曹丕为之流涕:三国正史中曹魏第一名将是谁?-看世界

曹丕为之流涕:三国正史中曹魏第一名将是谁?

  张辽(169~222年),字文远,雁门马邑县人(今山西省朔州)。

  按正载,作为浴血沙场能征善战的将军,当为曹魏阵营的第一人。《》将张辽列为曹魏五大将之首。王歆更赞曰:“曹魏多,而张辽为第一。”

According to Zhengzai, as a general who can fight well in the bloody battlefield, he should be the first person in the camp of Cao Wei. Zhang Liao was listed as the first of the five generals of Cao Wei in the book. Wang Xin praised more and said, "Cao weiduo, Zhang Liao is the first."

  张辽(169~222年),字文远,雁门马邑县人(今山西省朔州)。

Zhangliao (169-222), the word Wen Yuan, Yanmen Mayi county people (now Shuozhou, Shanxi Province).

  《三国志?张辽传》中曾提到张辽“本聂壹之后,以避怨变姓”。张辽的先祖聂壹,就是时期着名的“马邑之谋”的始作俑者。史载,在西汉元光元年(即公元前134年),雁门马邑一带的豪商聂壹出于对匈奴的熟悉和对西汉王朝边患不息的焦虑,通过人向汉武帝建议:和亲之后已经取于匈奴,只要诱之以利,必定能将之击溃。

In the biography of zhangliao in the annals of the Three Kingdoms, it was mentioned that "after Bennie I, he changed his surname to avoid resentment". Nie Yi, the ancestor of Zhang Liao, was the founder of the famous "plan of Mayi". According to the history, in the first year of the Yuan Dynasty (134bc), Nie Yi, a businessman in the area of Yanmen Mayi, was familiar with the Huns and worried about the edge of the Western Han Dynasty. He suggested to Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty that he had taken the Huns after the marriage, and that he could defeat them as long as he lured them for profit.

  于是聂壹奉命以自身作饵,亲到匈奴阵营,向当时的军臣单于诈降,更称自己能斩杀马邑县令,迫使马邑举城投降,然后可尽得该城财物。单于信其言,又贪其利,便立刻策划起兵。聂壹回汉后,以一名罪犯的首级讹称为马邑长吏之头,以示时机已至,引诱匈奴军深入重地。

So Nie Yi was ordered to use himself as a bait to go to the Xiongnu camp, pretending that he could kill the county magistrate of Mayi, forcing Mayi to surrender, and then he could get the city's property. He believed in his words and coveted his interests, so he immediately planned to start the army. After Nie Yi returned to the Han Dynasty, he mistakenly named the head of a criminal as the head of the Mayi chief officer to show that the time had come to lure the Huns into the important area.

  汉武帝派出五位将军连同车骑步共三十万在马邑设伏。这五位将军是卫尉骁骑将军,太仆公孙贺轻车将军,大行王恢将屯将军,太中大夫李息材官将军,御史大夫韩安国护军将军。各位领军都隶属韩安国,约定在单于进入马邑时纵兵出击。

Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent five generals and a total of 300000 people to lay down in Mayi. These five generals are general Wei Xiaoqi, general sun he, general Qingche, General Wang Huijiang, General Li Xicai, senior officer of Taizhong, and General Han Anguo, senior officer of imperial history. All the leaders are subordinated to Han'an state, and they have agreed to send out their troops when entering Ma Yi alone.

  计划本来顺利进行,讵料单于走到左云一带时,发现城野之间只见牲畜,不见一人,于是起了疑心。他派兵攻下一个碉堡,俘虏了一名尉史。该尉史揭穿了早已有三十多万汉军埋伏在马邑附近的真相,悉破阴谋的单于大惊退军,汉军设伏全无用武之地。“马邑之谋”亦以失败告终。聂壹一片丹心付于荒草,不但无功,还成了汉、匈两方都怀疑的人。为了避祸,他改姓为“张”。

The plan had been carried out smoothly. When Chen LIAOSHAN went to Zuoyun, he found that there were only livestock and no one in the city and field, so he became suspicious. He sent troops to take down a blockhouse and captured a captain. The captain revealed the truth that more than 300000 Han troops had been ambushed near Mayi. He found out that the conspiracy was broken and the Han army retreated unexpectedly. There was no place for the Han Army to ambush. "Mayi's plan" also ended in failure. Nie Yi's devotion to the wild grass is not only futile, but also a suspect of both Han and Hun. In order to avoid disaster, he changed his surname to "Zhang".

  三百年后,老张家有一个男娃出世了,他便是张辽。张辽年轻时,曾经做过郡吏。末年,因其武力过人,被并州刺史丁原召为从事,并派他带兵到京城。后来又被大将军派去河北招兵买马,张辽回来时,189年,何进的势力已被消灭。于是又归附,后来董卓兵败,张辽又带着手下的将士们归附,担任骑都尉。198年,吕布在下邳被击败之后,张辽率部投降,被拜为中郎将、赐关内侯,并担任鲁相。后因战功被晋升为裨将军。

Three hundred years later, there was a boy born in Lao Zhang's family. He was Zhang Liao. When Zhang Liao was young, he used to be a county official. At the end of the year, Ding Yuan, the governor of Bingzhou, was called to engage in it because of his superior force and sent him to the capital. Later, he was sent by the general to Hebei to recruit soldiers and buy horses. When Zhang Liao returned, in 189, he Jin's forces had been eliminated. So he was attached again. Later, Dong Zhuo was defeated. Zhang Liao took his soldiers with him to be attached again as a cavalry commander. In 198, after Lu Bu was defeated in xiapi, Zhang Liao led his troops to surrender and was worshipped as Zhonglang general, granted to guanneihou and served as Lu Xiang. Later, he was promoted to general for his war achievements.

  张辽归降曹操以后,跟从曹操转战南北,讨,平河北,征荆州,战,屡立战功,与、、张合、被并称为曹操的五大良将。曹操剿灭袁绍的势力后,派遣张辽管辖鲁国各县,并跟随夏侯渊*东海的昌豨,成功劝降。后随曹操去黎阳*袁谭、联军,因战功而升为中坚将军。

After returning to Cao Cao, Zhang Liao followed Cao Cao to fight north and south, to discuss, to pacify Hebei, to conquer Jingzhou, to fight, and repeatedly made contributions to the war. He and Zhang he were called the five good generals of Cao Cao. After suppressing Yuan Shao's influence, Cao Cao sent Zhang Liao to govern the counties of Lu state, and followed Xia Houyuan to Chang'an in the East China Sea, successfully persuading him to surrender. After that, he went to Liyang * Yuantan and the Allied forces with Cao Cao, and became the backbone general because of his war achievements.

  曹操返许,命张辽和攻下了阴安,再随曹操再攻下邺。更攻下了赵国、常山。205年,随曹操成功*了袁谭,攻下海滨,并击败辽东的贼兵。张辽引军还邺城时,曹操亲自出迎张辽,更与张辽共载一车,并封张辽为荡寇将军。

Cao Cao returned to Xu, ordered Zhang Liaohe to capture yin'an, and then followed Cao Cao to capture Ye. They conquered Zhao and Changshan. In 205, he succeeded in attacking Yuan Tan with Cao Cao, conquering the seaside and defeating the bandits in Liaodong. When Zhang Liao led the army to return to Yecheng, Cao Cao personally went to meet Zhang Liao, and shared a car with Zhang Liao, and granted Zhang Liao the general of Dangkou.

  接着张辽又率军攻打荆州,平定了江夏各县,在临颍屯兵,受封为都亭侯。207年,随同曹操进攻于柳城的袁尚,途中遇上乌桓军。张辽壮气奋发,劝曹操即时赴战,曹操壮其行为,亲自把所持的麾旗授予张辽。辽遂引军突击,大破敌兵,亲斩单于蹋顿於阵前。

Then Zhang Liao led the army to attack Jingzhou, pacified the counties of Jiangxia, stationed troops in Linying, and was granted the title of Duting marquis. In 207, when Cao Cao attacked yuan Shang in Liucheng, he met the Wuhuan army on the way. Zhang Liao was very angry and urged Cao Cao to go to war immediately. Cao Cao strengthened his behavior and granted his banner to Zhang Liao personally. Liao then led the army to attack, smashed the enemy's soldiers, and killed them alone before the battle.

  那时候荆州尚未安定,随后张辽还驻荆州时,军中忽有谋反者骚动起事,半夜惊乱起火,全军乱作一团。此时张辽顾谓左右道∶“不可惊动。这一定不会是全营尽反,必然是引起叛变之人,想藉此惑乱他人而已。”于是传令军中,只要不是反乱者安坐勿动。而张辽则带领亲兵数十人,守立于阵中。很快骚乱就平息了,军中随即擒获首谋者,并将其斩杀,彻底平息了事态。

At that time, Jingzhou was not stable. Later, when Zhang Liao was still in Jingzhou, there was a riot of conspirators in the army. In the middle of the night, the whole army was in disorder. At this time, Zhang Liao Gu said, "don't be alarmed. It must not be the total rebellion of the whole battalion. It must be the person who caused the rebellion and wanted to confuse others. " So he ordered the army, as long as it was not the rebels, to sit still. Zhang Liao led dozens of his own soldiers to stand in the battle. Soon the riot subsided, and the chief conspirator was captured and killed in the army, which completely calmed down the situation.

  其时卢江人陈兰、梅成占据氐等六县作叛,曹操于是遣、等讨梅成,又命张辽督领张合、牛盖等讨陈兰。当时梅成诈降于禁,于禁引军便还。不料梅成趁机率众往投陈兰,二人据险扎营于天柱山自守。张辽意欲进山,诸将皆说∶“此山道路险恶,很难深入用兵。”而张辽却说:“这正是所谓'一与一,勇者得前耳'(只有勇者可以前进)。”于是进至山下安营,起兵攻击,终于斩下陈兰、梅成首级,尽虏其众。曹操论诸将功劳,说:“登天山,履峻险,以取兰、成,荡寇(荡寇将军张辽)功也。”

At that time, Chen Lan and Mei Cheng, the Lujiang people, occupied six counties of DI and rebelled. Cao Cao then sent and asked Zhang Liaodu to lead Zhang he and Niu Gai to attack Chen Lan. At that time, Mei Cheng pretended to surrender to the Forbidden City, and then led the army to return. Unexpectedly, Mei Cheng took the opportunity to lead the crowd to vote for Chen Lan, and they camped in Tianzhu Mountain to defend themselves. When Zhang Liao wanted to enter the mountain, all the generals said, "this mountain road is dangerous, so it's hard to use soldiers in depth." But Zhang Liao said: "this is the so-called" one and one, the brave get the front ear "(only the brave can move forward)." So he went to the foot of the mountain and set up camp. He started to attack, and finally killed Chen Lan and Mei Cheng and took all the people. Cao Cao said on the merits of the generals: "climb the Tianshan Mountain, walk on the precipitous and dangerous road to get the orchid and success, and Dangkou (General Zhang Liao of Dangkou) also has the merits."

  张辽不仅长于征伐,而且颇有战略眼光。建安十二年曹操远征袁尚时,张辽劝谏说:“许昌,现在是天下的都会。天子()正居许昌,您千里北征,如果派偷袭,挟持了天子而号令四方,形势就危险了!”果然,曹操北征之后,刘备即向刘表建议袭许,而刘表不能用其计。但就当时形势而言,在刘表为失计,在曹操为侥幸,张辽的担心是很有见识的。

Zhang Liao is not only good at expedition, but also has strategic vision. During Cao Cao's expedition to Yuan Shang in the 12th year of Jian'an, Zhang Liao admonished him and said, "Xuchang is now the capital of the world. Tianzi () is living in Xuchang. If you send a surprise attack to the north, you will be in danger if you take the Tianzi and order the four sides! "Sure enough, after Cao Cao's march to the north, Liu Bei suggests attacking Liu Biao, but Liu Biao can't use his plan. However, in terms of the situation at that time, Zhang Liao's worries were very insightful, for he was a failure in Liu Biao and a fluke in Cao Cao.

  张辽在其二十余年的戎马生涯中,攻无不克,守无不固,其为将之勇力和智略皆有可观。张辽军旅生涯最辉煌的巅峰是对孙权的合肥之战。208年,曹操于大败,派张辽、、乐进率七千余人驻合肥,并派护军薛悌送函给张辽,函署“贼至乃发”。建安二十年(215)八月,吴主孙权亲自率兵十万围困合肥。

In his military career of more than 20 years, Zhang Liao has conquered and defended everything. His courage and wisdom are considerable. The most brilliant peak of Zhang Liao's military career was the battle against Sun Quan in Hefei. In 208, Cao Cao was defeated. He sent Zhang Liao, Yue Jin and more than 7000 people to Hefei. He sent a letter to Zhang Liao from Xue Ti, the army's escort. The letter was signed as "thief is sent". In August of the 20th year of Jian'an (215), Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu, personally led 100000 troops to besiege Hefei.

  此间,驻守合肥的曹军仅七千余人。两军对阵,众寡悬殊。偏偏在这危急关头,曹操又亲自率兵西征在外,一时无法派遣军队来援救合肥。遇此严峻形势,对于驻守合肥的曹军来说,实在是凶多吉少。守将乐进、李典相觑无奈,猛将张辽见此拍案而起曰:“曹公今远征在外,若坐等曹公派援军来救,即便援军来到,那时吾等也早被吴军击败。现在唯一的上策,是在吴军尚立足未稳之时,主动出击,挫其锐气,方能安定众心,鼓舞士气,得以守住城池。成败之机,在此一战,诸君何疑?”

During this time, Cao's troops stationed in Hefei were only 7000. There is a wide gap between the two armies. At this critical moment, Cao Cao led his troops to the West and was unable to send troops to help Hefei. In this severe situation, Cao Jun, who is stationed in Hefei, is in a bad situation. Zhang Liao, the general guarding Yuejin and Li Dian, had no choice but to look at each other. Seeing this, Zhang Liao said, "Cao Gongjin is on an expedition. If you wait for Cao Gong to send reinforcements to rescue us, we will be defeated by Wu Jun even if they come. At present, the only best policy is to take the initiative to attack when the Wu army is not stable. Only by demoralizing the Wu army can we stabilize the people's minds, boost morale and keep the city. What do you think about the chance of success or failure in the first World War? "

  李典与张辽素有隔阂,然在此危急关头,闻张辽之言,便慷慨陈词曰:“此国家大事,既然将军主意已定,奋不顾身,吾等能以小私而舍弃大义乎?”于是,张辽夜募敢从之士八百人,于破晓时突杀吴阵,直战至日中乃休战,使吴军遭受重创。此战中,“(张)辽披甲持戟,先登陷陈,杀数十人,斩二将。”

Li Dian and Zhang Liao had always been estranged, but at this critical moment, hearing Zhang Liao's words, he said generously, "since the general has made up his mind and is reckless, we can give up the great justice with our small private interests?" so Zhang Liao recruited 800 people who dare to join him in the night, and killed Wu array suddenly at dawn. When he fought until the end of the day, Wu army suffered heavy losses. In this war, Liao (Zhang) armed with halberds, boarded Chen first, killed dozens of people and beheaded two generals

  孙权猝不及防,10万大军被逼迫退守到一片高地。后来见张辽兵少,“乃聚围辽数重”。张辽军左冲右突,勇不可当,一度与数十人杀出重围,后见自己的大部人马还在围中,又折返回阵,救出自己的部下。孙权的军队“皆披靡,无敢当者”。一场大战从清晨杀到中午,“吴人夺气”,孙权只好撤退。

Sun Quan was caught off guard, and 100000 troops were forced to retreat to a high place. Later, I saw that there were few soldiers in zhangliao, "but they gathered to encircle Liao for several times.". Zhang liaojun rushed left and right. He was so brave that he once fought dozens of people out of the encirclement. Later, he saw that most of his men were still in the encirclement. He turned back and rescued his subordinates. Sun Quan's army is "invincible, no daredevil". From the early morning to the noon of the first World War, "Wu people seize Qi", Sun Quan had to retreat.

  后孙权“守合肥十余日,城不可拔,乃引退”。当孙权与诸将行至逍遥津北时,恰为张辽侦知。辽即率步骑突然而至,与等吴将与辽力战,则率亲兵护权出围。当孙权退至逍遥津桥时,见桥南已拆、丈余无板。在此危急关头,孙权近监谷利急中生智,于孙权坐骑后猛着一鞭,使孙权借助奔马之势飞桥而过,幸免于难。此战史称张辽威震逍遥津,是三国时期魏吴相争中创下的一次以少胜多的着名战例。

After Sun Quan "kept Hefei for more than ten days, the city could not be pulled out, but retired.". When Sun Quan and Zhujiang went to the north of Xiaoyao, they were just investigated by Zhang Liao. Liao that is, the rate of suddenly arrived, and other Wu will fight with Liao, then the rate of personal protection right out of the encirclement. When Sun Quan retreated to Xiaoyao Jinqiao, he saw that the south of the bridge had been demolished and Zhang Yu had no slab. At this critical moment, Sun Quan, who was close to Gu Li, was in a hurry to learn from his wits. After his mount, Sun Quan whipped a whip, which made him fly across the bridge with the help of galloping horses. He survived. The history of this war, known as zhangliao Weizhen Xiaoyaojin, is a famous case of war in the Three Kingdoms period.

  此役后曹操大赞张辽,拜征东将军。建安二十一年,曹操又征孙权。军到合肥,曹操巡视昔日张辽作战的地方,赞叹良久。后来继位的曾评价说:“合肥之役,辽、典以步卒八百,破贼十万,自古用兵,未之有也。”并赞其“此亦古之召虎也。”《三国志魏书十七张辽传》(召虎是与方叔、尹吉甫、等齐名的东周大将。)

After this battle, Cao Cao praised Zhang Liao and worshiped general Dongzheng. In the twenty-first year of Jian'an, Cao Cao again took Sun Quan. When the army arrived in Hefei, Cao Cao inspected the place where Zhang Liao fought in the past and praised it for a long time. Later, the successor once said: "in the battle of Hefei, there were 800 soldiers and 100000 thieves in Liao and Dian dynasties. Since ancient times, there have been no soldiers." And praised its "this is also the ancient call tiger also." Zhao Hu is a general of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty who is as famous as Fang Shu, Yin Jifu, etc. )

  此后,张辽以征东将军之职屯兵居巢(今安徽桐城南),防范孙权。曹丕接任王位后,改迁张辽为前将军,也封其兄及子为列侯。孙权再叛,曹丕遣张辽还屯合肥,晋爵都乡侯。曹丕准其母乘车及兵马送其家人到他驻军的地方,这在当时是至高荣誉。后曹丕称帝,封张辽为晋阳侯,增食邑至两千六百户。黄初二年,曹丕还特别替张辽建造屋舍,替他母亲兴建殿室,又把跟随张辽的步卒封为虎贲。

After that, Zhang Liao stationed his troops in the nest (south of Huitong City, today's An'an) to guard against Sun Quan. After taking over the throne, Cao Pi changed Zhang Liao to be a former general, and also granted his brother and son as liehou. When Sun Quan rebelled again, Cao Pi sent Zhang Liao back to Hefei, the Marquis of jinjudu. Cao Pi allowed his mother to take a bus and send his family to his Garrison, which was the highest honor at that time. Later, Cao Pi became the emperor, and Zhang Liao was granted the title of Jinyang Marquis, with an increase of food capital to 2600 households. In the second year of Huang Chu's reign, Cao Pi built a house for Zhang Liao, built a palace for his mother, and sealed the pawn who followed Zhang Liao as Huben.

  张辽不幸在此时得了疾病。曹丕便遣侍中刘晔带太医视疾,甚至亲到其营执其手问候,赐其御衣,更派太官送御食。待张辽之疾稍愈,辽即还屯。正当其时,孙权复叛,黄初三年,曹丕遣张辽乘舟,与曹休到海陵临江驻防。孙权知张辽至此,告诫部下说:“张辽虽病,不可当也,慎之!”其畏张辽如此。同年,张辽抱病与曹休伐吴,打败吴将吕范。

Unfortunately, Zhang Liao got sick at this time. Cao Pi then sent Liu Ye, his servant, to take the imperial doctor with him to see the disease. He even went to his camp and held his hand to greet him, gave him his royal clothes, and sent his officials to send him food. When the disease of zhangliao was healed a little, Liao would return to the country. At the right time, Sun Quan rebelled again. In the third year of Huang Chu's reign, Cao Pi sent Zhang Liao to take a boat and Cao Xiu to hailing and Linjiang for garrison. Sun Quanzhi told his subordinates, "although Zhang Liao is ill, he can't be taken care of it." his fear of Zhang Liao is like this. In the same year, Zhang Liao fell ill with Cao Xiu and defeated LV fan, the general of Wu.

  不久张辽病笃,逝于江都,魏失栋梁,一代名将就此陨落。曹丕为之流涕,谥曰刚侯。其子张虎嗣其爵位。

Soon Zhang Liao died in Jiangdu, Wei lost pillars, a generation of famous will fall. Cao Pi's running tears, posthumous title is just Hou. Zhang Hu, the son of Zhang Hu, inherited his title.

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