Emperor Zhengde is a controversial figure in history. He is gifted with intelligence. He can learn everything that has nothing to do with being an emperor, from horse riding and hunting to playing and singing, even in Sanskrit and Arabic. It is thought that he is a rare, immoral and despicable man. However, in recent years, some scholars in the field of history have questioned this conclusion.
The absurd emperor in the "leopard house"
It's empress Zhang's own birth and the first son. In May of the 18th year of Hongzhi's reign (1505), Zhu houzhao, who died of illness and was only 15 years old, naturally ascended the throne and changed his name to Zhengde.
Zhu houzhao was born active and playful, especially fond of riding and shooting. Xiaozong wanted to train him to be the emperor with both culture and martial arts, so he indulged in his riding and shooting game, which also developed his martial habits in the future. The day before his death, Emperor Xiaozong summoned Liu Jian, Xie Qian and Li Dongyang, the senior scholars, to the warm Pavilion of the Qianqing palace, and entrusted them with the task of supporting the orphans: "the East Palace is smart, but young, and easy to enjoy. The teachers often advise them to study, and they are the virtuous masters."
At the beginning of the throne, Hou Zhao showed his talent. In Fengtian hall, he often let monkey sit on the dog's back and set off firecrackers. For a while, monkey jumped and ran for the dog. The majesty of the Imperial Palace disappeared. The eunuchs who used to serve him in the East Palace, especially Liu Jin, Gu Dayu, Zhang Yong and other eight, were even favored by him. The villain is ambitious and arrogant. They call them "eight tigers".
These people accompanied Wuzong all day, hitting the ball and driving away the horses, and banished the eagles. Tired of all this, Zhu houzhao suddenly wanted to experience the pleasure of doing business. "Eight tigers" came up with an idea and opened six taverns, shops and brothels in the palace to imitate the market. The eunuch acted as the boss and the common people, while the Emperor Wu acted as the rich businessman. Boss Zhu and the eunuchs traded, haggled and quarreled. After shopping, go to a restaurant, then go to a brothel and stay where you are drunk. A court like this is busy day and night for several days in a row.
Later, he felt that the palace was too stuffy and had too many rules, like a cage, so he planned to build a leopard house on the west side of the palace. The project needs investment, so Hou Zhao has great interest in gold and silver. Liu Jin took the opportunity to say, "when your father was the emperor, all the official positions in the world were held by the Si Li supervisor, which was very fat.". If you don't copy the handprint eunuch, there must be three rooms of gold and silver. Then we have to change all the officials. Let the new one take 12000 yuan and bribe the court directly, and we will earn it. It is suggested that houzhao should be "happy" and immediately entrust Liu Jin to do it.
The leopard house is located outside the Xihua gate. It is connected with the palace. There are more than 200 rooms. It took five years to complete and cost the State Treasury more than 240000 liang of silver.
After the leopard house was built, houzhao moved in. From then on, it was no longer restricted by the rules and regulations of the court. All day long, he was hanging out with eunuchs, fansengs and exorcists, playing in the dark. He only met with the officials in the evening. As usual, the ministers of the court exhorted again and again. As usual, Hou Zhao also gave Wen Yan and Jia Yu, and then quickly put them behind him. Many mature officials lost patience and resigned one after another, or were promoted to another post due to admonition. Only three old ministers, Li Dongyang and others, were left to fight with Liu Jin.
It's called "leopard house". It should be a place for keeping healthy wild animals, birds, insects and fish, especially leopards. In fact, according to Wanli Ye Huo Bian and Yongchuang Xiaopin written by Zhu Guozhen of Ming Dynasty, there are only one Wen Bao and three TU Bao. Most of them were raised by a large group of women of all ethnic groups. They were trained to sing, dance and be full of evil spirits. They were used by Wuzong to have sex.
In the fourth year of Zhengde (1509), Hou Zhao began to like the Mongols, made a large number of felt hats, fur and fur, mobilized people in the first palace to wear them, and played the role of Tartars for self entertainment. And he rode with the Mongols, and often did not return all night. He stayed in the people's houses, and he was no different from the ordinary people. At that time, the envoys of North Korea returned home and reported that what the emperor did was not like, but like children's play.
According to the history, every night when Wu Zong traveled, he would rush into the tall houses, ask for drinks, or search for his women, which was the bitterness of the people. His attendants, aware of the eccentricity of the master and son, assisted the tyranny and plundered the women of good families to be the "lucky emperor", sometimes as many as "ten chariots". Later, Wuzong did not let the common widows go, which made "the people are fierce, there are women's families, plunder widows and men's spouses, all of a sudden.".
As time went on, Zhu houzhao was fed up with the dull imperial palace and the boring political affairs, and the micro clothes traveling to the capital didn't bring him up. Jiang Bin, a sycophant, then encouraged Wuzong to leave the capital and travel to the northwest, which was very attractive to Wuzong, who had always regarded himself as a hero of martial arts, because he had always dreamed of being able to make a great show on the vast grassland and create a unique career. Jiang Bin also told him how many beautiful women there were, which naturally increased the interest of Wuzong.
In the 12th year of Zhengde (1517), Wuzong and his party came to Xuanfu.
Xuanfu was called Xuanhua at that time. It is located in the northwest of the capital, on the line of the Great Wall, about 400 li away from Beijing. It is the only way for the Mongolian enemy to go south. Wuzong decided to build the town government here.
Why is it called "zhenguofu"? In the past, Wuzong called himself "the governor of the military affairs, the commander of the armed forces". All the official documents were posted by juntie, the armed forces, and changed his name to Zhu Shou. Later, he called himself "zhenguogong" and ordered the military Department to file them and the household department to pay. Since ancient times, no emperor has ever submitted himself to the court as a minister. He really regards state affairs and government as a joke. "Ming Dynasty history · wuzongbenji" said that he "enjoys playing, likes to be close to the small group, to the official number of his own office, the distinction between crown and performance is gone".
Under the encouragement of Jiang Bin, in addition to the extensive repair of the town government, Wuzong also ordered the leopard house, women to be transported to fill the town government. He called Xuanfu "home", meaning to stay for a long time. Xuanfu, an important military town in the north, is the first line of defense against the invasion of Mongolia. In his heart, Wuzong admired Zhu Yuanzhang and Chengzu, and hoped that he could make great military achievements like them. Moreover, there is another advantage in Xuanfu, that is, there is no need to listen to ministers' incessant admonition. He ordered that all ministers should not come to Xuanfu. Only the relatives of the leopard house can come and go at any time.
In Leopard house and town government, Wuzong did whatever he wanted,.
In October of the 12th year of Zhengde, the prince of Mongolia came to attack. Zhu houzhao was very excited and rushed back to Beijing to arrange the expedition. At that time, less than 70 years later, the courtiers were all nervous to hear the word "conscription". Then there was another round of exhortation, lesson and even threat, but Zhu houzhao was never willing to let go of the actual combat opportunity, and finally unified his troops in the name of "General Zhu Shou". As a punishment, he did not give any civil servant the honor of accompanying him.
According to the records of Ming Wuzong, Zhu houzhao came to the front to fight with the enemy several days after the two sides fought each other. It is said that he killed one enemy by himself. However, there are many dangers, such as "taking advantage of the public opinion and sinking several times". Zhu houzhao's battle, under his own command, resulted in the killing of 16 enemies, the injury of 563 and the death of 25 on his own side. This was certainly a last victory, because the Tatar army was finally defeated.
Maybe he was shocked and caught cold in autumn, which caused pneumonia. Today, pneumonia is just a general disease, anti-inflammatory plus maintenance can be cured. But in, pneumonic, lung seeper but want the terminal disease of life.
In the spring and the first month of 1521, Wuzong and his party returned to Beijing. On the fourteenth, Wuzong still insisted on holding the grand ceremony in the southern suburb. At the beginning of the ceremony, Emperor Wuzong bowed down to heaven and earth. Suddenly, his mouth spat blood and he collapsed to the ground. He could not get up again. The ceremony had to stop.
In the third month of the lunar calendar, Emperor Wuzong was in a state of dying. He said to the eunuch: "I can't do anything. The emperor's idea is that I am the king. The world is very important. I will judge and deal with the cabinet officials. I'm not the only one who can predict the past. "
When a man is dying, his words are good. At the end of the speech, the handsome and playful Daming emperor finally finished playing and died in the leopard room at the age of 31.
It's amazing that Wu Zong had a life of lechery, with numerous concubines like clouds, but no heirs left to take over the throne.
Is he a faint king?
According to the records of historical books and records, Wuzong built nothing and destroyed many things in his life. He was greedy for cups, lustful, military and rogue. What he did was absurd and criticized by the world. Is it true?
In recent years, many scholars have put forward different views.
First of all, Zhu houzhao, the emperor of the Ming Dynasty, is a villain in the eyes of future generations, only because his successor is not his son, but his cousin, mingshizong, who joined the great unification with his vassal king. Shizong had neither a good feeling for Wuzong nor a direct blood relationship with Wuzong. On this premise, it is reasonable for the later Dynasty to belittle the former dynasty in order to highlight the holiness of the successor. Therefore, in the compilation of Ming Shizong, Shi Chen recorded his evil deeds more frequently, without any "taboo for the sake of respect", or even adding vinegar. He wrote the behaviors of "eight tigers" and Jiangbin in Wuzong's account, which made Wuzong emperor's absurd world known.
Secondly, even the records of historical books are often full of contradictions. It is still necessary for later readers and historians to identify which one is the real Wuzong.
For example, in the fourteenth year of Zhengde in Wuzong records, Wang Jin, the head of the Ministry of punishment, advised Wuzong to drink too much. After that, Wang Jin, the head of the Ministry of punishment, attached a paragraph from Shi Chen: "when he was addicted to drinking, he often followed him with a cup and a ladle. He wanted to take advantage of his drunkenness and mess with the market power, and often prepared a bottle of opium poppy, when he was both drunk and awake, and every time he entered. Or not warm, but also often cold drink, all day long sound, its upside down confusion, it is so ——What a drunkard!
It's the same as the Ming Dynasty records. It's said that soon after emperor Wuzong visited the northwest and marched along the way: "from Xuanfu to the west, thousands of miles back and forth, the best horse, the waist, the bow and arrow, the wind and snow, the adventure, the company with the chariot, but also not the emperor. The eunuch Temple adheres to those who are sick and tired, but they don't think they are tired. "
Since he is a fool who is always at the mercy of a group and only knows how to indulge in wine, how can he become a powerful and powerful hero emperor?
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