揭秘:中国古代历史上三个才高命薄的亡国之君-看世界

揭秘:中国古代历史上三个才高命薄的亡国之君

  萧绎(508-554年)是梁武帝萧衍的第七子,小名叫七符,于承圣元年(552年)在江陵即位,史称梁元帝。然而仅仅两年,江陵城就被西魏攻破,萧绎兵败出降。虽然仍有西魏扶持的傀儡萧詧在,但梁朝实际上已经灭亡。元帝出降后,先被幽囚,然后就被侄子萧詧派人用土囊给压死了,终年47岁。

  梁元帝

Emperor Liang Yuandi

  萧绎(508-554年)是的第七子,小名叫七符,于承圣元年(552年)在江陵即位,史称梁元帝。然而仅仅两年,江陵城就被西魏攻破,萧绎兵败出降。虽然仍有西魏扶持的傀儡萧詧在,但梁朝实际上已经灭亡。元帝出降后,先被幽囚,然后就被侄子萧詧派人用土囊给压死了,终年47岁。

Xiao Yi (508-554) was the seventh son of his. His nickname was Qifu. He ascended the throne in Jiangling in the first year of Chengsheng (552) and was known as emperor yuan of Liang. However, only two years later, Jiangling city was conquered by the Western Wei Dynasty, and Xiao Yi was defeated. Although Xiao Chen, a puppet supported by the Western Wei Dynasty, was still there, the Liang Dynasty was actually destroyed. After the Yuan emperor came out, he was imprisoned first, and then his nephew Xiao Chen sent someone to crush him to death with a soil bag. He was 47 years old.

  萧绎生长在一个文学氛围浓厚的家族,其父萧衍、长兄萧统、三哥萧纲都是梁代有名的文学家。萧绎自幼“聪明俊朗,天才英发,出言为论,音响若钟”。由于幼年读书勤苦,致使他的一只眼睛失明,因此还被徐贵妃用“半面妆”加以嘲弄。但萧绎仍旧好学不辍,他身边常置侍从多人,轮番读书,昼夜为常,于是博通典籍。萧绎还工书善画,他曾自画像,

Xiao Yi grew up in a family with a strong literary atmosphere. His father Xiao Yan, his elder brother Xiao Tong and his third brother Xiao Gang are all famous writers in the Liang Dynasty. Xiao Yi was "smart and handsome, talented and brilliant, speaking as a theory, sound like a bell". As a result of his hard work in childhood, he was blind in one eye, so he was mocked by Xu Guifei with "half face makeup". However, Xiao Yi is still eager to learn. He often has many attendants around him. He studies in turns. It's common day and night, so he knows a lot of ancient books. Xiao Yi is good at painting and calligraphy. He once painted himself,

  自作画赞而自书之,“时人谓之三绝”。萧绎还喜好收藏图书,不停地收集抄写,后来又得到王僧辩从建康运来的图书八万多卷,秘府藏书达十多万卷。但令人痛心的是,在江陵城即将被攻破之际,萧绎竟然“命舍人高善宝焚古今图书十四万卷”。把这些历年积攒的珍贵书画,与他的小王朝一同烟消云散了。

From painting and calligraphy, "the three wonders of time and people". Xiao Yi also liked to collect books and kept collecting and copying them. Later, Wang Seng argued that more than 80000 volumes of books had been sent from Jiankang and more than 100000 volumes had been collected in the secret palace. But it's sad that when Jiangling city is about to be conquered, Xiao Yi even "orders Gao Shanbao to burn 140000 volumes of ancient and modern books". These precious paintings and calligraphy accumulated over the years disappeared with his little Dynasty.

  萧绎为人“性好矫饰,多猜忌,于名无所假人。微有胜己者,必加毁害”。这种妒才忌能的个性,可能也受了父亲萧衍的遗传。但不可否认,萧绎本人在文学与著述方面,的确有所成就。承圣三年(554年)十一月,当西魏军队攻到栅下时,“帝犹赋诗无废”。萧绎曾说:“我韬于文士,愧于武夫。”但在大敌压境时还依然沉潜于文翰而不修武备,这就注定其难逃破家亡国的命运了。

Xiao Yi is a man of "good mannerism, much suspicion, no dummy in the name.". If there is a slight victory over oneself, it will be destroyed. ". This jealous personality may also be inherited by Xiao Yan, his father. However, it is undeniable that Xiao Yi has made some achievements in literature and works. In November of the third year of Chengsheng (554), when the army of the Western Wei Dynasty attacked under the bars, "the emperor still wrote poems without abandonment". Xiao Yi once said, "I'm ashamed of being a warrior, I'm a scholar." However, when the enemy came under, he was still immersed in Wenhan and didn't repair his military equipment, which doomed him to break his family and country.

  

  

  陈后主(553-604年),名叔宝,字元秀,小名叫黄奴,他是陈宣帝的长子。太建十四年(582年),而立之年的陈叔宝成为陈朝最后一位国君。由于陈后主自幼“生于深宫之中,长于妇人之手”,所以在他即位前后,一直是“荒于酒色,不恤政事”。尤其是正位九五之后,生活更为奢靡,“左右嬖佞珥貂者五十人,妇人美貌丽服巧态以从者千余人”。还专门为他所宠爱的张贵妃、孔贵人等建造了临春、结绮、望仙三阁。又整天与江总、孔范等十几个朝臣宴集后庭,号为“狎客”,还让张贵妃、孔贵人等八位嫔妃夹坐,饮酒赋诗,不理朝政,最终导致内忧外患,破家亡国。

Empress Chen (553-604) was named Shubao, ziyuanxiu and huangnu. He was the eldest son of emperor Chen Xuan. In the 14th year of Taijian (582), Chen Shubao became the last monarch of the Chen Dynasty. Since his childhood, empress Chen was "born in the deep palace and skilled at women's hands", so before and after his accession to the throne, he was always "short of wine and lust, not caring for political affairs". Especially after the Ninth Five-Year Plan, life is more extravagant, "there are 50 people who are sycophantic and Mink on the left and right, and more than a thousand women who are beautiful and skillful to follow.". In addition, three pavilions, Linchun Pavilion, Jieqi Pavilion and Wangxian Pavilion, were specially built for his beloved concubines Zhang and Kong. All day long, he entertained with more than ten courtiers, such as President Jiang and Kong fan, in the backyard, which was called "visiting guests". He also let eight concubines, such as concubines Zhang Guifei and Kong Guiren, sit together, drink wine, write poems and ignore the government affairs, which eventually led to internal and external troubles and broke the country.

  史载,派大将贺若弼和分兵两路横渡长江,当闻听隋军临江之后,陈叔宝还给自己打气说:“王气在此,齐兵三度来,周兵再度至,无不摧没,虏今来者必自败。”佞臣孔范也附和说隋军不会渡江。于是君臣“但奏伎纵酒,作诗不辍”。直到隋军袭采石,下京口(今江苏镇江),陈朝守军望风尽走,前方不断告警时,后主才装模作样地下诏说:“朕当亲御六师,廓清八表,内外并可戒严。”乃命、樊猛、樊毅等大将分兵把守京畿和沿江要害,甚至连建邺城里的和尚尼姑和道士都武装了起来,然而一切都为时晚矣。几天的工夫,南朝军队便兵败如山倒,大将任蛮奴投降韩擒虎,并引隋军经朱雀桥直逼宫城。仓皇之中,陈叔宝说:“锋刃之下,未可及当,吾自有计。”于是和他心爱的张、孔两美人躲进了景阳宫的一口深井之中,但最终被隋兵从井内搜了出来,做了战俘。

In history, general he ruobi and his troops were sent to cross the Yangtze River. When hearing that the Sui army was on the river, Chen Shubao encouraged himself and said, "Wang Qi is here, Qi Bing has been here three times, Zhou Bing has been here again, and all is destroyed. Whoever takes this place will be defeated." Kong fan, a sycophant, echoed that the Sui army would not cross the river. Therefore, the emperor and his officials "played tricks and wine, and wrote poems.". It was not until the Sui army attacked and quarried stones, went down to Jingkou (now Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province), and the Chen Dynasty's garrison kept watching the wind and kept warning ahead, that the later Lord pretended to say, "I should be in charge of the Sixth Division, clear the eight tables, and be able to guard inside and outside." Naiming, fan Meng, Fan Yi and other generals divided forces to guard the capital and the key points along the river. Even the monks, nuns and Taoists in Jianye city were armed, but it was too late. In a few days, the South Korean army was defeated like a mountain. General Ren Mannu surrendered to Han to capture the tiger, and led the Sui army to the palace city through Zhuque bridge. In a hurry, Chen Shubao said, "under the blade, I have no plan." So he and his beloved beauties Zhang and Kong hid in a deep well of Jingyang palace, but they were finally searched out of the well by Sui soldiers and made prisoners of war.

  隋文帝对陈后主这位亡国君主还算优待,给赐甚厚,数次引见,好酒好菜地供养着。听看管人员说,陈叔宝爱吃驴肉,每天能饮一石酒,常常沉醉不醒。他甚至还向隋文帝要求赐予一个官号,结果被杨坚讥讽为“全无心肝”。一次陪侍宴饮,陈后主即兴赋诗一首,拍隋文帝的马屁。杨坚对后主说:“此败岂不由酒,将作诗功夫,何如思安时事?”

Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty treated empress Chen, the late monarch of the state, favorably and gave him a lot of gifts. He introduced several times and provided good wine and vegetable fields. It's said that Chen Shubao loves donkey meat and can drink a stone of wine every day. He is often drunk. He even asked Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty for an official title, which was ridiculed as "heartless" by Yang Jian. At a banquet, empress Chen improvised a poem to flatter Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty. Yang Jian said to the later master, "is it not because of the wine that this defeat will be done? How can we think about the current situation?"

  这个一味追求声色享乐,只会饮酒赋诗的南朝天子,其做派与梁元帝十分相似,只是他亡国以后得以苟活了16年,至隋文帝仁寿四年(604年)底,52岁的陈叔宝死在了洛阳。给他封了个长城县公的空头爵位,谥号为“炀”。后世都知道为,而陈叔宝在杨广之前就被谥为“陈炀帝”了。

The emperor of the Southern Dynasty, who only drank wine and wrote poems, was very similar to Emperor Liang Yuan in his style. However, he lived for 16 years after his death. By the end of the fourth year of Renshou (604), Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty, Chen Shubao, 52, died in Luoyang. He was given the title of "Yang", a short title of great wall county Duke. Later generations know that Chen Shubao was named "Chen Yangdi" before Yang Guang.

  陈后主虽然是个治国无能的亡国之君,但在文学艺术方面还是颇有造诣的。他在诗歌创作上的确有值得后人称道的成绩,除那首被视为亡国之音的《玉树后庭花》之外,他还写过征人思妇题材的作品,其诗风格以艳丽为主,写景抒情时有佳句。再如他跟隋文帝登洛阳芒山所赋诗曰:“日月光天德,山河壮帝居。太平无以报,愿上东封书。”虽属歌德派的颂圣之作,但其中却也不乏壮阔气象。

Although empress Chen is an incompetent monarch, he is quite accomplished in literature and art. He did have some praiseworthy achievements in his poetry creation. In addition to the flower in the backyard of Yushu, which was regarded as the voice of the nation's subjugation, he also wrote works on the subject of conscription and thinking about women. His poetry style is mainly gorgeous, and there are good sentences in the scenery Lyric. Another example is the poem he wrote with Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty when he went to mount Mang in Luoyang: "the sun and the moon are virtuous and the mountains and rivers are strong. Peace cannot be rewarded. I wish to send a letter to the East. " Although it belongs to the work of praising saints of Goethe school, there is no lack of grandeur in it.

  南唐后主

Empress of the Southern Tang Dynasty

  要说亡国之君多才艺,五代的南唐后主李煜更是一位典型人物。李煜(937-978 年),重光,他是南唐中主李璟的第六个儿子。本来按照封建帝室的继承制度,他是无缘登上宝座的,依他的自身意愿和天赋才能,他也只希望做一个舞文弄墨的风流才子。李璟就是一位有名的词人,李煜继承了其父的风范,文人习气和贵族风格在他身上得到了很好的展现。他通晓音律,擅长词章,又工书善画,还是著名的艺术品收藏家。尤其是他的词作,更是在中国文学史上具有划时代的价值,历来广为传诵。

Li Yu, the late master of the Southern Tang Dynasty in the Five Dynasties, is a typical figure. Li Yu (937-978), Chongguang, is the sixth son of Li Jing, the leader of the Southern Tang Dynasty. Originally, according to the inheritance system of the feudal emperor's office, he was not destined to ascend the throne. According to his own wishes and talent, he only wanted to be a talented person who could write and write. Li Jing is a famous poet. Li Yu inherited his father's style, and the literati's habits and aristocratic style were well displayed in him. He is a famous art collector. He is good at music, calligraphy and painting. In particular, his ci works are of epoch-making value in the history of Chinese literature and have been widely read.

  李煜自幼酷爱书法,创造出被史书称为“金错刀”体的书法艺术。其作品到北宋末年仍有传世,被收入《宣和画谱》的即有九幅,但遗憾的是,北宋以后没能再让后人一饱眼福。

Li Yu loved calligraphy very much since he was a child, and created a calligraphy art called "golden wrong sword" by historical books. His works were still handed down to the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, and nine of them were included in Xuanhe painting manual. Unfortunately, the Northern Song Dynasty did not satisfy the future generations.

  李煜工于书画,精于品鉴,故而也爱好收藏,加之他凭借帝王的权势和财力,一生所收历代的丹青墨宝很多。他还特别重视的品鉴与收藏,而对于南唐时期驰名天下的李廷珪墨、澄心堂纸和龙尾砚尤其钟爱有加。这三种文房工具当时大都产于徽州歙县一带,实为后世徽墨、宣纸和歙砚的前身。李煜曾对这三件祖国传统工艺的保护与传承作出了较大贡献,这是后人应当记住的。不过他也犯下了与梁元帝同样的罪过,在北宋军队攻下金陵之日,命人将内府书画焚为灰烬,让后人留下了无限伤痛。

Li Yugong is good at calligraphy and painting, and is good at appreciation, so he also likes collecting. In addition, with the power and financial resources of the emperor, he has collected a lot of blue ink in his life. He also attached great importance to the appreciation and collection of ink, especially for Li Tingyao, chengxintang paper and Longwei inkstone, which were well-known in the Southern Tang Dynasty. At that time, most of these three kinds of stationery tools were produced in the area of Shexian County, Huizhou. They are actually the forerunners of Huimo, xuanzhi and Sheyan of later generations. Li Yu has made great contributions to the protection and inheritance of these three traditional Chinese crafts, which should be remembered by later generations. However, he also committed the same crime as emperor Liang Yuandi. On the day when the Northern Song army conquered Jinling, he ordered people to burn the calligraphy and painting of the inner mansion to ashes, leaving endless pain for later generations.

  李煜在被俘北上之后,每当回想起昔日的生活情境,多多少少是怀有愧疚感的,这从他后期的一些词作中可以窥知。而据宋人的《西清诗话》记载,当北宋大军压境之际,李煜“在围城中,作《临江仙》词,未就而城破”。得知此事后曾对群臣说:“李煜若以作诗功夫治国家,岂为吾所俘也。”

After Li Yu was captured in the north, when he recalled the past life situation, he felt more or less guilty, which can be seen from some of his later works. According to the song people's book of songs of the Western Qing Dynasty, when the Northern Song Dynasty army came to the border, Li Yu "wrote the poem" Linjiang immortal "in the besieged city, but the city was broken before he left.". After learning this, he once said to the officials, "if Li Yu managed the country by writing poems, would he be captured by me?"

  据载,初见李煜时也说:“好个翰林学士。”命运就是这般捉弄人,偏偏让才子做了君王,人生角色的错位不仅给他们个人带来了悲剧,也给国家民族造成了无可挽回的灾难。

According to reports, when I first met Li Yu, I also said, "what a scholar of Hanlin." Fate is to play tricks on people like this, but let talented people become kings. The dislocation of life role not only brings tragedy to them personally, but also causes irreparable disaster to the nation.

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