揭秘中国史上最强女海盗郑一嫂 曾俘获英国军舰-看世界

揭秘中国史上最强女海盗郑一嫂 曾俘获英国军舰

  出身海盗世家

  海盗行为的历史可以追溯到公元前十四世纪的卢坎人,古埃及人曾记录他们对塞浦路斯的袭击。有人说:自从船被发明的那一天开始,海盗就出现了!海盗一词,充满杀气,大多数人都会联想到男子,但其实,在中期的时候,有一位女海盗曾令清军闻风丧胆。鸦片战争爆发后,被清朝政府招安的这名女强人还曾作为的“参谋”抵抗英军。

The history of piracy can be traced back to the lucans in the fourteenth century BC. Ancient Egyptians recorded their attacks on Cyprus. Some people say: since the day the ship was invented, pirates have appeared! The word "Pirates" is full of murderous spirit. Most people think of men, but in fact, in the middle of the year, there was a female pirate who frightened the Qing army. After the Opium War broke out, the strong woman who was recruited by the Qing government also served as a "staff" to resist the British army.

  出身海盗世家

From a pirate family

  这名如今还为许多老广州人所熟识的女海盗名叫郑一嫂,她原,乳名香姑,系广东新会籍家女,生于1775年,卒于1844年。其前夫,因排行而俗名郑一,新安(今深圳宝安)家人。夫妻生有两子。

Now known to many old Guangzhou people, this female pirate is named Zheng yisao. She was born in 1775, and died in 1844. His ex husband, as a result of ranking and common name Zheng Yi, Xin'an (now Shenzhen Bao'an) family. Husband and wife have two children.

  在明末时期,当时就有著名的郑、石、马、徐四盗横行珠江口。

At the end of Ming Dynasty, there were four famous thieves, Zheng, Shi, Ma and Xu, running across the Pearl River Estuary.

  收复台湾,郑成功部分残兵流向珠江口为盗,珠江口家海盗由明末四姓演变为清初红、黄、蓝、白、黑、紫六帮。郑一乃红旗帮首领。

After the recovery of Taiwan, some of Zheng Chenggong's remnant soldiers went to the Pearl River mouth to steal. The pirates in the Pearl River mouth evolved from the four surnames of the late Ming Dynasty to the six gangs of red, yellow, blue, white, black and purple in the early Qing Dynasty. Zheng Yi is the leader of the red flag sect.

  郑一其人,胸怀大志,多年来,他一直致力于把珠江口各股势力统一成一个以他为盟主的海盗大联盟,而郑一嫂堪称贤内助,自始至终参与其事,各帮海盗尊称她作“龙嫂”。无奈天意弄人,在这个海盗大联盟好不容易签约结盟的1807年,郑一却于一场强台风中坠海身亡,年仅四十二岁。

Zheng Yiren is a man with great ambition. For many years, he has been committed to unifying all forces in the Pearl River estuary into a major pirate alliance with him as the leader. Zheng yisao is called the help of her husband and wife, and she has been involved in the business all the time. All the pirates call her "sister-in-law long". However, in 1807, when the pirate alliance was not easy to sign an alliance, Zheng Yi fell into the sea in a strong typhoon and died at the age of 42.

  势力震惊英国军队

Forces shock the British Army

  郑一死后,郑一嫂成为红旗帮的领袖,在她的带领下红旗帮队伍迅速壮大。但在官方的记录里对红旗帮的记载很少,举凡秘密社会组织的内幕细节,包括官方在内的外界一般都不能详知,红旗帮的情形也是如此。

After Zheng Yi's death, sister-in-law Zheng became the leader of the red flag sect. Under her leadership, the red flag sect grew rapidly. However, there are few official records of the red flag sect. The inside details of secret social organizations, including the official, are generally unknown to the outside world, and the situation of the red flag sect is the same.

  有一位名叫格拉斯普尔的英国富商,曾被红旗帮绑架为肉票,从而耳闻目睹海盗的日常生活种种。待他被以7654西班牙银元赎出并回到伦敦之后,他写出了一本的回忆录,将郑一嫂的逸事公诸天下。

There is a rich British businessman named Glasper, who was kidnapped by the red flag Gang as a meat ticket. He heard and witnessed the daily life of pirates. After he was redeemed for 7654 Spanish silver dollars and returned to London, he wrote a memoir, which publicized sister Zheng's anecdotes.

  据格拉斯普尔描述,在郑一嫂的经营下,红旗帮有大小船只五六百艘,部众三四万人。他们以香港大屿山为主要基地,在香港岛有营盘,有造船工场。

According to Glasper, under the management of sister Zheng, the red flag sect has 5600 ships of all sizes and 340000 members. They are based in Lantau, Hong Kong. They have campuses and shipyards on Hong Kong Island.

  面对英国舰船在中国的水域内横冲直闯,郑一嫂还在1809年痛击了广州内河的英国船只,俘获一艘英舰,斩杀数十英国士兵,令英军震惊。

In the face of British ships rushing through China's waters, Zheng yisao also attacked the British ships in Guangzhou inland river in 1809, captured a British ship and killed dozens of British soldiers, which shocked the British army.

  联军对红旗帮无可奈何

The coalition has nothing to do with the red flag

  红旗帮越来越强大,为了荡平海寇,清政府与英国侵略者联合,试图借列强的力量消灭红旗帮。格拉斯普尔记载,1809年秋,清政府与葡萄牙和英国一起组成了联合舰队,要突袭大屿山消灭红旗帮。得到情报的郑一嫂,亲自坐镇大屿山纠缠住敌军主力。用“”的办法派主力奇袭广州城,击杀虎门总兵。联合舰队不得已撤退,在撤退途中又遭到早已埋伏好的红旗帮主力的包围,激战九个昼夜,红旗帮仅有四十人阵亡。而联合舰队丢盔弃甲,只有几艘舰狼狈逃回广州。

The red flag Gang is becoming more and more powerful. In order to wipe out the sea invaders, the Qing government and the British Invaders tried to eliminate the red flag gang by the power of the foreign powers. Glasper recorded that in the autumn of 1809, the Qing government, together with Portugal and Britain, formed a joint fleet to raid Lantau and eliminate the red flag gang. Sister Zheng, who got the information, was personally on Lantau Island and pestered the main enemy force. Use the method of "" to send the main force to raid Guangzhou City and kill the general of Humen. The United Fleet had to retreat. On the way to retreat, it was surrounded by the main force of the red flag Gang, which had been ambushed for nine days and nights. Only 40 members of the red flag gang were killed. However, the United Fleet lost its armor and only a few ships fled back to Guangzhou.

  红旗帮的这些大行动让满清朝庭极为恼火,连续派出大军征讨。红旗帮及其他各帮在郑一嫂、张保仔的指挥下,连续打败了前来围剿的官军。在浙江海面,打死了浙江水师提督徐廷雄;在香港大屿湾,灭掉了清海军战船二十多艘、火炮三百门,生擒广东水师提督孙全谋;还进逼广州,门总兵林国良,迫使两广总督频频换人。

These big actions of the red flag sect made the court of the Manchu Dynasty extremely angry and sent out troops to fight continuously. Under the command of sister-in-law Zheng and Zhang baozai, the red flag gang and other gangs defeated the officers and soldiers who came to encircle and suppress continuously. In Zhejiang, Xu tingxiong, the commander of Zhejiang Navy, was killed; in Lantau Bay, Hong Kong, more than 20 Qing Navy warships and 300 guns were killed, and sun quanmou, the commander of Guangdong Navy, was captured alive; in Guangzhou, Lin Guoliang, the chief of the army, forced the governors of Guangdong and Guangxi to change frequently.

  其中最大的一次战役,是屡遭劫掠的澳门葡萄牙人会同清朝水师,组成中葡联军,合围红旗帮,一度将红旗帮的主力船队封锁于其总寨大屿山岛,历时八日。但红旗帮如有神助,张保仔算准风向与潮汐,与郑一嫂一起集结大船三百只、火炮一千五百多门、部卒两万,突然发作,海面炮矢横飞,无人敢攫其锋,于是,官洋联军唯有望洋兴叹。

One of the biggest battles was that the Portuguese of Macao, together with the navy of the Qing Dynasty, who had been plundered for many times, formed a Chinese Portuguese joint army to encircle the red flag gang. At one time, the main fleet of the red flag gang was blockaded on Lantau Island, its main stronghold, for eight days. But if the red flag sect can help him, Zhang baozai can calculate the wind direction and tide. He and Zheng yisao have gathered 300 ships, more than 1500 guns and 20000 soldiers. Suddenly, the sea cannon shot across the sea. No one dares to seize the front. Therefore, the Guanyang allied army can only look forward to it.

  接受清政府招抚

Accept the appeal of the Qing government

  后来,红旗帮因郑一嫂不肯改嫁给黑旗帮老大而导致各派冲突。清朝政府采取了“怀柔政策”,黑旗帮作为六旗联盟的第二大帮投降,大大削减了郑一嫂和张保仔的力量。迫不得已之下,红旗帮也开始寻思着接受招安。

Later, because sister Zheng refused to marry the leader of the black flag Gang, the red flag gang led to conflicts among various factions. The Qing government adopted the policy of "Huairou". As the second largest gang in the six flag alliance, the black flag Gang surrendered, greatly reducing the strength of Zheng yisao and Zhang baozai. Forced to do so, the red flag Gang began to think about accepting the offer.

  清朝的招安条件虽说很宽,但有一条是不能免的,就是招安时海盗们须下跪。红旗帮海盗一向看不起清军,让他们向昔日的手下败将下跪,很难接受。于是,精于计谋的两广总督百龄提出了这样的方案:由赐婚,准予张保仔、郑一嫂结为合法夫妻,郑一嫂、张保仔跪拜谢恩,同时,也算跪拜接受招安了。

Although the conditions of the Qing Dynasty's security call were very wide, there was one thing that could not be avoided: pirates had to kneel during the security call. The Pirates of the red flag Gang always look down upon the Qing army and make them kneel down to the defeated generals in the past, which is hard to accept. Thus, the scheming governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, bailing, put forward such a plan: by giving marriage, Zhang baozai and Zheng yisao were allowed to get married legally. Zheng yisao and Zhang baozai knelt down to thank you, and at the same time, they also knelt down to accept the invitation.

  招安后,张保仔封三品官,后升从二品,调福建闽安、彭湖等地任副将,郑一嫂授诰命夫人。

After recruiting an, Zhang baozai was appointed the third grade official, and later promoted from the second grade official. He transferred Fujian Min'an, Penghu and other places as deputy generals, and sister-in-law Zheng gave Gao an order.

  三十年后,鸦片战争爆发时,郑一嫂仍然积极抗战,为林则徐抗击英军出谋划策,她的事迹还于20世纪80年代被香港电影人搬上了银幕。

Thirty years later, when the Opium War broke out, Zheng yisao was still active in the Anti Japanese War and gave Lin Zexu advice on how to fight against the British army. Her deeds were also put on the screen by Hong Kong filmmakers in the 1980s.

免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

Disclaimer: the above content comes from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If you violate your original copyright, please let us know, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论