk and induce your thoughts. It's very logical, but it's full of sophistry.

  忽悠过程回放一:是苏秦的第一个伯乐,在苏秦替燕国要回被齐国占领的土地过程中,我们可以洞悉他的忽悠的逻辑能力确实非同一般。苏秦对齐王说:燕昭王是的外孙,有强秦作后盾。齐占燕地,必然会令燕国和秦国都对齐国不满,如果大王能把所占的燕国之地归还,那么燕秦二国反而会感激大王的恩德。大王就可以得到秦燕的支持,号令天下,天下还有谁敢不从呢,到那时齐国的霸业也可以成功了。齐宣王一听,是这么个理儿,就归还了燕国的土地。你看看,人家分明是要东西去了,却摆出为对方着想的架势,绝对是忽悠的天才。

Replay 1: it is the first bole of Su Qin. In the process of Su Qin's returning to the land occupied by Qi State for Yan state, we can see that his logical ability of deception is indeed extraordinary. Su Qin said to the king of Qi: King Yan Zhao is his grandson, backed by strong Qin. It is inevitable that the state of Yan and the state of Qin will be dissatisfied with the state of Qi. If the king can return the occupied land of Yan, then the two states of Yan and Qin will be grateful to the king. The king can get Qin Yan's support, command the world, who dare not from the world, then the hegemony of Qi can also succeed. As soon as king Xuan of Qi heard this, he returned the land of Yan. You see, people clearly want something to go, but they put on a posture of thinking for each other, which is absolutely a genius of deception.

  忽悠过程回放二:忽悠齐国打宋国,燕国渔人得利。当时燕王想攻打齐国,苏秦就建议说:如果让齐国和宋国打起来,定会两败俱伤,那时候我们就可以不费吹灰之力得到齐国,你就听好吧。当时正赶上宋国的友邦秦国派人到秦国商量共同称帝的事。苏秦趁机劝说齐王:齐秦并立为帝,天下人是尊齐还是尊秦?

The second part of the process of deception: the state of Qi was deceived to fight against the state of song, and the fishermen of the state of Yan benefited. At that time, when King Yan wanted to attack the state of Qi, Su Qin suggested that if the state of Qi and the state of song were to fight, they would lose both sides. Then we could get the state of Qi without any effort. Listen. At that time, Qin, a friend of Song state, sent people to Qin state to discuss the matter of jointly becoming emperor. Su Qin took the opportunity to persuade the king of Qi: if Qi and Qin were established as emperors, would the people of the world respect Qi or Qin?

  齐王说:当然是尊秦了!苏说:那么齐放弃帝号,天下是爱齐呢,还是爱秦?齐王说:当然是爱齐了。苏又说:两帝并立,共约伐赵,与齐军独攻宋,哪一个更有利呢?齐王回答:当然伐宋有利。苏秦接着劝齐王说:如果我们同秦一样称帝,天下只尊秦国,如果我们放弃帝号,天下就爱齐而远强秦,共约伐赵又不如单独伐宋。所以我主张您放弃帝号以顺应天下。

The king of Qi said: of course, it is respect for Qin! Su said: then Qi gave up the imperial title, is the world love Qi, or love Qin? The king of Qi said: of course, it is love Qi. Su added: which is more advantageous for the two emperors to stand side by side and jointly attack Zhao and the Qi army to attack song alone. Su Qin then urged the king of Qi to say: if we are as emperor as Qin, the world only respects Qin. If we give up the title of emperor, the world will love Qi and go far to strengthen Qin. It's better to attack Zhao together than to attack song alone. So I suggest that you give up the imperial title to conform to the world.

  齐王听从苏秦建议,与赵国约定共同抗秦,秦齐关系恶化。苏秦趁机劝齐王攻宋:宋国国君荒淫无度,天下共愤,如果我们挥师击宋,正是奉天讨罪的壮举,大王必然威名大振,还可以得到实惠,那时齐国必可称霸东方。齐王于是攻宋。齐国实力因战而衰。

Following the suggestion of Su Qin, the king of Qi and Zhao agreed to fight against Qin together, and the relationship between Qin and Qi deteriorated. Su Qin took the opportunity to persuade the king of Qi to attack the Song Dynasty: the king of the state of song was lecherous and outraged all over the world. If we attack the Song Dynasty, it's a feat of serving the heaven to punish the emperor. The king will certainly have a great reputation and can get benefits. At that time, the state of Qi will be able to dominate the East. The king of Qi then attacked the Song Dynasty. Qi's strength was weakened by war.

  忽悠点评:是大忽悠们的看家本领。苏秦循循善诱,步步为营,环环相扣,逻辑缜密。既达到了目的,还不漏半点马脚,“忽悠”的本事可谓登峰造极了,无怪乎他能挂六国的相印于一身,游走于列国之间,这“忽悠”的本事也不

Huyou comment: it's Huyou's skill. Su Qin's guidance, step by step, linked, logical and meticulous. It's no wonder that he can hang on to the six countries and swim among the countries. This is not the case

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